The kingdom of Tamna or Tamna guk ruled Jeju Island from ancient times until it was absorbed by the Korean Joseon Dynasty in 1404. This kingdom is also sometimes known as Tangna (탁라), Seomna (섭나), and Tammora (탐모라). All of these names mean "island country."
There is no historical record of the founding or early history of Tamna. One legend tells that the three divine founders of the country—Ko (고), Yang (양), and Bu (부)—emerged from three holes in the ground in the 24th century BC. These holes, known as the Samseonghyeol (삼성혈), are still preserved in Jeju City.
Archaeological evidence indicates that the people of Tamna were engaging in active trade with Han Dynasty China and Yayoi Japan, as well as mainland Korea, by the 1st century AD. The first historical reference to the kingdom may come in the 3rd century AD, in the chronicle of the Chinese Three Kingdoms period called the Sanguozhi. The Sanguozhi reports a strange people living on a large island near Korea, which it calls Juho (州胡, literally "island barbarians"). These people, who had a distinctive language and culture, engaged in trade with the Mahan people of the mainland. However, the identity of Juho with Tamna has been disputed by authorities such as the North Korean scholar Yi Jirin (이지린), who claims that Juho was a small island in the Yellow Sea. Tamna is pronounced Danluo (Traditional: 耽羅國; Simplified: 耽罗国; Pinyin: Danluoguo; Wade-Giles: Tanluokuo) in Standard Mandarin Chinese.
In 476, according to the Samguk Sagi, Tamna entered into a tributary relationship with Baekje, which controlled the southwestern Korean peninsula and enjoyed strong ties with Japan. It was thus a natural partner for Tamna. As Baekje waned, Tamna turned to Silla instead. At some point near the end of the Three Kingdoms period, Tamna officially subjugated itself to Silla. Silla then conferred on the three princes of Tamna the titles which they would hold for the remainder of the kingdom's history: Seongju (성주, 星主), Wangja (왕자, 王子), and Donae (도내, 都內). Some sources indicate that this took place during the reign of King Munmu of Silla in the late 7th century AD.
Tamna briefly reclaimed its independence after the fall of Silla in 935. However, it was subjugated by the Goryeo Dynasty in 938, and officially annexed in 1105. However, the kingdom maintained local autonomy until 1404, when Taejong of Joseon placed it under firm central control and brought the Tamna kingdom to an end. One interesting event that took place during these later years of Tamna was the Sambyeolcho Rebellion, which came to a bloody end on Jeju Island in 1274.
Sovereigns and governors of Tamna
|Kings of Tamna||Hangul||Hanja|
|King Go Eulla||고을라왕||高乙那王|
|Governors of Tamna||Hangul||Hanja|
- Go Jagyeon, formerly King Jagyeon of Tamna was Governor of Tamna from 933-938