Tampere

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Tampere
Tammerfors
City
Tampereen kaupunki
View towards Tampere City Centre
View towards Tampere City Centre
Coat of arms of Tampere
Coat of arms
Nickname(s): Manchester of the North, Manse (in Finnish)
Location of Tampere in Finland
Location of Tampere in Finland
Coordinates: 61°30′N 023°46′E / 61.500°N 23.767°E / 61.500; 23.767Coordinates: 61°30′N 023°46′E / 61.500°N 23.767°E / 61.500; 23.767
Country Finland
Region Pirkanmaa
Sub-region Tampere
Government
 • Mayor Anna-Kaisa Ikonen
Area(2011-01-01)[1]
 • City 689.59 km2 (266.25 sq mi)
 • Land 525.03 km2 (202.72 sq mi)
 • Water 164.56 km2 (63.54 sq mi)
 • Urban 258.52 km2 (99.82 sq mi)
Area rank 180th largest in Finland
Population (2014-01-31)[3]
 • City 220,609
 • Rank 3rd largest in Finland
 • Density 420.18/km2 (1,088.3/sq mi)
 • Urban 313,058[2]
 • Urban density 1,211.0/km2 (3,136/sq mi)
 • Metro 353,832
Population by native language[4]
 • Finnish 94.9% (official)
 • Swedish 0.5%
 • Others 4.5%
Population by age[5]
 • 0 to 14 13.8%
 • 15 to 64 70.6%
 • 65 or older 15.7%
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 • Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Municipal tax rate[6] 19%
Urbanisation 96.9%
Unemployment rate 14.7%
Website Official website

Tampere (Finnish pronunciation: [ˈtɑmpere] ( ); Swedish: Tammerfors [tamərˈfɔrs] or [tamərˈfɔʂ]) is a city in southern Finland. It is the most populous inland city in any of the Nordic countries.

The city has a population of 220,609,[3] growing to 313 058 people[7] in the urban area, and 364,000 in the metropolitan area (Tampere sub-region) on an area of 4,977 km2 as of 2011.[8][9] Tampere is the second-largest urban area and third most-populous municipality in Finland, after the Greater Helsinki municipalities of Helsinki and Espoo.

Tampere is located between two lakes, Näsijärvi and Pyhäjärvi. Since the two lakes differ in level by 18 metres (59 ft), the rapids linking them, Tammerkoski, have been an important power source throughout history, most recently for generating electricity. Tampere is dubbed the "Manchester of Finland" for its industrial past as the former center of Finnish industry, and this has given rise to its Finnish nickname "Manse" and terms such as "Manserock".[9][10][11]

Helsinki can be reached in 1.5 hours by train and 2 hours by car. The distance to Turku is approximately the same. Tampere Airport is the third-busiest airport in Finland, with 800,000 passengers annually.[10]

History[edit]

Tammerkoski channel in summer.
The old Finlayson works.
The Renaissance Revival Raatihuone (City Hall), 1890; the "red manifesto" was read from its balcony in 1905.

Tampere was founded as a market place on the banks of the Tammerkoski channel in 1775 by Gustav III of Sweden and four years later, 1 October 1779,[12] Tampere was granted full city rights. At this time, it was a rather small town, consisting of only a few square kilometres of land around the Tammerkoski.

A pedestrian bridge in Tampere near Koskikeskus shopping centre

Tampere grew as a major market town and industrial centre in the 19th century. During the latter half of 19th century Tampere had almost half of Finland's industrial labour. The town's industrial nature in the 19th and 20th centuries gave it the nickname "Manchester of the North", Manse for short (in Finnish).

Tampere was the centre of many important political events of Finland in the early 20th century. On 1 November 1905, during the general strike, the famous Red Declaration was proclaimed on the Keskustori, the central square of Tampere, subsequently leading to universal suffrage in Finland and the Tsar of Russia granting larger freedoms to Finns. In 1918, when Finland had recently gained independence, Tampere also played a major role, being one of the strategically important scenes during the Civil War in Finland (28 January – 15 May 1918). Tampere was a red stronghold during the war, with Hugo Salmela in command. White forces captured Tampere, seizing about 10,000 Red prisoners on 6 April.

Prevalent in Tampere's post-World War II municipal politics was the so-called Brothers-in-Arms Axis (aseveliakseli), the alliance of conservatives and social democrats against the communists and Agrarian party. During this era some of the most renowned city managers of Tampere were Erkki Napoleon Lindfors (who was responsible for many ambitious construction projects such as the Näsinneula tower and the construction of the suburb of Hervanta, Tampere's "daughter town"), Pekka Paavola (who gained some notoriety in corruption scandals) and Jarmo Rantanen. From 2007 on, Tampere switched to a new model of having a mayor and four deputy mayors, chosen for a periods of two years. Timo P. Nieminen was elected as the first mayor of Tampere for the years 2007–09. He was re-elected in 2009 and was succeeded by Anna-Kaisa Ikonen in 2013.

After World War II, Tampere was enlarged by joining some neighbouring areas. Messukylä was incorporated in 1947, Lielahti in 1950, Aitolahti in 1966 and finally Teisko in 1972. Tampere was known for its textile and metal industries, but these have been largely replaced by information technology and telecommunications during the 1990s. The technology centre Hermia in Hervanta is home to many companies in these fields.

Name[edit]

There have been many debates on the origin of the name Tampere. One theory is that it comes from the Swedish word damber, meaning "milldam". Another speculation is that the name originates from the ancient Scandinavian words þambr ("thick bellied") and þambion ("swollen belly"), referring to the rapids, and according to researchers, these kinds of references were given to name giving instances by ancient Scandinavian hunters. Other suggestions have been the Swedish tamper-dagar, fasting days, and also the Finnish word tammi. meaning "oak".[13] Although the name Tampere or its Swedish counterpart's Tammer- part cannot be completely confirmed, it is clear that the fors part in the Swedish name means "rapids".

Geography[edit]

Tampere, from the Näsinneula tower

Tampere is part of the Pirkanmaa region and is surrounded by the municipalities of Kangasala, Lempäälä, Nokia, Orivesi, Pirkkala, Ruovesi and Ylöjärvi.

Climate[edit]

Tampere
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
38
 
−4
−10
 
 
26
 
−4
−11
 
 
31
 
1
−7
 
 
33
 
7
−2
 
 
36
 
15
4
 
 
58
 
20
9
 
 
72
 
22
11
 
 
75
 
19
10
 
 
61
 
13
6
 
 
57
 
7
1
 
 
50
 
2
−3
 
 
40
 
−2
−8
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: World Meteorological Organization

Tampere has a borderline humid continental climate/subarctic climate (Köppen "Dfb" and "Dfc"). Winters are cold and the average temperature from November to March is below 0 °C (32 °F). Summers are mild. On average, the snow season lasts 4 – 5 months: from late November to early April.

Climate data for Tampere
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 8
(46)
9.4
(48.9)
14.9
(58.8)
24.2
(75.6)
28.4
(83.1)
31.7
(89.1)
32.5
(90.5)
31.8
(89.2)
24.8
(76.6)
18.4
(65.1)
11.1
(52)
9.6
(49.3)
32.5
(90.5)
Average high °C (°F) −3.4
(25.9)
−3.5
(25.7)
1.2
(34.2)
8.2
(46.8)
15.4
(59.7)
19.5
(67.1)
22.2
(72)
19.9
(67.8)
14.0
(57.2)
7.5
(45.5)
1.5
(34.7)
−1.9
(28.6)
8.38
(47.1)
Daily mean °C (°F) −6.4
(20.5)
−6.9
(19.6)
−2.8
(27)
3.3
(37.9)
9.7
(49.5)
14.1
(57.4)
16.9
(62.4)
15.0
(59)
10.0
(50)
4.6
(40.3)
−0.6
(30.9)
−4.5
(23.9)
4.37
(39.87)
Average low °C (°F) −9.7
(14.5)
−10.6
(12.9)
−6.6
(20.1)
−1.3
(29.7)
3.8
(38.8)
8.6
(47.5)
11.7
(53.1)
10.4
(50.7)
5.9
(42.6)
1.9
(35.4)
−3.0
(26.6)
−7.6
(18.3)
0.29
(32.52)
Record low °C (°F) −35.8
(−32.4)
−31.8
(−25.2)
−29.1
(−20.4)
−14.8
(5.4)
−7.2
(19)
−1.3
(29.7)
1.8
(35.2)
−0.4
(31.3)
−7
(19)
−16.4
(2.5)
−21.7
(−7.1)
−33
(−27)
−35.8
(−32.4)
Precipitation mm (inches) 41
(1.61)
29
(1.14)
31
(1.22)
32
(1.26)
41
(1.61)
66
(2.6)
75
(2.95)
72
(2.83)
58
(2.28)
60
(2.36)
51
(2.01)
42
(1.65)
598
(23.52)
Avg. precipitation days 10 7 8 7 7 9 10 10 9 10 11 11 109
Source: Climatological statistics of Finland 1981–2010 [14]

Economy[edit]

Offices of Nokia Solutions and Networks in Tampere

The Tampere region, or Pirkanmaa, which includes outlying municipalities, has around 0.47 million residents, 0.23 million employed, and 25 billion euro turnover as of 2007.[10] According to the Tampere International Business Office, the area is strong in mechanical engineering and automation, information and communication technologies, and health and biotechnology, as well as pulp and paper industry education. Unemployment rate is around 15%.

Education[edit]

There are four institutions of higher education in the Tampere area totaling 40,000 students: two universities and two polytechnic institutions (Finnish: ammattikorkeakoulu). The universities are University of Tampere (UTA), (more than 16,000 students) which is located right next to the city center, and Tampere University of Technology (TUT) (more than 12,000 students), located in Hervanta. The regional polytechnic is Tampereen ammattikorkeakoulu (the term "polytechnic" used by Finnish Ministry of Education), which calls itself in English "Tampere University of Applied Sciences" (ca 10,000 students).[15] The Police College of Finland, serving the whole of Finland in its field of specialization, is the other polytechnic located in Tampere.

Culture[edit]

The Tampere Theatre (Finnish: Tampereen Teatteri)

Tampere is known for its active cultural life. Some of the most popular writers in Finland, such as Väinö Linna, Kalle Päätalo and Hannu Salama, hail from Tampere. These are all known as writers depicting the lives of working-class people. Also from a working-class background was the famous poet Lauri Viita of the Pispala district (which is the original home of Hannu Salama too). Tampere also has old theatre traditions, with such established institutions as Tampereen Työväen Teatteri, Tampereen Teatteri and Pyynikin Kesäteatteri, which is an open-air theatre with the oldest revolving auditorium in Europe. Tampereen Teatterikesä or Tampere Theatre Festival is an international theatre festival held in Tampere every August.

Tampere is also known for its Tampere Art Museum, Tampere, Finland which featured American artist Richard Humann in 2004, for his exhibition entitled, Delicate Monster.

Tampere Film Festival, an international short film festival, is held every March. Tammerfest is Tampere's urban rock festival held every July. Similarly, the Tampere Floral Festival is an annual event, held each Summer.

Tampere is home to Tampere Philharmonic Orchestra. Tampere Music Festivals organises three international music events: Tampere Jazz Happening each November, and in alternate years Tampere Vocal Music Festival and Tampere Biennale.

Tampere is home to the television channel YLE TV2, with its studios in the Tohloppi district, known among all for such popular TV comedies as Tankki täyteen, Reinikainen and Kummeli.

A local food speciality is mustamakkara, which resembles black pudding of northern England.

Religion[edit]

Most Finnish citizens belong to the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland. Tampere has also a variety of other religious services spanning from traditional to charismatic. There are also some English speaking services. Tampere English Service is an international community affiliated with the Tampere Pentecostal Church. English services of the International Congregation of Christ the King (ICCK) are organized by the Anglican Church in Finland and the Lutheran Parishes of Tampere. The Catholic parish of the Holy Cross [16] also offers services in Finnish, Polish and English. Other churches may also have English speaking ministries. Tampere is the center of a LDS stake (diocese). Other churches in Tampere are Nokia Revival, Finnish Orthodox Church, Evangelical Free Church, and Baptist Church.

Sports[edit]

Tampere's sporting scene is driven by ice hockey. The first Finnish ice hockey match was played in Tampere, on the ice of Näsijärvi. Tampere is nicknamed the hometown of Finnish hockey. Two exceptional ice hockey teams come from Tampere: Ilves and Tappara. They both have had a great impact on Finnish ice hockey culture and are among the most successful teams in Finland. The Finnish ice hockey museum, and the first ice hockey arena to be built in Finland, the Hakametsä arena, are both located in Tampere.

Association Football is also a popular sport in Tampere. Ilves alone has over 4,000 players in its football teams, while Tampere boasts over 100 (mostly junior) football teams. Basketball is another popular sport in Tampere. The city has three basketball teams with big junior activity and one of them, Tampereen Pyrintö, plays on the highest level (Korisliiga) and was the Finnish Champion in 2010 and 2011.

Tampere hosted some of the preliminaries for the 1952 Summer Olympics and the 1965 World Ice Hockey Championships. The city also hosted two canoe sprint world championships, in 1973 and 1983. In 1977, Tampere hosted the Junior World Rowing Championships. Recently, Tampere was the host of the 10th European Youth Olympic Festival from 17 to 25 July 2009 and the 2010 World Ringette Championships from 1 to 6 November at Hakametsä arena.

Rivalry between cities[edit]

Tampere ostensibly has a long-standing mutual feud with the city of Turku, the first capital of Finland. This hostility is largely expressed in jokes in one city about the other; prominent targets are the traditional Tampere food, mustamakkara, the state of the Aura River in Turku, and the regional accents. Since 1997, students at Tampere have made annual excursions to Turku to jump on the market square, doing their part to undo the post-glacial rebound and push the city back under the sea.[17]

Music[edit]

There is a lot of musical activity in Tampere, especially in the realm of goth, black metal, heavy metal and rock. Some of the more popular bands based in Tampere include Horna, Behexen, Negative, Sargeist, Circle of Ouroborus, Prevalent Resistance, Uniklubi, Lovex and Puk, with some of the local black metal bands garnering a worldwide following. Tampere also has an active electronic music scene, notably in the genres of electro, drum and bass and dubstep. Tampere has been described as the "jungle capital" of Finland.

Tampere is also the home to the Tampere Philharmonic Orchestra (Tampere Filharmonia), which is considered the only full-sized symphony orchestra in Finland outside Helsinki. The orchestra's home venue is the Tampere Hall, and their concerts include classical, popular and film music.

Professional education in many fields of classical music, including performing arts, pedagogic arts and composition, is provided by Tampere University of Applied Sciences and Tampere Conservatoire.

Manserock[edit]

Manserock is a general term for rock music from Tampere. In the local slang, Manse means Tampere. "Manse" comes from "Manchester", as Tampere was one of the first industrial towns in Finland, and thus was similar to Manchester.

Although there was some earlier development of a rock scene in Tampere, Manserock is considered to have started in August 1969 when the famous musical Hair was performed for the first time in a local theatre. Reijo Paukku brought the musical to Tampere from the USA. Several local musicians participated in the show. The show received a lot of publicity in Tampere and in the whole of Finland.

The 1970s can be considered the golden age of Manserock and the word Manserock was introduced in the early 70's. Several local rock bands were popular in Finland and the reputation of Tampere as a rock city grew. The biggest name from that age is Juice Leskinen. Some other noteworthy names are Virtanen, Kontra and Kaseva. All of these bands played rock music with Finnish lyrics.

In 1977 Poko Records was founded. This was the first record company in Tampere and it played an important role in the support of Manserock.

In the late 70's Tampere was known for several new wave bands although other styles of rock also existed. Bands like Eppu Normaali, Popeda and Karanteeni spread knowledge of Manserock in Finland.

In the 1980s many new bands were formed. However, some of the older bands continued and increased in popularity. Juice Leskinen, Eppu Normaali and Popeda even released new recordings in the early 2000s.

Sites of interest[edit]

The Old Church (Vanha kirkko) on the edge of the Tampere Central Square.
Cathedral of Tampere designed by Finnish architect Lars Sonck

The main tourist attraction is the Särkänniemi amusement park, which includes a dolphinarium and the landmark Näsinneula tower, topped by a revolving restaurant. Other sites of interest are Tampere Cathedral, Tampere City Library Metso ("wood grouse"), Kaleva Church (both designed by Reima Pietilä), the Tampere Hall for conferences and concerts and the Tampere Market Hall.

Tampere is also home to one of the last museums in the world dedicated to Vladimir Ilyich Lenin. The museum is housed in the Tampere workers's hall where during a subsequent Bolshevik conference in the city, Lenin met Joseph Stalin for the first time. Lenin moved to Tampere in August 1905 but eventually fled Tampere (for Sweden) in November 1907 when being pursued by the Russian Okhrana. Lenin would not return to any part of the Russian Empire until ten years later, when he heard of the start of the Russian Revolution of 1917.

There are many museums and galleries, including:

Pispala[edit]

Pispala is a ridge located between the two lakes, Näsijärvi and Pyhäjärvi. It used to house the majority of industrial labour in the late 19th and early 20th century, when it was part of Suur-Pirkkala and its follower Pohjois-Pirkkala. It was a free area to be built upon by the working-class people working in Tampere factories. It was joined to Tampere in 1937. Currently it is a popular residential area and together with neighbouring Pyynikki it forms an important historical area of Tampere.

Transport[edit]

Bus terminals at the Tampere Central Square (Finnish: Keskustori)

Tampere is an important railroad hub in Finland and there are direct railroad connections to, for example, Helsinki, Turku and Turku Harbour, Oulu, Jyväskylä, and Pori. The Tampere railway station is located in the city center. There are also frequent bus connections to destinations around Finland.

Tampere is served by Tampere–Pirkkala Airport, located in neighboring municipality Pirkkala some 13 km (8 mi) southwest of the city. The airport serves more than half a million passengers each year.

The public transport network within Tampere currently consists exclusively of a bus network. Between 1948 and 1976 the city also had an extensive trolleybus network, which was also the largest trolleybus system in Finland.[23] As of 2009 plans are being made for construction a light rail system in the city to replace some of the most popular bus lines (see Tampere light rail), as well as initiating commuter rail service on the railroad lines connecting Tampere to the neighbouring cities of Nokia and Lempäälä.[24]

Notable persons[edit]

For a more complete list, see Category:People from Tampere.

International relations[edit]

Twin towns — sister cities[edit]

Tampere is twinned with:

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Area by municipality as of 1 January 2011" (PDF) (in Finnish and Swedish). Land Survey of Finland. Retrieved 9 March 2011. 
  2. ^ "Taajamat väkiluvun ja väestöntiheyden mukaan 31.12.2011". Tiedote (in Finnish). Statistics Finland (Tilastokeskus). 2011-12-31. Retrieved 28 March 2013. 
  3. ^ a b "VÄESTÖTIETOJÄRJESTELMÄ REKISTERITILANNE 31.1.2014" (in Finnish and Swedish). Population Register Center of Finland. Retrieved 11 February 2014. 
  4. ^ "Population according to language and the number of foreigners and land area km2 by area as of 31 December 2008". Statistics Finland's PX-Web databases. Statistics Finland. Retrieved 29 March 2009. 
  5. ^ "Population according to age and gender by area as of 31 December 2008". Statistics Finland's PX-Web databases. Statistics Finland. Retrieved 28 April 2009. 
  6. ^ "List of municipal and parish tax rates in 2011". Tax Administration of Finland. 29 November 2010. Retrieved 13 March 2011. 
  7. ^ http://pxweb2.stat.fi/Dialog/varval.asp?ma=160_vaerak_tau_340_fi&ti=Taajamat+v%E4kiluvun+ja+v%E4est%F6ntiheyden+mukaan+31%2E12%2E2011&path=../Database/StatFin/vrm/vaerak/&lang=3&multilang=fi Taajamat väkiluvun ja väestöntiheyden mukaan 31.12.2011
  8. ^ "Kunnat - Tampereen kaupunkiseutu". tampereenseutu.fi. Retrieved 2014-01-25. 
  9. ^ a b "Tampere in brief" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-09-15. 
  10. ^ a b c Tampere Economy[dead link], Tampere International Business Office
  11. ^ Katko, Tapio S. and Juuti, Petri S. Watering the city of Tampere, publications of the 5th IWHA Conference, 2007. Available at the website of the city of Tampere.
  12. ^ The City Of Tampere – Tampere in brief – History[dead link]
  13. ^ "Utain - Tampereen yliopiston toimittajakoulutuksen viikkolehti". Uta.fi. Retrieved 3 June 2011. [dead link]
  14. ^ [1][dead link]
  15. ^ TAMK. 22 January 2010. Tampere polytechnic. Retrieved 31 January 2010.
  16. ^ "Pyhä Risti Seurakunta". Kolumbus.fi. Retrieved 3 June 2011. 
  17. ^ http://www.students.tut.fi/~eto/turunsanomat06.pdf
  18. ^ "Museum Centre Vapriikki [City of Tampere]". tampere.fi. Retrieved 25 January 2014. 
  19. ^ "Tampere Art Museum [City of Tampere]". tampere.fi. Retrieved 25 January 2014. 
  20. ^ "Tampereen taidemuseon Muumilaakso - Front page". Inter9.tampere.fi. Retrieved 3 June 2011. 
  21. ^ "Vakoilumuseo - Spy Museum". Vakoilumuseo.fi. Retrieved 3 June 2011. 
  22. ^ "City of Tampere - Amuri museum of workers' housing". Tampere.fi. 10 May 2011. Retrieved 3 June 2011. 
  23. ^ Alameri, Mikko. "Trolleybus City of Tampere". Raitio (in Finnish). Suomen Raitiotieseura. Retrieved 28 February 2009. 
  24. ^ "Joukkoliikennejärjestelmävaihtoehdot - Vaikutusten arviointi ja suositus Tampereen kaupunkiseudun joukkoliikennejärjestelmäksi" (PDF). TASE 2025 (in Finnish). City of Tampere. March 2007. Retrieved 28 February 2009. 
  25. ^ "List of Twin Towns in the Ruhr District". © 2009 Twins2010.com. Retrieved 28 October 2009. [dead link]
  26. ^ "Miasta partnerskie - Urząd Miasta Łodzi [via WaybackMachine.com]". City of Łódź (in Polish). Archived from the original on 24 June 2013. Retrieved 2013-07-21. 
  27. ^ "Trondheims offisielle nettsted - Vennskapsbyer" (in (Norwegian)). Trondheim.com. Retrieved 4 September 2011. 
  28. ^ "Guangzhou Sister Cities [via WaybackMachine.com]". Guangzhou Foreign Affairs Office. Archived from the original on 24 October 2012. Retrieved 2013-07-21. 
  29. ^ "Some 15 Finnish towns have twinned with friendship cities in China". Helsingin Sanomat International Edition. 2013-06-20. Retrieved 2013-07-29. 

External links[edit]