The tanbūra is a bowl lyre of the Middle East and the Horn of Africa. It takes its name from the Persian tanbur via the Arabic tunbur (طنبور), though this term refers to long-necked lutes. The instrument plays an important role in zār rituals. The instrument probably originated in Upper Egypt and the Sudan  and is used in the Fann At-Tanbura in the Persian Gulf Arab states.
- The Tambura
- The zar and the tumbura cults
- Sudanese lyre audio samples
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