Tankette

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A tankette is a tracked armoured fighting vehicle[1] resembling a small tank roughly the size of a car, mainly intended for light infantry support and scouting.[2][3] Colloquially it may also simply mean a small tank.[4]

Tankettes were designed and built by several states between the 1920s and 1940s, and saw some combat (with limited success) in World War II. However, the vulnerability of their light armor eventually caused the concept to be abandoned.

Characteristics[edit]

Tankettes were made both in one- and two-man models. Some were so low that the occupant had to lie prone.[3] Some models were not equipped with turrets (and together with the tracked mobility, this is often seen as defining the concept), or just a very simple one that was traversed by hand or leg. They were significantly smaller than light tanks and did not have a tank gun, instead their main weapon tended to be one or two machine guns or, rarely, a 20mm gun or grenade launcher.

History[edit]

An Italian L3/33.

The genesis of the tankette concept was the armoured warfare of World War I. On the Western Front in the later stage of the war, Allied tanks could break through the enemy trench lines but the infantry (needed to take and hold the ground gained) following the tanks were easily stopped or delayed by small arms fire and artillery. The breakthrough tanks were then isolated and destroyed and reinforcement plugged the hole in the trench line. The tankette was originally conceived in the early interwar period to solve this problem. The first designs were a sort of mobile, one man machine gun nest protected against small arms fire and shell fragments. This idea was abandoned and the two man model, mainly intended for reconnaissance, was produced instead. The moving up of infantry while protecting them was solved with the armoured personnel carrier.

In 1925 British tank pioneer Giffard Le Quesne Martel built a one-man tank, the Morris-Martel, in his garage and showed it to the War Office, who agreed to production of a few for testing. The publicity caused John Carden and Vivian Loyd to produce their own. Both types were developed further, but the two-man Carden Loyd tankette was considered the classic and most successful design,[3] with many other tankettes modeled after it. While the design was influential, few Carden Loyd tankettes saw combat,[citation needed] some of them on the Bolivian side during the Chaco War. However, the design did lead to the Universal Carrier, which had an extensive operational history in the Second World War.[5]

The Italian Royal Army (Regio Esercito) equipped three armoured divisions and three "fast" (celere) divisions with L3/33 and L3/35 tankettes. L3s were used in large numbers during the Italian invasion of Ethiopia, the Spanish Civil War, and almost every place Italian soldiers fought during World War II. L3s even went with the Italian Expeditionary Corps in Russia (Corpo di Spedizione Italiano, or CSIR) as late as Operation Barbarossa.

The French armoured reconnaissance type (automitrailleuses de reconnaissance, "machine-gun scout") of the 1930s was essentially a tankette in form, specifically intended for scouting ahead of the main force.

In 1935, the Soviets experimented with transporting T-27s by air, suspending one under the fuselage of a Tupolev TB-3 bomber.[3]

The Imperial Japanese Army became one of the most prolific users of tankettes, producing a number of designs intended for jungle warfare. However, by the time of the Second World War, many were already obsolete or had proven unsuccessful in their appointed task. Many were relegated to tractor duties for artillery or logistics units.[3][6]

Due to their limited utility and vulnerability to anti-tank weapons (even machine guns), the tankette concept was abandoned, and their role largely taken over by armoured cars.

However, in Vietnam, the US Marines employed the similar, somewhat larger, M50 Ontos with some success. The 1990s saw the renaissance of a similar concept in the German Wiesel, introduced to provide airborne troops with armoured reconnaissance capability;[7] while these are called "armoured weapons carriers", they fit the definition of a tankette.

Examples[edit]

German Wiesel, a related modern concept, seen here in the Ozelot anti-air version.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ The Revolution After Next: Making Vertical Envelopment by Operationally Significant Mobile Protected Forces a Reality in the First Decade of the 21st Century, Tedesco, Vincent J. III; Major, School of Advanced Military Studies , United States Army Command and General Staff College, Fort Leavenworth, United States, 2000, Page 15
  2. ^ Iron Arm (book excerpt via Google Books), Sweet, John Joseph Timothy; Stackpole Books, 2007, Page 84)
  3. ^ a b c d e T-27 Tankette (from the 'battlefield.ru' website, with further references cited. Accessed 2008-02-21.)
  4. ^ War Slang: American Fighting Words and Phrases Since the Civil War (book excerpt via Google Books), Dickson, Paul; Brassey's, 2004, Page 221)
  5. ^ Fletcher & Bryan, p. 3
  6. ^ U.S. Forces Encounter Old Jap Tankette (from Intelligence Bulletin, September 1945, via lonesentry.com. Retrieved 2008-01-06.)
  7. ^ Wiesel 1 (product website from the Rheinmetall manufacturer website. Accessed 2008-05-29.)