Tanzania

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For the genus of spiders, see Tanzania (genus).

Coordinates: 6°18′25″S 34°51′14″E / 6.307°S 34.854°E / -6.307; 34.854

United Republic of Tanzania
Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania  (Swahili)
Flag Coat of arms
Motto: "Uhuru na Umoja" (Swahili)
"Freedom and Unity"
Anthem: Mungu ibariki Afrikia
God Bless Africa
Location of  Tanzania  (dark blue)– in Africa  (light blue & dark grey)– in the African Union  (light blue)
Location of  Tanzania  (dark blue)

– in Africa  (light blue & dark grey)
– in the African Union  (light blue)

Capital Dodoma
Largest city Dar es Salaam
Official languages
Demonym Tanzanian
Government Presidential constitutional republic
 -  President Jakaya Kikwete
 -  Prime Minister Mizengo Pinda
Legislature National Assembly
Independence from the United Kingdom
 -  Tanganyika 9 December 1961 
 -  Zanzibar and Pemba 10 December 1963 
 -  Merger 26 April 1964 
 -  Current constitution 25 April 1977 
Area
 -  Total 945,203 km2 (31)
364,898 sq mi
 -  Water (%) 6.2
Population
 -  2012 census 44,928,923[2]
 -  Density 47.5/km2
123.1/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2013 estimate
 -  Total $79.388 billion[3] (78)
 -  Per capita $1,715[3][note 1] (162)
GDP (nominal) 2013 estimate
 -  Total $32.536 billion[3]
 -  Per capita $703[3]b
Gini (2007) 37.6[4]
medium
HDI (2013) Increase 0.488[5]
low · 159th
Currency Tanzanian shilling (TZS)
Time zone EAT (UTC+3)
 -  Summer (DST) not observed (UTC+3)
Drives on the left
Calling code +255[note 2]
ISO 3166 code TZ
Internet TLD .tz

Tanzania /ˌtænzəˈnə/, officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Swahili: Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania),[6] is a country in East Africa in the African Great Lakes region. It is bordered by Kenya and Uganda to the north; Rwanda, Burundi and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west; and Zambia, Malawi and Mozambique to the south. The country's eastern border is formed by the Indian Ocean. Kilimanjaro, Africa's highest mountain, is in northeastern Tanzania.

The country is divided into 30 administrative regions: five on the semi-autonomous islands of Zanzibar and 25 on the mainland in the former Tanganyika.[7] The head of state is President Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete, elected in 2005. Since 1996, the official capital of Tanzania has been Dodoma, where the National Assembly and some government offices are located. Between independence and 1996, the main coastal city of Dar es Salaam served as the country's political capital. It remains Tanzania's principal commercial city and is the main location of most government institutions.[7][8] It is also the principal port of the country.[9]

Tanganyika and Zanzibar merged on 26 April 1964 to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar.[7] On 29 October of the same year, the country was renamed United Republic of Tanzania ('Tan' comes from Tanganyika and 'Zan' from Zanzibar).[7] The Articles of Union are the main foundation of Tanzania.

History[edit]

Main article: History of Tanzania
A 1.8 million years old stone chopping tool discovered at Olduvai Gorge and currently on display at the British Museum

Human settlement in what is now Tanzania began around 8,000 B.C., when hunter-gatherers speaking Khoisan languages settled along the Gregory Rift south of Olduvai Gorge.[10][11] Around 1,000 B.C., herders speaking Cushitic languages migrated to Tanzania from what is now Ethiopia.[10][11] A third group, of iron-working agriculturalists that spoke Bantu languages, migrated to Tanzania from what is now Nigeria and Cameroon about 1,000 years later.[11][12]

Eastern Nilotes peoples, including the Maasai, represent a more recent migration from present day South Sudan within the past 1,500 to 500 years.[13]:page 18[14]

The people of Tanzania have been associated with the production of iron and steel. The Pare were the main producers of highly demanded iron for peoples who occupied the mountain regions of northeastern Tanzania. The Haya people on the western shores of Lake Victoria invented a type of high-heat blast furnace, which allowed them to forge carbon steel at temperatures exceeding 1,820 °C (3,310 °F) more than 1,500 years ago.[15]

Travellers and merchants from the Persian Gulf and western India have visited the Southeast African coast since early in the first millennium AD. Islam was practised on the Swahili Coast as early as the eighth or ninth century AD.[16][17] In 1498, the Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama visited Tanzanian coast. Later, in 1506, the Portuguese succeeded in controlling most of the Southeast African littoral. In 1699, the Portuguese were ousted from Zanzibar by Omani Arabs.

Claiming the coastal strip, Omani Sultan Seyyid Said moved his capital to Zanzibar City in 1840. During this time, Zanzibar became the centre for the Arab slave trade.[18] Between 65 and 90% of the population of Arab-Swahili Zanzibar was enslaved.[19]

General Lettow-Vorbeck in Dar es Salaam with a British Officer (left) and German Officer (right), March 1919

In the late 19th century, Imperial Germany conquered the regions that are now Tanzania (minus Zanzibar) and incorporated them into German East Africa. The post–World War I accords and the League of Nations charter designated the area a British Mandate, except for the Kionga Triangle, a small area in the southeast that was incorporated into Portuguese East Africa (later Mozambique).

British rule came to an end in 1961 after a relatively peaceful (compared with neighbouring Kenya, for instance) transition to independence. In 1954, Julius Nyerere transformed an organisation into the politically oriented Tanganyika African National Union (TANU). TANU's main objective was to achieve national sovereignty for Tanganyika. A campaign to register new members was launched, and within a year TANU had become the leading political organisation in the country.

Nyerere became Minister of British-administered Tanganyika in 1960 and continued as Prime Minister when Tanganyika became independent in 1961. In 1967, Nyerere's first presidency took a turn to the left after the Arusha Declaration, which codified a commitment to socialism in Pan-African fashion. After the declaration, banks and many large industries were nationalised.

After the Zanzibar Revolution overthrew the Arab dynasty in neighbouring Zanzibar,[20] which had become independent in 1963, the archipelago merged with mainland Tanganyika on 26 April 1964.[21] The union of the two, hitherto separate, regions was controversial among many Zanzibaris (even those sympathetic to the revolution) but was accepted by both the Nyerere government and the Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar owing to shared political values and goals.

From the late 1970s, Tanzania's economy took a turn for the worse. Tanzania was also aligned with China, which from 1970 to 1975 financed and helped build the 1,860-kilometre-long (1,160 mi) TAZARA Railway from Dar es Salaam to Zambia.[22] From the mid-1980s, the regime financed itself by borrowing from the International Monetary Fund and underwent some reforms. Since then, Tanzania's gross domestic product per capita has grown, and poverty has been reduced.[23]

In 1992, the Constitution of Tanzania was amended to allow multiple political parties.[24] In Tanzania's first multi-party elections, held in 1995, the CCM won 186 of the 232 elected seats in the National Assembly, and Benjamin Mkapa was elected as president.[24] Mkapa was reelected as president in 2000.[24]

Government[edit]

Main article: Politics of Tanzania

Union and mainland government[edit]

The executive and legislative branches of the Tanzanian government are respectively: the president and the National Assembly.[25]:§ 62(1)

The president and the members of the National Assembly are elected concurrently by direct popular vote for five-year terms.[25]:§ 42(2) The vice-president is elected for a five-year term at the same time as the president and on the same ticket.[25]:§§ 47(2), 50(1)

Neither the president nor the vice-president may be a member of the National Assembly.[25]:§ 66(2) The president appoints a prime minister to serve as the government's leader in the assembly.[25]:§§ 51(1), 52(2) The president selects his or her cabinet from assembly members.[25]:§ 55

All legislative power relating to mainland Tanzania and union matters is vested in the National Assembly,[25]:§ 64(1) which is unicameral and has a maximum of 357 members.[26] These include members elected to represent constituencies, the attorney general, five members elected by the Zanzibar house of representatives from among its own members, the special women's seats that constitute at least 30% of the seats that any party has in the assembly, the speaker of the assembly (if not otherwise a member of the assembly), and the persons (not more than ten) appointed by the president.[25]:§ 66(1) The Tanzania Electoral Commission demarcates the mainland into constituencies in the number determined by the commission with the consent of the president.[25]:§ 75

Zanzibar government[edit]

The semi-autonomous Zanzibar Archipelago

The legislative authority in Zanzibar over all non-union matters is vested in the house of representatives (per the Tanzania constitution)[25]:§ 106(3) or the Legislative Council (per the Zanzibar constitution).[27]: §§ 63(1), 78(1)

The house of representatives (or Legislative Council) has two parts: the president of Zanzibar and the members serving in the house.[25]:§ 107(1)-(2)[27]:§ 63(1) The president is Zanzibar's head of government and the chairman of the Revolutionary Council, in which the executive authority of Zanzibar is invested.[27]:§§ 5A(2), 26(1) Zanzibar has two vice-presidents, with the first being from the main opposition party in the house.[28] The second is from the party in power and is the leader of government business in the house.[citation needed]

The president and the members of the house of representatives have five-year terms.[27]:§ 28(2)

The president selects ministers from members of the house of representatives,[27]:§ 42(2) with the ministers allocated according to the number of house seats won by political parties.[28] The Revolutionary Council consists of the president, both vice-presidents, all ministers, the attorney general of Zanzibar, and other house members deemed fit by the president.[28]

The house of representatives is composed of elected members, ten members appointed by the president, all the regional commissioners of Zanzibar, the attorney general, and appointed female members whose number must be equal to 30% of the elected members.[27]:§§ 55(3), 64, 67(1) The house determines the number of its elected members[27]:§ 120(2) with the Zanzibar Electoral Commission determining the boundaries of each election constituency.[27]:§ 120(1) In 2013, the house has a total of 81 members: fifty elected members, five regional commissioners, the attorney general, ten members appointed by the president, and fifteen appointed female members.[26]

Judiciary[edit]

Tanzania has a four-level judiciary. Appeal is from the Primary Courts (first level) to the District Courts (mainland), the Resident Magistrates' Courts (mainland), or the Magistrates' Courts (Zanzibar) (second level).[29] From there, appeal is to the High Court of Mainland Tanzania or Zanzibar (third level) and finally to the Court of Appeal of Tanzania (fourth level).[29] All cases tried in Zanzibari courts, except for those involving Zanzibari constitutional issues and Islamic law, can be appealed to the Court of Appeal.[27]:§ 99(1)[29] A commercial court was established in September 1999 as a division of the High Court.

Judges are appointed by the Chief Justice of Tanzania, except for those of the Court of Appeal and the High Court, who are appointed by the president of Tanzania.

Administrative subdivisions[edit]

The regions of Tanzania

In 1972, local government on the mainland was abolished and replaced with direct rule from the central government. Local government, however, was reintroduced in the beginning of the 1980s, when the rural councils and rural authorities were re-established. Local government elections took place in 1983, and functioning councils started in 1984. Two years after the first multi-party elections in 1995, there was a major public sector reform. These reforms included a Local Government Reform Programme (LGRP), setting "a comprehensive and ambitious agenda ... [covering] four areas: political decentralization, financial decentralization, administrative decentralization and changed central-local relations, with the mainland government having over-riding powers within the framework of the Constitution." The principal local government acts were amended by the National Assembly in 1999 as a part of the Local Government Reform Programme.[30]

Tanzania is divided into thirty regions (mkoa), twenty-five on the mainland and five in Zanzibar (three on Unguja, two on Pemba).[31][32] 169 districts (wilaya), also known as local government authorities, have been created. Of the 169 districts, 34 are urban units, which are further classified as three city councils (Arusha, Mbeya, and Mwanza), nineteen municipal councils, and twelve town councils.[2]

The urban units have an autonomous city, municipal, or town council and are subdivided into wards and mtaa. The non-urban units have an autonomous district council but are subdivided into village councils or township authorities (first level) and then into vitongoji.[30]

The city of Dar es Salaam is unique because it has a city council whose areal jurisdiction overlaps three municipal councils. The mayor of the city council is elected by that council. The twenty-member city council is composed of eleven persons elected by the municipal councils, seven members of the National Assembly, and "Nominated members of parliament under 'Special Seats' for women". Each municipal council also has a mayor. "The City Council performs a coordinating role and attends to issues cutting across the three municipalities", including security and emergency services.[33][34]

Politics[edit]

President Kikwete shares a light moment with PM Pinda at the latter's hometown
Main article: Politics of Tanzania

Tanzania is a one party dominant state with the Chama Cha Mapinduzi party in power. From its formation until 1992, it was the only legally permitted party in the country. This changed on 1 July 1992, when amendments to the Constitution and a number of laws permitting and regulating the formation and operations of more than one political party were enacted by the National Assembly. Elections for president and all National Assembly seats were last held in October 2010. The Chama Cha Mapinduzi holds approximately 75% of the seats in the assembly.

Foreign relations[edit]

Apart from a border dispute with Malawi, Tanzania has good relations with its neighbours.[35] It is a member of the East African Community (EAC), along with Uganda, Kenya, Rwanda, and Burundi.[36] Within the EAC, there is free trade and free movement of people, including the right to reside in another member country for the purpose of employment.[37][38][39] Tanzania is also a member of the Southern African Development Community (SADC).[40] The EAC, the SADC, and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa are currently negotiating an agreement to create a Tripartite Free Trade Area spanning 26 African countries.[41] Relations between Tanzania and Malawi are tense due to a dispute over the countries' Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) border; an unsuccessful mediation took place regarding the issue in 2014.[35][37][42] Tanzania–China relations have strengthened in recent years as trade between the two countries has increased, and the Chinese have invested in Tanzanian infrastructure.[37][43] Relations with the United States are warm; Barack Obama visited Tanzania in 2013.[44][45] Tanzania's relations with other donor countries, including Japan and members of the European Union, are generally good, though donors are concerned about Tanzania's commitment to reducing government corruption.[35][37]

Economy and infrastructure[edit]

Bank of Tanzania Twin Towers

As of 2013, Tanzania's gross domestic product was an estimated $32.536 billion, or $79.388 billion on a purchasing power parity (PPP) basis.[3] Tanzania remains a poor country, with a per capita GDP of $1,715 (PPP), a figure on par with those of other sub-Saharan African countries.[3] In recent years, Tanzania's growth has been strong in comparison with other sub-Saharan countries, with annual growth averaging 7%.[46] The country weathered the global recession relatively well due to strong gold prices (which bolstered its mining industry) and the country's poor integration into global markets.[46] Since the downturn, the Tanzanian economy has continued to expand rapidly thanks to strong tourism, telecommunications, and banking sectors.[46] Tanzania's recent economic growth has resulted in a modest reduction of the official poverty rate, which decreased from 38.6% in 1991 to 33.4% in 2007.[46]

The economy is heavily based on agriculture, which accounts for more than 25% of gross domestic product, provides 85% of exports, and employs 80% of the workforce;[7] 12.25% of the land is arable, but only 1.79% of the land is planted with permanent crops.[7] Maize dominates much of the country, with cassava, rice, millet, sorghum and coffee also grown. According to the 2002 National Irrigation Master Plan, 29.4 million hectares in Tanzania are suitable for irrigation farming; however, only 310,745 hectares in June 2011 were actually being irrigated.[47]

Industry is a major and growing component of the Tanzanian economy, contributing 25% of GDP as of 2011.[48] Strong mining and construction sectors have contributed to Tanzania's industrial production.[48]

Tourism contributes approximate 15% of Tanzania's GDP, but employs less than 2% of the country's labor force (even when considering jobs created indirectly).[49] The sector is rapidly expanding, with an annual growth rate of over 10% in the 2000s.[49] The vast majority of tourists visit Zanzibar or a "northern circuit" of Serengeti National Park, the Ngorongoro Crater, and Mount Kilimanjaro.[49] Despite its superior tourist attractions, Tanzania's tourism industry has lagged behind Kenya's, which has superior infrastructure and marketing.[49]

Songo Songo Gas Plant

Mining contributes just over three percent of Tanzania's GDP, though the sector is growing rapidly.[48] Most of Tanzania's mineral export revenue comes from gold; it also exports sizable quantities of precious and semiprecious gemstones, including diamonds and tanzanite.[48] Other minerals exploited in Tanzania include soda ash, salt, coal, nickel, tin, phosphates, gypsum, kaolin, limestone, and graphite.[48] Commercial production of natural gas from the Songo Songo Island in the Indian Ocean off the Rufiji Delta commenced in 2004,[50] with the gas being transported by pipeline to Dar es Salaam. The bulk of the gas is converted to electricity by both public utility and private operators. A new gas field is being brought on stream in Mnazi Bay.

The Bank of Tanzania is the central bank of Tanzania and is primarily responsible for maintaining price stability, with a subsidiary responsibility for issuing Tanzanian shilling notes and coins.[51] At the end of 2011, the total assets of the Tanzanian banking industry was US$11.3 billion, a 17% increase over 2010.[52]

Rovos Rail, a luxury train entering a tunnel on the TAZARA line

Most transport in Tanzania is by road; road transport constitutes over 75% of the country's freight traffic and 80% of its passenger traffic.[49] The 86,500-kilometer road system is in generally poor condition.[49] Tanzania has two railway companies: TAZARA, which provides service between Dar es Salaam and Kapiri Mposhi (in a copper-mining district in Zambia), and Tanzania Railways Limited, which connects Dar es Salaam with central and northern Tanzania.[49] Rail travel in Tanzania often entails slow journeys with frequent cancellations or delays; the railways also have a deficient safety record.[49] Tanzania has four international airports, along with over 100 small airports or landing strips; airport infrastructure tends to be in poor condition.[53] Airlines in Tanzania include Air Tanzania, Precision Air, Fastjet, Coastal Aviation, and ZanAir.[53] Several modern hydrofoil boats provide transportation across the Indian Ocean between Dar es Salaam and Zanzibar.

Most electricity in Tanzania is generated using gas; hydropower is also a significant source of power.[48] Though the country's supply of electricity nearly doubled between 2005 and 2011, only about 20% of Tanzanians are on the electrical grid.[48] The electrical supply varies, particularly when droughts disrupt hydropower electric generation; rolling blackouts are implemented as necessary.[48] Nearly a quarter of electricity generated is lost because of poor transmission infrastructure.[48] The unreliability of the electrical supply has hindered the development of Tanzanian industry.[48]

As of 2011, Tanzania had 56 mobile telephone subscribers per 100 inhabitants, a rate slightly above the sub-Saharan average.[53] Very few Tanzanians have fixed-line telephones.[53] Approximately 12% of Tanzanians used the internet as of 2011, though this number is rapidly growing.[53] The country has a fiber-optic cable network that recently replaced unreliable satellite service, but internet bandwidth remains very low.[53]

Geography and environment[edit]

An elephant passing by Mt. Kilimanjaro
Ngorongoro Crater, the world's largest inactive and intact volcanic caldera

At 947,300 square kilometres (365,800 sq mi), Tanzania is approximately the same size as Egypt.[54] It borders Kenya and Uganda to the north; Rwanda, Burundi, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west; and Zambia, Malawi, and Mozambique to the south. Tanzania is located on the eastern coast of Africa and has an Indian Ocean coastline approximately 800 kilometres (500 mi) long.[55] It also incorporates several offshore islands, including Unguja (Zanzibar), Pemba, and Mafia.[55] The country is the site of Africa's highest and lowest points: Mount Kilimanjaro, at 5,892 metres (19,331 ft) above sea level, and the floor of Lake Tanganyika, at 352 metres (1,155 ft) below sea level, respectively.[55]

Tanzania is mountainous and densely forested in the northeast, where Mount Kilimanjaro is situated. Three of Africa's Great Lakes are partly within Tanzania. To the north and west lie Lake Victoria, Africa's largest lake, and Lake Tanganyika, the continent's deepest lake, known for its unique species of fish. To the southwest lies Lake Nyasa. Central Tanzania is a large plateau, with plains and arable land. The eastern shore is hot and humid, with the Zanzibar Archipelago just offshore.

The Kalambo water falls in the southwestern region of Rukwa are the second highest in Africa and are located near the southern tip of Lake Tanganyika. The Menai Bay Conservation Area is Zanzibar's largest marine protected area.

Climate varies greatly within Tanzania. In the highlands, temperatures range between 10 and 20 °C (50 and 68 °F) during cold and hot seasons respectively. The rest of the country has temperatures rarely falling lower than 20 °C (68 °F). The hottest period extends between November and February (25–31 °C or 77.0–87.8 °F) while the coldest period occurs between May and August (15–20 °C or 59–68 °F). Annual temperature is 20 °C (68.0 °F). The climate is cool in high mountainous regions. Tanzania has two major rainfall regimes: one is uni-modal (October–April) and the other is bi-modal (October–December and March–May).[56] The former is experienced in southern, central, and western parts of the country, and the latter is found in the north from Lake Victoria extending east to the coast.[56] The bi-modal regime is caused by the seasonal migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone.[56]

Over one third of Tanzania's land area (a greater proportion than in any other country) is set aside in protected areas for conservation.[57][58] Tanzania has 16 national parks, as well as a variety of game and forest reserves.[57][59] Gombe Stream National Park, in western Tanzania, is known as the site of Jane Goodall's studies of chimpanzee behaviour.[60][61] Tanzania is highly biodiverse and contains a wide variety of animal habitats.[62] On Tanzania's Serengeti plain, white-bearded wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus mearnsi) and other bovids participate in a large-scale annual migration. Tanzania is also home to 130 amphibian and over 275 reptile species, many of them strictly endemic and included in the IUCN Red Lists of different countries.[63] Tanzania has developed a Biodiversity Action Plan to address species conservation.

Demographics[edit]

The Bantu Sukuma are Tanzania's largest ethnic group.

According to the 2012 census, the total population was 44,928,923.[2] The under 15 age group represented 44.1% of the population.[64]

Population distribution in Tanzania is extremely uneven. Most people live on the northern border or the eastern coast; much of the remainder of the country is sparsely populated.[49] Density varies from 13.1 people per square kilometer in Lindi Region to 3,133.2 per square kilometer in Dar es Salaam.[65][66] Approximately 70% of the population is rural; this figure has been declining for the last several decades.[67] Dar es Salaam (pop. 4,630,000[68] is the largest city and commercial capital. Dodoma (pop. 410,000[68]), located in the centre of Tanzania, is the capital of the country and hosts the National Assembly. Other major cities include Mwanza (pop. 710,000), Arusha (pop. 420,000), Mbeya (pop. 390,000), and Morogoro (pop. 320,000).[68]

The population consists of more than 120 ethnic groups,[69] of which the Sukuma, Nyamwezi, Chagga, and Haya have more than 1 million members.[70] Around 99% of Tanzanians are of African descent; there are small numbers of people of Arab, European, and Asian descent.[69] The majority of Tanzanians, including the Sukuma and the Nyamwezi, are Bantu.[citation needed] Nilotic peoples include the nomadic Maasai and Luo, both of which are found in greater numbers in neighbouring Kenya. The Sandawe speak a language that may be related to the Khoe languages of Botswana and Namibia, while the language of the Hadza, although it has similar click consonants, is a language isolate. There are also a few Cushitic-speaking remnant groups, such as the Iraqw.[2] Tanzania has a high prevalence of albinos,[71] and they have been the victims of violence in recent years.[72][73][74][75]

According to 2010 official Tanzania statistics, the total fertility rate in Tanzania was 5.4 children born per woman with 3.7 in urban areas and 6.1 in rural areas.[76]

Religion[edit]

Gaddafi Mosque in Dodoma is one of the largest mosques in East Africa
Azania Front Lutheran Church built by German missionaries in 1898
Main article: Religion in Tanzania

Religion is very important in Tanzanian life.[77][78] Approximately 93% of Tanzanians say that religion is "very important" in their lives, one of the highest rates in the world.[77] Recent surveys have indicated that Tanzania is a predominantly Christian country, with a large Muslim minority.[79] A 2008-2009 Pew survey found 60% of respondents to be Christian, 36% to be Muslim, 2% to follow traditional African religions, and 1% to be unaffiliated.[80] The same Pew survey found that 51% of Tanzanian Christians described themselves as Catholic, and 44% described themselves as Protestant.[81] Among Protestants, Lutherans (13% of Tanzanian Christians), Pentecostals (10%), Anglicans (10%), and adherents of African initiated churches (5%) dominate.[82] The Pew survey found about 41% of Tanzania's Muslim population to be Sunni, 20% to be Shia, 15% to be Ahmadiyya, 20% to be "just a Muslim", and 1% to be something else.[83] Muslims are generally concentrated in coastal areas and in Zanzibar (where about 99 percent of the population is Muslim).[84][85] There are also active communities of other religious groups, primarily on the mainland, such as Buddhists and Bahá'ís.[85]

Language[edit]

Over 100 different languages are spoken in Tanzania, making it the most linguistically diverse country in East Africa.[1] Among the languages spoken in Tanzania are members of all four of Africa's language families (Bantu, Cushitic, Nilotic, and Khoisan).[1] Swahili and English are the Tanzania's official languages.[1] Swahili is used in parliamentary debate, in the lower courts, and as a medium of instruction in primary school; English is used in foreign trade, in diplomacy, in higher courts, and as a medium of instruction in secondary and higher education.[1] In connection with his Ujamaa social policies, Nyerere encouraged the use of Swahili as a means of unifying the country's many ethnic groups.[86] Today, about 10% of Tanzanians speak Swahili as a first language, and up to 90% speak it as a second language.[1] Most Tanzanians thus speak both Swahili and a local language; many educated Tanzanians are trilingual, also speaking English.[87][88][89] The widespread use and promotion of Swahili is contributing to the decline of smaller languages in the country.[1][90] Young children increasingly speak Swahili as a first language, particularly in urban areas.[91]

Education and health[edit]

Nkrumah Hall at the University of Dar es Salaam, the nation's first university

The literacy rate in Tanzania is estimated to be 73 percent.[92] Education is compulsory for seven years, until children reach age 15, but most children do not attend school this long, and some do not attend at all. In 2000, 57 percent of children age 5–14 years were attending school. As of 2006, 87.2 percent of children who started primary school were likely to reach grade 5.[93]

As of 2012, life expectancy at birth was approximately 61 years.[94] The under-five mortality rate was 54 per 1000 live births.[94] The leading cause of death in children under 5 years old in 2010 was pneumonia.[95] The other leading causes of death for these children were malaria, diarrhoea, and prematurity.[95] According to a 2007 study, malaria in Tanzania "causes major obstacles to social and economic development".[96] The maternal mortality rate in 2010 was estimated at 460/100,000 live births.[97] About 14% of women had undergone female genital mutilation.[98]

The prevalence of HIV/AIDS was approximately 3.1% as of 2012.[94] Anti-retroviral treatment coverage for people with advanced HIV infection was 30 percent in 2011 – 7 percent below the average for the continent.[99] According to the 2011 UNAIDS Report, HIV prevalence has declined among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics, young people (ages 15–24 years) and men in the general population.[100]

2006 data shows that 55 percent of the population had sustainable access to improved drinking water sources and 33 percent had sustainable access to improved sanitation.[99]

Culture[edit]

A Tingatinga painting

The music of Tanzania includes traditional African music, string-based taarab, and a distinctive hip hop known as bongo flava. Famous taarab singers are Abbasi Mzee, Culture Musical Club, Shakila of Black Star Musical Group. Internationally known traditional artists are Bi Kidude, Hukwe Zawose and Tatu Nane. Tanzania also has its own distinct African rumba music, termed muziki wa dansi ("dance music"); important artists include Simba Wanyika, Remmy Ongala, and Orchestra Makassy.

Tanzania's literary culture is primarily oral.[101] Major oral literary forms include folktales, poems, riddles, proverbs, and songs.[101] The greatest part of the oral literature in Tanzania that has been recorded is in Swahili, though each of the country's languages has its own oral tradition.[101] The country's oral literature is currently declining because of changes in family structure that make transmission of oral literature more difficult and because of the devaluation of oral literature that has accompanied Tanzania's development.[101] Tanzania's written literary tradition is still relatively undeveloped; Tanzania does not have a strong reading culture, and books are often expensive and hard to come by.[101][102] Most Tanzanian literature is in Swahili or English.[101] Major figures in Tanzanian written literature include Shaaban Robert, Muhammed Said Abdulla, Abdulrazak Gurnah, and Penina Mlama.[101]

Historically, there have been only limited opportunities for formal art training in Tanzania, and many aspiring Tanzanian artists have left the country to pursue their vocation.[103] Nonetheless, two Tanzanian art styles have achieved international recognition.[103] The Tingatinga school of painting, founded by Edward Said Tingatinga, consists of brightly colored enamel paintings on canvas, generally depicting people, animals, or daily life.[103][104] After Tingatinga's death in 1972, other artists adopted and developed his style; the genre is now the most important tourist-oriented style in East Africa.[103][104] Makonde is both a tribe in Tanzania (and Mozambique) and a modern sculpture style. It is known for the high Ujamaas (Trees of Life) made of the hard and dark ebony tree. Tanzania is also a birthplace of one of the most famous African artists – George Lilanga.

One of Tanzania's, and other parts of eastern Africa's, most common cultural dishes is Ugali. It is usually composed of corn and is similar in consistency to a stiff paste or porridge, giving it its second name of corn meal porridge. Mixtures of cassava and millet flours are locally used for ugali. Rice and cooked green bananas are also important staples. Beef, goat meat, beans, yoghurt and a wide range of fish and green leafy vegetables all add nutrients to the dishes.

Football (soccer) is very popular throughout the country, with fans divided between two major clubs, Young Africans F.C. (Yanga) and Simba S.C..[105][106][107] Other popular sports include netball, boxing, running, and rugby.[105][106] Tanzania competes in the Commonwealth Games as well as in the African Championships in Athletics.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Based on population estimate for 2013 of 46.2 million instead of the 2012 census result of 44.9 million.
  2. ^ +007 from Kenya and Uganda.


References[edit]

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Works cited[edit]

External links[edit]