|United Republic of Tanzania
Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania (Swahili)
|Motto: "Uhuru na Umoja" (Swahili)
"Freedom and Unity"
|Anthem: Mungu ibariki Afrikia
God Bless Africa
|Largest city||Dar es Salaam|
|Government||Presidential constitutional republic|
|-||Prime Minister||Mizengo Pinda|
|Independence from the United Kingdom|
|-||Tanganyika||9 December 1961|
|-||Zanzibar and Pemba||10 December 1963|
|-||Merger||26 April 1964|
|-||Current constitution||25 April 1977|
|-||Total||947,303 km2 (31)
365,756 sq mi
|-||2014 estimate||47.4 million (29)|
|GDP (PPP)||2014 estimate|
|GDP (nominal)||2014 estimate|
|HDI (2013)|| 0.488
low · 159
|Currency||Tanzanian shilling (TZS)|
|Time zone||EAT (UTC+3)|
|-||Summer (DST)||not observed (UTC+3)|
|Drives on the||left|
|Calling code||+255[note 1]|
|ISO 3166 code||TZ|
Tanzania //, officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Swahili: Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a country in East Africa in the African Great Lakes region. It is bordered by Kenya and Uganda to the north; Rwanda, Burundi, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west; and Zambia, Malawi, and Mozambique to the south. The country's eastern border is formed by the Indian Ocean. Kilimanjaro, Africa's highest mountain, is in northeastern Tanzania.
The head of state is President Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete, elected in 2005. Since 1996, the official capital of Tanzania has been Dodoma, where the National Assembly and some government offices are located. Dar es Salaam remains Tanzania's principal port and commercial city and is the main location of most government institutions.
- 1 History
- 1.1 Indigenous populations
- 1.2 Migration into Tanzania
- 1.3 Production of iron and steel by early arrivals
- 1.4 Visitors from the Near East and India around the first millennium A.D.
- 1.5 Portuguese control
- 1.6 Control by Omani Sultans
- 1.7 Imperial German East Africa from the late 19th century until the end of World War I
- 1.8 British Mandate under the League of Nations until the end of World War II
- 1.9 British administration of the Tanganyika Trust Territory under United Nations supervision
- 1.10 Independence for Tanganyika and subsequent merger with Zanzibar
- 1.11 Growth of Pan-African socialism under President Nyerere
- 1.12 Economic reform and restructuring
- 1.13 Increased political freedoms
- 2 Government
- 3 Foreign relations
- 4 Economy and infrastructure
- 5 Geography and climate
- 6 Wildlife and conservation
- 7 Demographics
- 8 Education
- 9 Health
- 10 Culture
- 11 See also
- 12 Notes
- 13 References
- 14 External links
Migration into Tanzania
The first wave of migration was by Southern Cushitic speakers, who are ancestral to the Iraqw, Gorowa, and Burunge and who moved south from Ethiopia into Tanzania.:page 17 Based on linguistic evidence, there may also have been two movements into Tanzania of Eastern Cushitic people at about 4,000 and 2,000 years ago, originating from north of Lake Turkana.:pages 17–18
Archaeological evidence supports the conclusion that Southern Nilotes, including the Datoog, moved south from the present-day South Sudan / Ethiopia border region into central northern Tanzania between 2,900 and 2,400 years ago.:page 18
These movements took place at approximately the same time as the settlement of the iron-making Mashariki Bantu in the Lake Victoria and Lake Tanganyika areas. They brought with them the west African planting tradition, the primary staple of which were yams. They subsequently migrated out of these regions across the rest of Tanzania between 2,300 and 1,700 years ago.:page 18
Production of iron and steel by early arrivals
The people of Tanzania have been associated with the production of iron and steel. The Haya people on the western shores of Lake Victoria invented a type of high-heat blast furnace, which allowed them to forge carbon steel at temperatures exceeding 1,820 °C (3,310 °F) more than 1,500 years ago.
Visitors from the Near East and India around the first millennium A.D.
Travellers and merchants from the Persian Gulf and India have visited the east African coast since early in the first millennium A.D. Islam was practised by some on the Swahili Coast as early as the eighth or ninth century A.D.
In 1498, the Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama visited the Tanzanian coast. Later, in 1506, the Portuguese succeeded in controlling most of the Southeast African littoral. In 1699, the Portuguese were ousted from Zanzibar by Omani Arabs.
Control by Omani Sultans
Claiming the coastal strip, Omani Sultan Seyyid Said moved his capital to Zanzibar City in 1840. During this time, Zanzibar became the centre for the Arab slave trade. Between 65 and 90 percent of the population of Arab-Swahili Zanzibar was enslaved. One of the most infamous slave traders on the East African coast was Tippu Tip, who was himself the grandson of an enslaved African. The Nyamwezi slave traders operated under the leadership of Msiri and Mirambo. According to Timothy Insoll, "Figures record the exporting of 718,000 slaves from the Swahili coast during the 19th century, and the retention of 769,000 on the coast."
Imperial German East Africa from the late 19th century until the end of World War I
In the late 19th century, Imperial Germany conquered the regions that are now Tanzania (minus Zanzibar) and incorporated them into German East Africa.
British Mandate under the League of Nations until the end of World War II
The post–World War I accords and the League of Nations charter designated the area a British Mandate, except for the Kionga Triangle, a small area in the southeast that was incorporated into Portuguese East Africa (later Mozambique).
British administration of the Tanganyika Trust Territory under United Nations supervision
In 1954, Julius Nyerere transformed an organisation into the politically oriented Tanganyika African National Union (TANU). TANU's main objective was to achieve national sovereignty for Tanganyika. A campaign to register new members was launched, and within a year TANU had become the leading political organisation in the country. Nyerere became Minister of British-administered Tanganyika in 1960 and continued as prime minister when Tanganyika became independent in 1961.
Independence for Tanganyika and subsequent merger with Zanzibar
British rule came to an end on 9 December 1961, but for the first year of independence, Tanganyika had a governor general who represented the British monarch.:page 6 On 9 December 1962, Tanganyika became a democratic republic under an executive president.:page 6
After the Zanzibar Revolution overthrew the Arab dynasty in neighbouring Zanzibar, which had become independent in 1963, the archipelago merged with mainland Tanganyika on 26 April 1964. On 29 October of the same year, the country was renamed the United Republic of Tanzania ("Tan" comes from Tanganyika and "Zan" from Zanzibar). The union of the two, hitherto separate, regions was controversial among many Zanzibaris (even those sympathetic to the revolution) but was accepted by both the Nyerere government and the Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar owing to shared political values and goals.
In 1967, Nyerere's first presidency took a turn to the left after the Arusha Declaration, which codified a commitment to socialism in Pan-African fashion. After the declaration, banks and many large industries were nationalised.
From the late 1970s, Tanzania's economy took a turn for the worse. Tanzania was also aligned with China, which from 1970 to 1975 financed and helped build the 1,860-kilometre-long (1,160 mi) TAZARA Railway from Dar es Salaam to Zambia.
Economic reform and restructuring
From the mid-1980s, the regime financed itself by borrowing from the International Monetary Fund and underwent some reforms. Since then, Tanzania's gross domestic product per capita has grown and poverty has been reduced.
Increased political freedoms
In 1992, the Constitution of Tanzania was amended to allow multiple political parties. In Tanzania's first multi-party elections, held in 1995, the ruling Chama Cha Mapinduzi won 186 of the 232 elected seats in the National Assembly, and Benjamin Mkapa was elected as president.
Union and mainland government
The president and the members of the National Assembly are elected concurrently by direct popular vote for five-year terms.:§ 42(2) The vice-president is elected for a five-year term at the same time as the president and on the same ticket.:§§ 47(2), 50(1)
Neither the president nor the vice-president may be a member of the National Assembly.:§ 66(2) The president appoints a prime minister, subject to confirmation by the assembly, to serve as the government's leader in the assembly.:§§ 51(1)-(2), 52(2) The president selects his or her cabinet from assembly members.:§ 55
All legislative power relating to mainland Tanzania and union matters is vested in the National Assembly,:§ 64(1) which is unicameral and has a maximum of 357 members. These include members elected to represent constituencies, the attorney general, five members elected by the Zanzibar house of representatives from among its own members, the special women's seats that constitute at least 30 percent of the seats that any party has in the assembly, the speaker of the assembly (if not otherwise a member of the assembly), and the persons (not more than ten) appointed by the president.:§ 66(1) The Tanzania Electoral Commission demarcates the mainland into constituencies in the number determined by the commission with the consent of the president.:§ 75
The legislative authority in Zanzibar over all non-union matters is vested in the house of representatives (per the Tanzania constitution):§ 106(3) or the Legislative Council (per the Zanzibar constitution).: §§ 63(1), 78(1)
The house of representatives (or Legislative Council) has two parts: the president of Zanzibar and the members serving in the house.:§ 107(1)-(2):§ 63(1) The president is Zanzibar's head of government and the chairman of the Revolutionary Council, in which the executive authority of Zanzibar is invested.:§§ 5A(2), 26(1) Zanzibar has two vice-presidents, with the first being from the main opposition party in the house. The second is from the party in power and is the leader of government business in the house.
The president and the members of the house of representatives have five-year terms.:§ 28(2)
The president selects ministers from members of the house of representatives,:§ 42(2) with the ministers allocated according to the number of house seats won by political parties. The Revolutionary Council consists of the president, both vice-presidents, all ministers, the attorney general of Zanzibar, and other house members deemed fit by the president.
The house of representatives is composed of elected members, ten members appointed by the president, all the regional commissioners of Zanzibar, the attorney general, and appointed female members whose number must be equal to 30 percent of the elected members.:§§ 55(3), 64, 67(1) The house determines the number of its elected members:§ 120(2) with the Zanzibar Electoral Commission determining the boundaries of each election constituency.:§ 120(1) In 2013, the house has a total of 81 members: fifty elected members, five regional commissioners, the attorney general, ten members appointed by the president, and fifteen appointed female members.
Tanzania has a four-level judiciary. The lowest level courts on the Tanzanian mainland are the Primary Courts. In Zanzibar, the lowest level courts are the Kadhi's Courts for Islamic family matters and the Primary Courts for all other cases. On the mainland, appeal is to either the District Courts or the Resident Magistrates Courts. In Zanzibar, appeal is to the Kadhi's Appeal Courts for Islamic family matters and the Magistrates Courts for all other cases. From there, appeal is to the High Court of Mainland Tanzania or Zanzibar. No appeal regarding Islamic family matters can be made from the High Court of Zanzibar.:§ 99(1) Otherwise, the final appeal is to the Court of Appeal of Tanzania.
The High Court of mainland Tanzania has three divisions - commercial, labour, and land - and 15 geographic zones. The High Court of Zanzibar has an industrial division, which hears only labour disputes.
Mainland and union judges are appointed by the chief justice of Tanzania, except for those of the Court of Appeal and the High Court, who are appointed by the president of Tanzania.: §§ 109(1), 118(2)-(3)
In 1972, local government on the mainland was abolished and replaced with direct rule from the central government. Local government, however, was reintroduced in the beginning of the 1980s, when the rural councils and rural authorities were re-established. Local government elections took place in 1983, and functioning councils started in 1984. In 1999, a Local Government Reform Programme was enacted by the National Assembly, setting "a comprehensive and ambitious agenda ... [covering] four areas: political decentralization, financial decentralization, administrative decentralization and changed central-local relations, with the mainland government having over-riding powers within the framework of the Constitution."
Tanzania is divided into thirty regions (mkoa), twenty-five on the mainland and five in Zanzibar (three on Unguja, two on Pemba). 169 districts (wilaya), also known as local government authorities, have been created. Of the 169 districts, 34 are urban units, which are further classified as three city councils (Arusha, Mbeya, and Mwanza), nineteen municipal councils, and twelve town councils.
The urban units have an autonomous city, municipal, or town council and are subdivided into wards and mtaa. The non-urban units have an autonomous district council but are subdivided into village councils or township authorities (first level) and then into vitongoji.
The city of Dar es Salaam is unique because it has a city council whose areal jurisdiction overlaps three municipal councils. The mayor of the city council is elected by that council. The twenty-member city council is composed of eleven persons elected by the municipal councils, seven members of the National Assembly, and "Nominated members of parliament under 'Special Seats' for women". Each municipal council also has a mayor. "The City Council performs a coordinating role and attends to issues cutting across the three municipalities", including security and emergency services.
Tanzania is a one party dominant state with the Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM) party in power. From its formation until 1992, it was the only legally permitted party in the country. This changed on 1 July 1992, when amendments to the Constitution:§ 3 and a number of laws permitting and regulating the formation and operations of more than one political party were enacted by the National Assembly. Elections for president and all National Assembly seats were last held in October 2010. The CCM holds approximately 75 percent of the seats in the assembly.
Tanzania is a member of the East African Community (EAC), along with Uganda, Kenya, Rwanda, and Burundi. According to the East African Common Market Protocol of 2010, the free trade and free movement of people is guaranteed, including the right to reside in another member country for purposes of employment.:page 1250 This protocol, however, has not been implemented because of work permit and other bureaucratic, legal, and financial obstacles.
Tanzania is also a member of the Southern African Development Community (SADC). The EAC, the SADC, and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa agreed in June 2011 to negotiate the creation of a Tripartite Free Trade Area spanning 26 African countries, with a goal to complete the first phase of negotiations within 36 months.
As of 31 October 2014, Tanzania was contributing 2,253 soldiers and other personnnel to various United Nations peacekeeping operations. The Tanzanian military is participating along with South African and Malawian militaries in the United Nations Force Intervention Brigade (MONUSCO) in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The United Nations Security Council authorized the force on 28 March 2013 to conduct targeted offensive operations to neutralize groups that threaten peace in the DRC. Tanzania was also participating in peacekeeping missions in the Darfur Region of Sudan (UNAMID); Abyei, control of which is contested between South Sudan and Sudan (UNISFA); the Central African Republic (MINUSCA); Lebanon (UNIFIL); and South Sudan (UNMISS).
Apart from its border dispute with Malawi, Tanzania had cordial relations with its neighbours in 2012.
Relations between Tanzania and Malawi have been tense because of a dispute over the countries' Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) border. An unsuccessful mediation regarding this issue took place in March 2014.:page 1250 The two countries agreed in 2013 to ask the International Court of Justice (ICJ) to resolve the dispute should mediation be unsuccessful. Malawi, but not Tanzania, has accepted the cumpulsory jurisdiction of the ICJ.
Relations between Tanzania and Rwanda deteriorated in 2013 when Tanzanian President Jakaya Kikwete said that if the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) could negotiate with some of its enemies, Rwanda should be able to do the same. Rwandan President Paul Kagame then expressed "contempt" for Kikwete's statement. The tension was renewed in May 2014 when, in a speech to the Tanzanian National Assembly, Foreign Affairs Minister Bernard Membe renewed his claim that Rwandans were causing instability in the DRC. Rwandan Foreign Affairs Minister Louise Mushikiwabo responded, "As for Tanzania's foreign minister whose anti-Rwanda rant in parliament I heard, he would benefit from a lesson in the history of the region."
Tanzania's relations with other donor countries, including Japan and members of the European Union, are generally good, though donors are concerned about Tanzania's commitment to reducing government corruption.:page 1250
Economy and infrastructure
As of 2014, Tanzania's gross domestic product (GDP) was an estimated $36.6 billion, or $86.4 billion on a purchasing power parity (PPP) basis. Tanzania is a poor country, with a per capita GDP of $1,813 (PPP), which was 32 percent below the average of $2,673 for the 45 sub-Saharan African countries and ranked 23rd among those countries.
From 2009 through 2013, Tanzania's per capita GDP (based on constant local currency) grew an average of 3.5 percent per year, higher than any other member of the East African Community (EAC) and exceeded by only nine countries in Sub-Saharan Africa: the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Ghana, Lesotho, Liberia, Mozambique, Sierra Leone, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.
Tanzania's largest trading partners in 2012 for its US $5.5 billion in exports were South Africa, Switzerland, and China. Its imports totalled US $11.7 billion, with Switzerland, China, and the United Arab Emirates being the biggest partners.
Tanzania weathered the Great Recession, which began in late 2008 or early 2009, relatively well. Strong gold prices, bolstering the country's mining industry, and Tanzania's poor integration into global markets helped to insulate the country from the downturn.:page 1250 Since the recession ended, the Tanzanian economy has expanded rapidly thanks to strong tourism, telecommunications, and banking sectors.:page 1250
According to the United Nations Development Program, however, recent growth in the national economy has benefited only the "very few", leaving out the majority of the population. Tanzania's 2013 Global Hunger Index was worse than any other country in the EAC except Burundi.:page 15 The proportion of persons who were undernourished in 2010-12 was also worse than any other EAC country except Burundi.:page 51
The Tanzanian economy is heavily based on agriculture, which accounts for 24.5 percent of gross domestic product,:page 37 provides 85 percent of exports, and accounts for half of the employed workforce;:page 56 The agricultural sector grew 4.3 percent in 2012, less than half of the Millennium Development Goal target of 10.8 percent. 16.4 percent of the land is arable, with 2.4 percent of the land planted with permanent crops.
Maize was the largest food crop on the Tanzania mainland in 2013 (5.17 million tonnes), followed by cassava (1.94 million tonnes), sweet potatoes (1.88 million tonnes), beans (1.64 million tonnes), bananas (1.31 million tonnes), rice (1.31 million tonnes), and millet (1.04 million tonnes).:page 58 Sugar was the largest cash crop on the mainland in 2013 (296,679 tonnes), followed by cotton (241,198 tonnes), cashew nuts (126,000 tonnes), tobacco (86,877 tonnes), coffee (48,000 tonnes), sisal (37,368 tonnes), and tea (32,422 tonnes).:page 58 Beef was the largest meat product on the mainland in 2013 (299,581 tonnes), followed by lamb/mutton (115,652 tonnes), chicken (87,408 tonnes), and pork (50,814 tonnes).:page 60
According to the 2002 National Irrigation Master Plan, 29.4 million hectares in Tanzania are suitable for irrigation farming; however, only 310,745 hectares in June 2011 were actually being irrigated.
Industry and construction
Industry and construction is a major and growing component of the Tanzanian economy, contributing 22.2 percent of GDP in 2013.:page 37 This component includes mining and quarrying, manufacturing, electricity and natural gas, water supply, and construction.:page 37
Mining contributed 3.3 percent of GDP in 2013.:page 33 The vast majority of the country's mineral export revenue comes from gold, accounting for 89 percent of the value of those exports in 2013.:page 71 It also exports sizable quantities of gemstones, including diamonds and tanzanite.:page 1251 All of Tanzania's coal production, which totalled 106,000 short tons in 2012, is used domestically. Other minerals exploited in Tanzania include pozzolana, salt, gypsum, kaolinite, silver ore, copper, phosphate, tin, graphite, and bauxite.:pages 70-71
The government-owned Tanzania Electric Supply Company Limited (TANESCO) dominates the electric supply industry in Tanzania. The country generated 6.013 billion kilowatt hours (kWh) of electricity in 2013, a 4.2 percent increase over the 5.771 billion kWh generated in 2012.:page 4 Generation increased by 63 percent between 2005 and 2012; however, only 15 percent of Tanzanians had access to electric power in 2011. Almost 18 percent of the electricity generated in 2012 was lost because of theft and transmission and distribution problems. The electrical supply varies, particularly when droughts disrupt hydropower electric generation; rolling blackouts are implemented as necessary.:page 1251 The unreliability of the electrical supply has hindered the development of Tanzanian industry.:page 1251 In 2013, 49.7 percent of Tanzania's electricity generation came from natural gas, 28.9 percent from hydroelectric sources, 20.4 percent from thermal sources, and 1.0 percent from outside the country.:page 5 The government is building a 532 kilometres (331 mi) gas pipeline from Mnazi Bay to Dar es Salaam, with a scheduled completion in 2015. This pipeline is expected to allow the country to double its electricity generation capacity to 3,000 megawatts by 2016. The government's goal is to increase capacity to at least 10,000 megawatts by 2025.
According to PFC Energy, 25 to 30 trillion cubic feet of recoverable natural gas resources have been discovered in Tanzania since 2010. The value of natural gas actually produced in 2013 was US $52.2 million, a 42.7 percent increase over 2012.:page 73
Commercial production of gas from the Songo Songo Island field in the Indian Ocean commenced in 2004, thirty years after it was discovered there. Over 35 billion cubic feet of gas was produced from this field in 2013,:page 72 with proven, probable, and possible reserves totalling 1.1 trillion cubic feet. The gas is transported by pipeline to Dar es Salaam. As of 27 August 2014, TANESCO owed the operator of this field, Orca Exploration Group Inc., US $50.4 million, down from US $63.8 million two months earlier.
A newer natural gas field in Mnazi Bay in 2013 produced about one-seventh of the amount produced near Songo Songo Island:page 73 but has proven, probable, and possible reserves of 2.2 trillion cubic feet. Virtually all of that gas is being used for electricity generation in Mtwara.
Travel and tourism contributed 12.7 percent of Tanzania's gross domestic product and employed 11.0 percent of the country's labor force (1,189,300 jobs) in 2013. The sector is growing rapidly, with overall receipts rising from US $1.74 billion in 2004 to US $4.48 billion in 2013, and receipts from international tourists rising from US $1.255 billion in 2010 to US $1.880 billion in 2013. In 2012, 1,043,000 tourists arrived at Tanzania's borders compared to 590,000 in 2005. The vast majority of tourists visit Zanzibar or a "northern circuit" of Serengeti National Park, the Ngorongoro Conservation Area (NCA), Tarangire National Park, Lake Manyara National Park, and Mount Kilimanjaro.:page 1252 In 2013, the most visited national park was Serengeti (452,485 tourists), followed by Manyara (187,773) and Tarangire (165,949).:page xx According to a 2013 published report, around 600,000 persons visit the NCA annually, earning 56 billion Tanzanian shillings in 2012.
The Bank of Tanzania is the central bank of Tanzania and is primarily responsible for maintaining price stability, with a subsidiary responsibility for issuing Tanzanian shilling notes and coins. At the end of 2013, the total assets of the Tanzanian banking industry were 19.5 trillion Tanzanian shillings, a 15 percent increase over 2012.
Most transport in Tanzania is by road; road transport constitutes over 75 percent of the country's freight traffic and 80 percent of its passenger traffic.:page 1252 The 86,500-kilometer road system is in generally poor condition.:page 1252 Tanzania has two railway companies: TAZARA, which provides service between Dar es Salaam and Kapiri Mposhi (in a copper-mining district in Zambia), and Tanzania Railways Limited, which connects Dar es Salaam with central and northern Tanzania.:page 1252 Rail travel in Tanzania often entails slow journeys with frequent cancellations or delays; the railways also have a deficient safety record.:page 1252 Tanzania has four international airports, along with over 100 small airports or landing strips; airport infrastructure tends to be in poor condition.:page 1253 Airlines in Tanzania include Air Tanzania, Precision Air, Fastjet, Coastal Aviation, and ZanAir.:page 1253 Several modern hydrofoil boats provide transportation across the Indian Ocean between Dar es Salaam and Zanzibar.
The communications sector is the fastest growing sector in Tanzania, expanding 22.8 percent in 2013; however, the sector accounted for only 2.4 percent of gross domestic product that year.:page 2
As of 2011, Tanzania had 56 mobile telephone subscribers per 100 inhabitants, a rate slightly above the sub-Saharan average.:page 1253 Very few Tanzanians have fixed-line telephones.:page 1253 Approximately 12 percent of Tanzanians used the internet as of 2011, though this number is rapidly growing.:page 1253 The country has a fiber-optic cable network that recently replaced unreliable satellite service, but internet bandwidth remains very low.:page 1253
Geography and climate
At 947,303 square kilometres (365,756 sq mi), Tanzania is the 13th largest country in Africa and the 31st largest in the world, ranked between the larger Egypt and smaller Nigeria. It borders Kenya and Uganda to the north; Rwanda, Burundi, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west; and Zambia, Malawi, and Mozambique to the south. Tanzania is located on the eastern coast of Africa and has an Indian Ocean coastline approximately 800 kilometres (500 mi) long.:page 1245 It also incorporates several offshore islands, including Unguja (Zanzibar), Pemba, and Mafia.:page 1245 The country is the site of Africa's highest and lowest points: Mount Kilimanjaro, at 5,895 metres (19,341 ft) above sea level, and the floor of Lake Tanganyika, at 352 metres (1,155 ft) below sea level, respectively.:page 1245
Tanzania is mountainous and densely forested in the northeast, where Mount Kilimanjaro is located. Three of Africa's Great Lakes are partly within Tanzania. To the north and west lie Lake Victoria, Africa's largest lake, and Lake Tanganyika, the continent's deepest lake, known for its unique species of fish. To the southwest lies Lake Nyasa. Central Tanzania is a large plateau, with plains and arable land. The eastern shore is hot and humid, with the Zanzibar Archipelago just offshore.
The Kalambo water falls in the southwestern region of Rukwa are the second highest uninterrupted fall in Africa and are located near the southeastern shore of Lake Tanganyika on the border with Zambia. The Menai Bay Conservation Area is Zanzibar's largest marine protected area.
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Climate varies greatly within Tanzania. In the highlands, temperatures range between 10 and 20 °C (50 and 68 °F) during cold and hot seasons respectively. The rest of the country has temperatures rarely falling lower than 20 °C (68 °F). The hottest period extends between November and February (25–31 °C or 77.0–87.8 °F) while the coldest period occurs between May and August (15–20 °C or 59–68 °F). Annual temperature is 20 °C (68.0 °F). The climate is cool in high mountainous regions.
Tanzania has two major rainfall regimes: one is uni-modal (October–April) and the other is bi-modal (October–December and March–May). The former is experienced in southern, central, and western parts of the country, and the latter is found in the north from Lake Victoria extending east to the coast. The bi-modal regime is caused by the seasonal migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone.
Wildlife and conservation
Approximately 38 percent of Tanzania's land area is set aside in protected areas for conservation. Tanzania has 16 national parks, plus a variety of game and forest reserves, including the Ngorongoro Conservation Area. In western Tanzania, Gombe Stream National Park is the site of Jane Goodall's ongoing study of chimpanzee behaviour, which started in 1960.
Tanzania is highly biodiverse and contains a wide variety of animal habitats. On Tanzania's Serengeti plain, white-bearded wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus mearnsi) and other bovids participate in a large-scale annual migration. Tanzania is also home to about 130 amphibian and over 275 reptile species, many of them strictly endemic and included in the International Union for Conservation of Nature's Red Lists of different countries. Tanzania has developed a Biodiversity Action Plan to address species conservation.
The population distribution in Tanzania is extremely uneven. Most people live on the northern border or the eastern coast, with much of the remainder of the country being sparsely populated.:page 1252 Density varies from 12 per square kilometre (31/sq mi) in the Katavi Region to 3,133 per square kilometre (8,110/sq mi) in the Dar es Salaam Region.:page 6
Approximately 70 percent of the population is rural, although this percentage has been declining since at least 1967. Dar es Salaam (population 4,364,541) is the largest city and commercial capital. Dodoma (population 410,956), located in the centre of Tanzania, is the capital of the country and hosts the National Assembly. Other large cities include Mwanza (population 706,543), Arusha (population 416,442), Mbeya (population 385,279), and Morogoro (population 315,866).
The population consists of about 125 ethnic groups. The Sukuma, Nyamwezi, Chagga, and Haya peoples have more than 1 million members each.:page 4 Around 99 percent of Tanzanians are of African descent, with small numbers of Arab, European, and Asian descent. The majority of Tanzanians, including the Sukuma and the Nyamwezi, are Bantu. The Nilotic peoples include the nomadic Maasai and Luo, both of which are found in greater numbers in neighbouring Kenya.
According to 2010 Tanzanian government statistics, the total fertility rate in Tanzania was 5.4 children born per woman, with 3.7 in urban mainland areas, 6.1 in rural mainland areas, and 5.1 in Zanzibar.:page 55 For all women aged 45-49, 37.3 percent had given birth to eight or more children, and for currently married women in that age group, 45.0 percent had given birth to that many children.:page 61
Based on data published in 2013, approximately 93 percent of Tanzanians believe that religion is "very important" in their lives.:page 43
Recent surveys have indicated that Tanzania is a predominantly Christian country, with a large Muslim minority. A 2010 Pew survey found 61.4 percent of respondents to be Christian, 35.2 percent to be Muslim, 1.8 percent to follow traditional African religions, 1.4 percent to be unaffiliated, and 0.1 percent to be Hindu. A 2008-09 Pew survey found that 51 percent of Tanzanian Christians described themselves as Catholic, and 44 percent described themselves as Protestant.:page 22 Among Protestants, Lutherans (13 percent of Tanzanian Christians), Pentecostals (10 percent), Anglicans (10 percent), and adherents of African initiated churches (5 percent) dominate.:page 23 The Pew survey found about 41 percent of Tanzania's Muslim population to be Sunni, 20 percent to be Shia, 15 percent to be Ahmadiyya, 20 percent to be "just a Muslim", and 1 percent to be something else.:page 21 Muslims are generally concentrated in coastal areas and in Zanzibar, where about 98 percent of the population is Muslim. There are also active communities of other religious groups, primarily on the mainland, such as Buddhists, Hindus, Sikhs, and Bahá'ís.
Over 100 different languages are spoken in Tanzania, making it the most linguistically diverse country in East Africa. Among the languages spoken in Tanzania are all four of Africa's language families: Bantu, Cushitic, Nilotic, and Khoisan. Swahili and English are Tanzania's official languages.
Swahili is used in parliamentary debate, in the lower courts, and as a medium of instruction in primary school; English is used in foreign trade, in diplomacy, in higher courts, and as a medium of instruction in secondary and higher education. In connection with his Ujamaa social policies, President Nyerere encouraged the use of Swahili as a means of unifying the country's many ethnic groups. About 10 percent of Tanzanians speak Swahili as a first language, and up to 90 percent speak it as a second language. Most Tanzanians thus speak both Swahili and a local language; many educated Tanzanians are trilingual, also speaking English. The widespread use and promotion of Swahili is contributing to the decline of smaller languages in the country. Young children increasingly speak Swahili as a first language, particularly in urban areas.
The Sandawe people speak a language that may be related to the Khoe languages of Botswana and Namibia, while the language of the Hadzabe people, although it has similar click consonants, is arguably a language isolate. The language of the Iraqw people is Cushitic.
Based on 2012 data, the literacy rate in Tanzania for persons aged 15 and over is estimated to be 67.8 percent. Education is compulsory until children reach age 15. In 2010, 74.1 percent of children age 5 to 14 years were attending school. The primary school completion rate was 80.8 percent in 2012.
As of 2012, life expectancy at birth was 61 years.
The under-five mortality rate in 2012 was 54 per 1,000 live births. The maternal mortality rate in 2013 was estimated at 410 per 100,000 live births. Prematurity and malaria were tied in 2010 as the leading cause of death in children under 5 years old. The other leading causes of death for these children were, in decreasing order, malaria, diarrhoea, HIV, and measles.
Malaria in Tanzania causes death and disease and has a "huge economic impact".:page 13 There were approximately 11.5 million cases of clinical malaria in 2008.:page 12 In 2007-08, malaria prevalence among children aged 6 months to 5 years was highest in the Kagera Region (41.1 percent) on the western shore of Lake Victoria and lowest in the Arusha Region (0.1 percent).:page 12
According to the Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey 2010, 15 percent of Tanzanian women have undergone female genital mutilation (FGM):page 295 and 72 percent of Tanzanian men have been circumcised.:page 230 FGM is most common in the Manyara, Dodoma, Arusha, and Singida regions and nonexistent in Zanzibar.:page 296 The prevalence of male circumcision was above 90 percent in the eastern (Dar es Salaam, Pwani, and Morogoro regions), northern (Kilimanjaro, Tanga, Arusha, and Manyara regions), and central zones (Dodoma and Singida regions) and below 50 percent only in the southern highlands zone (Mbeya, Iringa, and Rukwa regions).:pages 6, 230
2012 data showed that 53 percent of the population used improved drinking water sources (defined as a source that "by nature of its construction and design, is likely to protect the source from outside contamination, in particular from faecal matter") and 12 percent used improved sanitation facilities (defined as facilities that "likely hygienically separates human excreta from human contact" but not including facilities shared with other households or open to public use).
The World Health Organization estimated in 2012 that the prevalence of HIV was 3.1 percent, although the Tanzania HIV/AIDS and Malaria Indicator Survey 2011-12 found that 5.1 of those tested in the 15 to 49 age group were HIV-positive. Anti-retroviral treatment coverage for people living with HIV was 37 percent in 2013, compared to 19 percent in 2011. According to a 2013 report published by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS that compares 2012 with 2001 data, AIDS deaths have decreased 33 percent, new HIV infections have decreased 36 percent, and new HIV infections among children have decreased 67 percent.
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The music of Tanzania includes traditional African music, string-based taarab, and a distinctive hip hop known as bongo flava. Famous taarab singers include Abbasi Mzee, Culture Musical Club, Shakila of Black Star Musical Group. Internationally known traditional artists include Bi Kidude, Hukwe Zawose, and Tatu Nane. Tanzania also has its own distinct African rumba music, termed muziki wa dansi ("dance music"); important artists include Simba Wanyika, Remmy Ongala, and Orchestra Makassy.
Tanzania's literary culture is primarily oral.:page 68 Major oral literary forms include folktales, poems, riddles, proverbs, and songs.:page 69 The greatest part of Tanzania's recorded oral literature is in Swahili, even though each of the country's languages has its own oral tradition.:pages 68–9 The country's oral literature has been declining because of the breakdown of the multigenerational social structure, thus making transmission of oral literature more difficult, and because increasing modernization has been accompanied by the devaluation of oral literature.:page 69
Tanzania's written literary tradition is relatively undeveloped. Tanzania does not have a lifelong reading culture, and books are often expensive and hard to come by.:page 75:page 16 Most Tanzanian literature is in Swahili or English.:page 75 Major figures in Tanzanian written literature include Shaaban Robert (considered the father of Swahili literature), Muhammed Saley Farsy, Faraji Katalambulla, Adam Shafi Adam, Muhammed Said Abdalla, Said Ahmed Mohammed Khamis, Mohamed Suleiman Mohamed, Euphrase Kezilahabi, Gabriel Ruhumbika, Ebrahim Hussein, May Materru Balisidya, Abdulrazak Gurnah, and Penina O. Mlama.:pages 76–8
Painting and sculpture
Historically, there have been only limited opportunities for formal art training in Tanzania, and many aspiring Tanzanian artists have left the country to pursue their vocation.:papge 17 One of the most famous African artists – George Lilanga - was born in Tanzania.
Two Tanzanian art styles have achieved international recognition.:papge 17 The Tingatinga school of painting, founded by Edward Said Tingatinga, consists of brightly colored enamel paintings on canvas, generally depicting people, animals, or daily life.:page 113:papge 17 After Tingatinga's death in 1972, other artists adopted and developed his style, with the genre now being the most important tourist-oriented style in East Africa.:page 113:papge 17 Makonde is both a tribe in Tanzania and Mozambique and a sculptural style. It is known for the high Ujamaas (Trees of Life) made of the hard and dark ebony tree.
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One of Tanzania's, and other parts of eastern Africa's, most common cultural dishes is Ugali. It is usually composed of corn and is similar in consistency to a stiff paste or porridge, giving it its second name of corn meal porridge. Mixtures of cassava and millet flours are locally used for ugali. Rice and cooked green bananas are also important staples. Beef, goat meat, beans, yoghurt, and a wide range of fish and green leafy vegetables all add nutrients to the dishes.
Football is very popular throughout the country. The most popular professional football clubs in Dar es Salaam are the Young Africans F.C. and Simba S.C. The Tanzania Football Federation is the governing body for football in the country.
Tanzania competes in the Olympic Games, the Commonwealth Games, the All-Africa Games, the Africa Cup of Nations, the CAF Champions League, the African Women's Championship in football, the CAF Confederation Cup, and the African Championships in Athletics.
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