Tapiche Reserve

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Coordinates: 5°38′03″S 73°59′00″W / 5.63416°S 73.98344°W / -5.63416; -73.98344

Sphaerodactylidae
Lagarto
Tamarin
Bufonidae
Village at the Reserve
Orange Blossom
Tropidurus Plica
Hypsiboas Punctatus
Guest Kitchen
Lowland Amazon Landscape
Rhinella Marina
Bothriopsis Bilineata
Lowland Forest
Flora in Bloom
Amazon Centipede
Rio Tapiche
Quebrada chambiria
Amazon Guides
Jacamar Cara Azul
Alluvial Landscape
Hylidae
Interior Stream
Primary Growth Forest
Tapir Footprint
Panther Scratches

The Tapiche Reserve is a nature reserve located in Tapiche District, Requena Province, Loreto Region in Peru. The 1,540 hectare Reserve, accessible only by waterway, is located 340 km up river from Iquitos on the Tapiche River. The reserve comprises several types of lowland Amazonian forests, including igapo, varzea, and terra firme. The Reserve represents one of the few areas in the Amazon basin where these forest types can be found in close proximity. The reserve spans both sides of the Tapiche River east of the Ucayali River; and is home to different endangered species such as the Jaguar (Panthera onca), Bald Uakari (Cacajao calvus), Giant Armadillo (Priodontes maximus), the Brazilian Tapir (Tapirus terrestris), the Amazonian Manatee (Trichechus inunguis), Harpy Eagle (Harpia harpyja), Cedar (Cedrela odorata), Mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) and others. Inside the Reserve, there are bodies of water and swamps including lakes, canals, oxbows, aguajales, and restingas. It has annual temperatures ranging from 25°C (77°F) to 33°C (91°F) and an annual rain fall of about 3 meters, permitting an immense variety of species to thrive in the area. A land survey and rapid species inventory of Tapiche Ohara’s Reserve was performed in 2011. The species inventory is reproduced below in table format. The Reserve is designated by the Peruvian government as a Private Conservation Area (PCA).

Location[edit]

The reserve can be reached from ports in Iquitos or Nauta, via Requena, which is the last public port where gasoline and supplies can be purchased. Travel by water from Iquitos to Requena includes navigating up the Amazon and Ucayali Rivers. With a 25 hp motor boat, the trip takes 6 hours. With a slower, larger vessel (cargo), this trip takes 16 hours. From Nauta to Requena by water, one takes the Marañón River briefly to the Amazon River and then the Ucayali River. This trip takes 4 hours in a 25 hp motor boat. From Requena to Tapiche Ohara’s Reserve, one must travel by private or rental boat up the Tapiche River. In a 25 hp motor boat, the trip takes 5 hours. An alternative to boat travel is to take a flight from Iquitos to the Reserve in a seaplane. There is a private plane in Iquitos available for rental.

Hydrography[edit]

The Reserve is located in the basin of the Tapiche River, the main tributary of the Ucayali River. Coming down from the eastern sub-Andean foothills of Sierra de Moa, the Tapiche River originates near the Peruvian border with Brazil. The Blanco and Umaita Rivers empty into the Tapiche River in the basin area. Other tributaries are the Contea, Capanahua, and Lamayacu Rivers. The Tapiche River is regarded as a "black water" river because of its dark sepia waters. Possessing little material in suspension, its color comes from the decomposition of organic material forming humic and fulvic acids. These waters are acidic, with pH around 4.0 and a temperature from 24°C (75°F) to 32.0°C (90°F). The Tapiche River has a strictly sub-Andean and origin, which eliminates a direct relationship with rainfall in the mountains. Within the Reserve there are small bodies of water (oxbows, channels, meanders, and lakes) that communicate with each other and with the Tapiche River. Channels that connect curved river-bends create navigable shortcuts during flooded season. The largest internal body of water is called Quebrada Chambiria. Quebrada Chambiria has little flow which creates habitat for a host of species.

Weather[edit]

The climate is warm and wet with mean annual temperatures between 25°C (77°F) and 33°C (91°F) and relative humidity of 78% to 96%. Between October and May (rainy season) there is tropical rainfall. The average annual precipitation is 3 meters. During the months of June or July a particular weather phenomenon called a “cold spell” occurs in the region. The cold spell is related to penetration of air masses coming from the southern polar latitudes and entering the South American tropics shortly after reaching Southeast Brazil. This cold spell lasts about 2–4 days, where temperatures can reach 13°C (55°F).

Terrain[edit]

The Tapiche River basin in the area of the reserve exhibits a landscape containing alluvial plains and associated floodplains. The floodplains of the alluvial landscape encompass swamps or aguajales; while the non-flooded plains appear as undulating terraces. There are hilly landscapes within the Reserve which appear as gently sloping lowland terrain. Swamps have developed on flat land and in depressions formed by fibric histosol soils with pH values varying between 3.5 and 5. In these swamps, there are four representative botanical families, including: Moraceae, Fabaceae, Annonaceae and Arecaceae. Also found are Catahua (Hura crepitans), Strangler Fig (Ficus sp.), Machimango (Eschweilera sp.), and Caupuri (Virola pavonis), Aguaje (Mauritia flexuosa), Shapaja (Attalea phalerata), Cashapona (Socratea exorrhiza), Renaco (Ficus trigona), Espintana (Oxandra espintana) and Huimba (Pachira aquatica).

Aquatic ecosystems[edit]

The Reserve houses ecosystems formed by conditions that create microhabitats. The ecosystems present on the Reserve encompass cochas and tahuampas. Primary plant species found in these aquatic ecosystems are species belonging to the family Poaceae; especially the Gramalote blanco (Paspalum fasciculatum) and others of the genus Echinochloa and Paspalum. Also present is Caña brava (Gynerium sagittatum), Water hyacinth (putu putu) (Eichhornia crassipes), and Huama (Pistia stratiotes).

Table of flora (2011)[edit]

Scientific Name Family Peruvian Name Use
Abuta grandifolia Menispermaceae Abuta medicine (roots, bark, leaves)
Alchornea castaneifolia Euphorbiaceae Ipururo medicine (roots, bark, leaves)
Aniba williamsii Lauraceae Moena amarilla wood
Annona muricata Annonaceae Guanábana food (fruit), medicine (bark, roots, leaves)
Apeiba membranácea Tiliaceae Peine de mono animal food, fuel, seed oil
Aspidosperma rigidum Apocynaceae Remocaspi de bajial wood, tools
Astrocaryum chambira Arecaceae Chambira food, medicine, crafts
Astrocaryum jauari Arecaceae Huiririma, Chambirilla wood, food, crafts
Astrocaryum javarense Arecaceae Huicungo animal food, crafts
Attalea butyracea Arecaceae Shebon wood, thatching, animal food, crafts
Attalea phalerata Arecaceae Shapaja thatching, food, crafts
Bactris concinna Arecaceae Ñejilla, Chontilla wood, food, crafts
Bactris gasipaes Arecaceae Mansoa wood, food, medicine (root), dyes
Bactris maraja Arecacea Ñeja, Ñejilla, Chontilla crafts
Bactris simplisifrons Arecaceae Ñejilla, Chontilla tools
Banisteriopsis caapi Malpighiceae Ayahuasca medicine
Bixa orellana Bixaceae Achiote medicine, animal food, dyes
Brosimum acutifolium Moraceae Mururé medicine (resin, bark)
Brosimum rubescens Moraceae Palisangre wood, animal food, medicine (bark), crafts
Brunfelsia grandiflora Solanaceae Chiric Sanango medicine (root, bark), ornamentation
Calathea lutea Maranthaceae Bijao cooking
Calophyllum brasiliense Clusiaceae Lagarto caspi wood, animal food, medicine (oil), dyes
Calycophyllum spruceanum Rubiaceae Capirona wood, fuel, medicine
Campomanesia lineatifolia Myrtaceae Palillo food, medicine (bark), fuel
Campsiandra angustifolia Fabaceae Huacapurana medicine (bark)
Caryocar glabrum Caryocaraceae Almendro wood, food
Cecropia membranaceae Cecropiaceae Cetico animal food, tools
Cedrela odorata Meliaceae Cedro wood, medicine (bark), ornamentation
Cedrelinga cateniformis Fabaceae Tornillo wood
Ceiba pentandra Malvaceae White lupuna wood
Chelyocarpus ulei Arecaceae Sacha aguajillo animal food, crafts, ornamentation
Chrysophyllum argenteum Sapotaceae Balata food, tools
Chrysophyllum bombycinum Sapotaceae Balatillo animal food
Clusia rosea Clusiaceae Renaquilla wood, medicine (resin), medicine (bark)
Copaifera paupera Fabaceae Copaiba wood, food, medicine (oil), fuel, soaps
Couepia subcordata Chrysobalanaceae Parinari wood, food, crafts, ornamentation
Couroupita guianensis Lecythidaceae Ayahuma medicine
Coutarea hexandra Rubiaceae Guacamayo caspi fuel, tools
Crescentia cujete Bignoniaceae Huingo medicine, crafts
Dalechampia dioscoreifolia Euphorbiaceae Sapo huasca medicine (resin)
Diplotropis purpurea Fabaceae Chontaquiro wood, tools
Dipteryx micrantha Fabaceae Charapilla wood, animal food
Doliocarpus dentatus Dilleniaceae Paujil chaqui animal food, medicine
Dracontium loretense Araceae Jergón Sacha medicine
Duguetia spixiana Annonaceae Tortuga Caspi wood, animal food
Duroia hirsuta Rubiaceae Huitillo animal food, dyes
Eichhornia crassipes Pontederiaceae Putu putu ornamentation
Erythrina fusca Fabaceae Amasisa medicine (bark), ornamentation
Eschweilera juruensis Lecythidaceae Machimango wood, animal food, crafts
Eugenia stipitata Myrtaceae Arazà food
Euterpe precatoria Arecaceae Huasaí wood, food, medicine (root), crafts
Ficus americana Moraceae Renaco animal food
Ficus insipida Moraceae Ojé wood, medicine (resin)
Ficus schultesii Moraceae Ojé renaco wood
Garcinia macrophylla Clusiaceae Charichuelo wood, food, ornamentation
Genipa americana Rubiaceae Huito food, medicine, crafts
Guatteria elata Annonaceae Carahuasca wood, ornamentation
Guazuma crinita Sterculiaceae Bolaina blanca wood
Guazuma ulmifolia Sterculiaceae Bolaina wood
Gustavia longifolia Lecythidaceae Chopé food, fuel
Gynerium sagittatum Poaceae Caña Brava medicine, tools, crafts
Haploclathra cordata Calophyllaceae Boa caspi wood
Heliconia stricta Heliconiaceae Heliconia, situlli ornamentation
Heliconia acuminata Heliconiaceae Heliconia, situlli ornamentation
Hevea brasiliensis Euphorbiaceae Shiringa wood
Hura crepitans Euphorbiaceae Catahua wood, medicine (resin), tools
Himatanthus sucuuba Apocynaceae Bellaco caspi wood, medicine (resin), fuel
Hymenaea oblongifolia Fabaceae Azúcar huayo wood, animal food, medicine (bark)
Inga edulis Fabaceae Guaba food, fuel
Inga sp. Fabaceae Shimbillo food
Iriartea deltoidea Arecacea Huacrapona wood, food, crafts
Iryanthera sp. Myristicaceae Cumala colorada wood
Iryanthera tricornis Myristicaceae Perro caspi wood
Jacaranda copaia Bignoniaceae Huamanzamana wood, medicine (bark)
Laportea aestuans Urticaceae Ishanga colorada medicine
Lecythis pisonis Lecythidaceae Olla de mono wood, animal food
Lonchocarpus utilis Fabaceae Barbasco poison
Maclura tinctoria Moraceae Incira wood, animal food, medicine (resin), dyes
Macoubea guianensis Apocynaceae Coto huayo animal food, medicine
Macrolobium acaciifolium Fabaceae Aguano pashaco wood
Mangifera indica Anacardiaceae Mangua dulce animal food
Manilkara bidendata Sapotaceae Quinilla colorada wood, crafts
Mansoa alliacea Bignoniaceae Ajo sacha hembra medicine (roots, leaves)
Mansoa hymennea Bignoniaceae Ajo sacha macho medicine
Maquira coriacea Moraceae Capinurí wood, animal food, medicine (resin), crafts
Matisia cordata Malvaceae Sapote food
Mauritia flexuosa Arecaceae Aguaje wood, fruit, crafts
Mauritiella aculeata Arecaceae Aguajillo food, tools, ornamentation
Maximiliana inaripa Arecaceae Shapajilla animal food
Maytenus macrocarpa Celastraceae Chuchuhuasi medicine (bark), fuel
Mezilaurus itauba Lauraceae Itauba wood
Micropholis sp. Sapotaceae Quinilla wood
Minquartia guianensis Olacaceae Huacapú wood, animal food, medicine (bark), crafts
Myrciaria dubia Myrtaceae Camu camu food
Ochroma pyramidale Bombacaceae Topa wood, medicine, ornamentation
Ocotea aciphylla Lauraceae Moena canela wood, medicine (oil)
Ocotea guianensis Lauraceae Moena colorada wood
Ocotea undulate Lauraceae Isma moena wood
Oenocarpus mapora Arecaceae Sinamillo thatching, food, crafts
Ormosia coccinea Fabaceae Huayruro wood, medicine, crafts
Oxandra espintana Annonaceae Espintana wood
Pachira aquatica Bombacaceae Huimba wood, food, ornamentation
Pachira insignis Bombacaceae Sacha pandisho ornamentation
Paspalum fasciculatum Poaceae Gramalote blanco animal food
Parkia multijuga Fabaceae Pashaco curtidor wood
Philodendron lechlerianum Araceae Itininga medicine (root)
Phthirusa adunca Loranthaceae Suelda con suelda medicine
Phyllanthus urinaria Euphorbiaceae Chanca piedra medicine
Physalis angulata Solanaceae Bolsa Mullaca medicine
Phytelephas macrocarpa Arecaceae Yarina thatching, food, medicine (bark), crafts
Piper aduncum Piperaceae Cordoncillo medicine
Piper peltatum Píperaceae Santa maria medicine
Poraqueiba serícea Icacinaceae Umarí Witoto wood, food, fuel, tools
Pourouma cecropiifolia Moraceae Uvilla wood, food, animal food, ornamentation
Pouteria caimito Sapotaceae Caimito wood, food, medicine, tools
Pouteria macrocarpa Sapotaceae Lúcuma wood, food, fuel
Pouteria neglecta Sapotaceae Caimitillo wood, fuel
Pouteria reticulata Sapotaceae Quinilla blanca wood, animal food
Pseudolmedia laevis Moraceae Chimicua wood
Pistia stratiotes Araceae Huama ornamentation, habitat
Salvia palaefolia Lamiaceae Oreja de perro animal food, medicine
Smilax aspera Smilacaceae Zarzaparrilla medicine (root)
Socratea exorrhiza Arecaceae Cashapona wood, medicine (bark), crafts
Solanum sessiliflorum Solanaceae Cocona food, medicine
Spondias mombin Anacardiaceae Ubos food, medicine (bark)
Sterculia apetala Sterculiaceae Huarmi caspi wood, animal food, medicine (root), tools
Swartzia polyphylla Fabaceae Cumaceba medicine (bark)
Swietenia macrophylla Meliaceae Caoba aguano wood, medicine (bark)
Syzygium malaccense Myrtaceae Pomarosa animal food, fuel
Tabernaemontana sananho Apocynaceae Sanango medicine (root)
Tachigali tessmannii Fabaceae Tangarana medicine (bark)
Terminalia oblonga Combretaceae Yacushapana wood
Theobroma bicolor Sterculiaceae Macambo food, fuel, crafts
Theobroma cacao Sterculiaceae Cacao food
Theobroma grandiflora Sterculiaceae Copoazú food
Theobroma subincanum Sterculiaceae Cacahuillo wood, animal food, fuel
Trema micrantha Ulmaceae Atadijo medicine
Tynanthus panurensis Bignoniaceae Clavo huasca medicine (bark)
Uncaria tomentosa Rubiaceae Uña de gato medicine (bark)
Unonopsis floribunda Annonaceae Icoja wood, medicine (bark)
Vanilla planifolia Orchidaceae Vainilla food, ornamentation
Vatairea guianensis Fabaceae Marupá del bajo, Mari mari wood, fuel
Virola sebifera Myristicaceae Cumala blanca wood, animal food, candels (oil)
Wettinia augusta Arecaceae Sacha pona, ponilla thatching, medicine, tools

Table of Fauna (2011)[edit]

Scientific Name Family Names
Accipiter poliogaster Accipitridae Grey-bellied goshawk
Alouatta seniculus Cebidae Red howler monkey, Coto
Amazona farinosa Psittacidae Mealy parrot
Aotus nancymae Cebidae Musmuqui
Ara ararauna Psittacidae Guacamayo azul y amarillo, Blue and yellow macaw
Ara chloroptera Psittacidae Guacamayo rojo, Red macaw
Aratinga leucophthalma Psittacidae White-eyed parakeet
Aratinga weddellii Psittacidae Dusky-headed Parakeet
Ateles belzebuth Cebidae Maquisapa ceniza, White-bellied spider monkey
Ateles paniscus Cebidae Black spider monkey, Maquisapa negro
Brotogeris sanctithomae Psittacidae Tui parakeet
Brotogeris versicolurus Psittacidae Pihuicho
Cacajao calvus Callitrichidae Bald-headed uakari, Huapo Colorado, Red uakari
Caiman crocodilus Alligatoridae Lagarto blanco, Caiman
Callicebus torquatus Pitheciidae Tocon negro, Collared titi
Cebus albifrons Cebidae Machin blanco, White-fronted capuchin monkey
Cebus apella Cebidae Machin negro
Choloepus didactylus Megalonychidae Pelejo de altura, Two-toed sloth
Chondrohierax uncinatus Accipitridae Gavilan picudo, Hook-billed kite
Coendou prehensilis Erethizontidae Brazilian porcupine
Cuniculus paca Cuniculidae Paca
Daptrius ater Falconidae Black caracara
Dasyprocta fuliginosa Dasyproctidae Agouti
Dasypus kappleri Dasypodidae Carachupa, Armadillo
Eira barbara Mustelidae Tayra
Elanoides forficatus Accipitridae Gavilan tijereta, Swallow-tailed kite
Harpagus bidentatus Accipitridae Doubel-toothed kite
Harpia harpyja Accipitridae Harpy eagle, Aguila harpia
Homo sapiens Hominidae Human
Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris Hydrochaeridae Capybara, Ronosco
Ibycter americanus Falconidae Red-throated caracara
Ictinia plumbea Accipitridae Plumbeous kite
Inia geoffrensis Delphinidae Bufeo Colorado, Pink dolphin, Amazon River Dolphin
Lagothrix lagotricha Cebidae Yellow-tailed wooly monkey, Choro
Leptodon cayanensis Accipitridae Gray-headed kite
Lutra longicaudis Mustelidae Otter
Mazama americana Cervidae Venado Colorado, Red brocket deer
Micrastur buckleyi Falconidae Buckley forest-falcon
Micrastur gilvicollis Falconidae Lined forest-falcon
Micrastur mirandollei Falconidae Slaty-backed forest-falcon
Micrastur semitorquatus Falconidae Collared forest-falcon
Milvago chimachima Falconidae Shihuango, Yellow-headed caracara
Morphnus guianensis Accipitridae Crested eagle
Myoprocta pratti Dasyproctidae Punchana
Nasua Nasua Procyonidae Achuni
Orthopsittaca manilata Psittacidae Red-bellied macaw
Paleosuchus trigonatus Alligatoridae Dwarf lizard
Paleosuchus trigonatus Alligatoridae Black lizard
Panthera onca Felidae Otorongo, Jaguar
Phyllomedusa tomopterna Hylidae Tiger-leg monkey-frog, Rana lemur naranja
Pionites leucogaster Psittacidae White-bellied parrot
Pionopsitta barrabandi Psittacidae Orange-cheeked parrot
Pionus menstruus Psittacidae Loro cabeza azul, Blue-headed parrot
Pipa pipa Pipidae Charapa sapo, Rana acuatica
Pithecia monachus Cebidae Huapo negro, Black uakari
Podocnemis unifilis Podocnemididae Taricaya, Yellow-spotted river turtle
Potos flavus Procyonidae Chozna, Kinkajou
Priodontes maximus Dasypodidae Giant armadillo, Yangunturo, Carachupa mama
Proechimys sp. Echimyidae Spiny rat
Rostrhamus hamatus Accipitridae Slender-billed kite
Rostrhamus sociabilis Accipitridae Gavilan churero, Snail kite
Saguinus fuscicollis Callitrichidae Pichio pardo, Common pichio, Saddle-back tamarin
Saimiri sciureus Cebidae Squirrel monkey
Sotalia fluviatilis Delphinidae Bufeo negro, Gray dolphin
Speothos venaticus Canidae Sacha dog, Bush dog
Spizaetus tyrannus Accipitridae Black hawk-eagle
Tamandua tetradactyla Myrmecophagidae Shihui, Lesser anteater
Tapirus terrestris Tapiridae Tapir, Sachavaca
Tayassu pecari Tayassuidae Huangana
Tayassu tajacu Tayassuidae Sajino
Trichechus inunguis Trichechidae Vaca marina, Manatee

References[edit]

AMAZONÍA Guia Ilustrada de Flora y Fauna, Proyecto Araucaria XXI Nauta. November 2009 (ISBN 978-612-45650-0-7) http://www.aeci.org.pe/publicaciones/store/pub.19.pdf

Cronquist, A. (1981) An Integrated System of classification of flowering plants. Columbia University Press, New York.

Kembo, C. (1995) Diagnosis of plant resources in the Peruvian Amazon - IIAP October 1995, Technical Paper No 16 – Iquitos, Peru.

Peruvian Law N º 26834 - Law of Natural Protected Areas and Rules - approved by Supreme Decree 038-2001-AG, established the National Institute of Natural Resources (INRENA). INRENA is the governing body and national authority of the National System of Protected Natural Areas by the State (SINANPE).

Departmental Resolution No. 059-2004-INRENA approving the Supplementary Provisions to the Regulations of the Law of Natural Protected Areas on Private Conservation Areas.

Peruvian Supreme Decree N º 016 - 2009 - MINAM. Plan for Natural Protected Areas.

External links[edit]