Taraxacum officinale

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Taraxacum officinale
Taraxacum officinale - Köhler–s Medizinal-Pflanzen-135.jpg
Common Dandelion[1]
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae
Tribe: Cichorieae
Genus: Taraxacum
Species: T. officinale
Binomial name
Taraxacum officinale
F.H. Wigg
Synonyms[2][3]
  • Crepis taraxacum (L.) Stokes
  • Leontodon taraxacum L.
  • Leontodon vulgare Lam.
  • Taraxacum campylodes G.E.Haglund
  • Taraxacum dens-leonis Desf.
  • Taraxacum mexicanum DC.
  • Taraxacum retroflexum Lindl.
  • Taraxacum subspathulatum A.J. Richards
  • Taraxacum sylvanicum R. Doll
  • Taraxacum taraxacum (L.) H. Karst.
  • Taraxacum tenejapense A.J. Richards
  • Taraxacum vulgare Schrank

Taraxacum officinale, the common dandelion (often simply called "dandelion"), is a flowering herbaceous perennial plant of the family Asteraceae (Compositae). It can be found growing in temperate regions of the world, in lawns, on roadsides, on disturbed banks and shores of water ways, and other areas with moist soils. T. officinale is considered a weed, especially in lawns and along roadsides, but it is sometimes used as a medical herb and in food preparation. Common dandelion is well known for its yellow flower heads that turn into round balls of silver tufted fruits that disperse in the wind called "blowballs"[4] or "clocks" (in both British and American English).[5][6][7][8]

Description[edit]

Head in full bloom

Taraxacum officinale grows from generally unbranched taproots and produces one to more than ten stems that are typically 5 to 40 cm tall, but sometimes up to 70 cm tall. The stems can be tinted purplish, they are upright or lax, and produce flower heads that are held as tall or taller than the foliage. The foliage may be upright-growing or horizontally spreading; the leaves have petioles that are either unwinged or narrowly winged. The stems can be glabrous or sparsely covered with short hairs. Plants have milky latex and the leaves are all basal; each flowering stem lacks bracts and has one single flower head. The yellow flower heads lack receptacle bracts and all the flowers, which are called florets, are ligulate and bisexual. The fruits are mostly produced by apomixis.[9]

The leaves are 5 to 45 cm long and 1 to 10 cm wide, and are oblanceolate, oblong, or obovate in shape, with the bases gradually narrowing to the petiole. The leaf margins are typically shallowly lobed to deeply lobed and often lacerate or toothed with sharp or dull teeth.[9]

The calyculi (the cuplike bracts that hold the florets) are composed of 12 to 18 segments: each segment is reflexed and sometimes glaucous. The lanceolate shaped bractlets are in two series, with the apices acuminate in shape. The 14- to 25-mm wide involucres are green to dark green or brownish-green, with the tips dark gray or purplish. The florets number 40 to over 100 per head, having corollas that are yellow or orange-yellow in color.

The fruits, called cypselae, range in color from olive-green or olive-brown to straw-colored to grayish, they are oblanceoloid in shape and 2 to 3 mm long with slender beaks. The fruits have 4 to 12 ribs that have sharp edges. The silky pappi, which form the parachutes, are white to silver-white in color and around 6 mm wide. Plants typically have 24 or 40 pairs of chromosomes but some plants have 16 or 32 chromosomes.[10]

Taxonomy[edit]

Ripe fruits

The taxonomy of the genus Taraxacum is complicated by apomictic and polyploid lineages,[11][12] and the taxonomy and nomenclatural situation of Taraxacum officinale is not yet fully resolved,[10] The taxonomy of this species has in the past been complicated by the recognition of numerous species,[13] subspecies and microspecies. E.g. Rothmaler's flora of Germany recognizes roughly 70 microspecies.[14] The plants introduced to North America are triploids that reproduce by obligate gametophytic apomixis[10][15] Some authorities recognize three subspecies of Taraxacum officinale including:[16][17]

  • Taraxacum officinale ssp. ceratophorum (Ledeb.) Schinz ex Thellung which is commonly called common dandelion, fleshy dandelion, horned dandelion or rough dandelion. It is native to Canada and the western US.[18] Some sources list it as a species, Taraxacum ceratophorum.[19][20]
  • Taraxacum officinale ssp. officinale, which is commonly called common dandelion or wandering dandelion.
  • Taraxacum officinale ssp. vulgare (Lam.) Schinz & R. Keller, which is commonly called common dandelion.

Two of them have been introduced and established in Alaska and the third (ssp. ceratophorum ) is native there.[21]

Taraxacum officinale has many English common names (of which some are no longer in use), including blowball, lion's-tooth, cankerwort, milk-witch, yellow-gowan, Irish daisy, monks-head, priest's-crown and puff-ball;[22] other common names include, faceclock, pee-a-bed, wet-a-bed,[23] swine's snout, [24] white endive, and wild endive.[25]

Carl Linnaeus named the species Leontodon Taraxacum in 1753. The genus name Taraxacum, might be from the Arabic word "Tharakhchakon",[9] or from the Greek word "Tarraxos".[26] The common name "dandelion," comes from the French phrase "dent de lion" which means "lion's tooth", in reference to the jagged shaped foliage.[26]

Ecology[edit]

A field of dandelions in Mazovia, Poland

Taraxacum officinale is native to Eurasia,[27] and now is naturalized throughout North America, southern Africa, South America, New Zealand, Australia, and India. It occurs in all 50 states of the USA and most Canadian provinces.[21] It is considered a noxious weed in some jurisdictions,[28] and is considered to be a nuisance in residential and recreational lawns in North America.[29] It is also an important weed in agriculture and causes significant economic damage because of its infestation in many crops worldwide.[28]

The dandelion is a common colonizer of disturbed habitats, both from wind blown seeds and seed germination from the seed bank.[30] The seeds remain viable in the seed bank for many years, with one study showing germination after nine years. This species is a somewhat prolific seed producer, with 54 to 172 seeds produced per head, and a single plant can produce more than 5,000 seeds a year. It is estimated that more than 97,000,000 seeds/hectare could be produced yearly by a dense stand of dandelions.[citation needed] When released, the seeds can be spread by the wind up to several hundred meters from their source. The seeds are also a common contaminant in crop and forage seeds. The plants are adaptable to most soils and the seeds are not dependent on cold temperatures before they will germinate but they need to be within the top 2.5 centimeters of soil.[21]

While not in bloom, this species is sometimes confused with others, such as Chondrilla juncea, that have similar basal rosettes of foliage.[citation needed] Another plant, sometimes referred to as Fall Dandelion, is very similar to dandelion, but produces "yellow fields" later.

Uses[edit]

Dandelion greens, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 188 kJ (45 kcal)
9.2 g
Sugars 0.71 g
Dietary fiber 3.5 g
0.7 g
2.7 g
Vitamins
Vitamin A equiv.
(64%)
508 μg
(54%)
5854 μg
13610 μg
Thiamine (B1)
(17%)
0.19 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
(22%)
0.26 mg
Niacin (B3)
(5%)
0.806 mg
(2%)
0.084 mg
Vitamin B6
(19%)
0.251 mg
Folate (B9)
(7%)
27 μg
Choline
(7%)
35.3 mg
Vitamin C
(42%)
35 mg
Vitamin E
(23%)
3.44 mg
Vitamin K
(741%)
778.4 μg
Trace metals
Calcium
(19%)
187 mg
Iron
(24%)
3.1 mg
Magnesium
(10%)
36 mg
Manganese
(16%)
0.342 mg
Phosphorus
(9%)
66 mg
Potassium
(8%)
397 mg
Sodium
(5%)
76 mg
Zinc
(4%)
0.41 mg
Other constituents
Water 85.6 g

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

While the dandelion is considered a weed by many gardeners and lawn owners, the plant has several culinary and medicinal uses. The specific name officinalis refers to its value as a medicinal herb, and is derived from the word opificina, later officina, meaning a workshop or pharmacy.[31] The flowers are used to make dandelion wine,[32] the greens are used in salads, the roots have been used to make a coffee substitute (when baked and ground into powder) and the plant was used by Native Americans as a food and medicine.[33]

Culinary[edit]

A plate of sauteed dandelion greens, with Wehani rice

Dandelions are wildcrafted or grown on a small scale as a leaf vegetable. The leaves (called dandelion greens) can be eaten cooked or raw in various forms, such as in soup or salad. They are probably closest in character to mustard greens. Usually the young leaves and unopened buds are eaten raw in salads, while older leaves are cooked. Raw leaves have a slightly bitter taste. Dandelion salad is often accompanied with hard boiled eggs. The leaves are high in vitamin A, vitamin C and iron, carrying more iron and calcium than spinach.[34]

Dandelion flowers can be used to make dandelion wine, for which there are many recipes.[35] Most of these are more accurately described as "dandelion-flavored wine," as some other sort of fermented juice or extract serves as the main ingredient.[36] It has also been used in a saison ale called Pissenlit (literally "wet the bed" in French) made by Brasserie Fantôme in Belgium. Dandelion and burdock is a soft drink that has long been popular in the United Kingdom.

Another recipe using the plant is dandelion flower jam. In Silesia and also other parts of Poland and world, dandelion flowers are used to make a honey substitute syrup with added lemon (so-called May-honey). This "honey" is believed to have a medicinal value, in particular against liver problems. Ground roasted dandelion root can be used as a non-caffeinated coffee substitute. [37]

Herbal medicine[edit]

Historically, dandelion was prized for a variety of medicinal properties, and it contains a wide number of pharmacologically active compounds.[38] Dandelion is used as a herbal remedy in Europe, North America and China.[38] "Empiric traditional application in humans of dandelion, in particular to treat digestive disorders, is supported by pharmacological investigations. … Some results, e.g. concerning possible diuretic activity, are even contradictory and require a through reinvestigation."[38]

It has been used in herbal medicine to treat infections, bile and liver problems,[38] and as a diuretic.[38] Dandelion root is a registered drug in Canada, sold principally as a diuretic.[citation needed] A hepatoprotective effect in mice of chemicals extracted from dandelion root has been reported.[39] Dandelion is used in herbal medicine as a mild laxative, for increasing appetite, and for improving digestion.[40] The milky latex has been used as a mosquito repellent[41] and as a folk remedy to treat warts.[42]

Other[edit]

Yellow or green dye colours can be obtained from the flowers but little colour can be obtained from the roots of the plant.[43]

T. officinale is food for the caterpillars of several Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths), such as the tortrix moth Celypha rufana. See also List of Lepidoptera that feed on dandelions.

Toxicity[edit]

Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) has been linked to outbreaks of stringhalt in horses.[44]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 1897 illustration from Franz Eugen Köhler, Köhler's Medizinal-Pflanzen
  2. ^ Tropicos
  3. ^ The Plant List
  4. ^ McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms
  5. ^ [1]
  6. ^ [2]
  7. ^ "dandelion clock - Definition from Longman English Dictionary Online". Ldoceonline.com. Retrieved 2010-07-03. 
  8. ^ [3]
  9. ^ a b c Morley, T. I. (1969). "Spring Flora of Minnesota". 1974 reprint with minor corrections (University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis MN): 255. 
  10. ^ a b c "Taraxacum officinale in Flora of North America @". Efloras.org. Retrieved 2011-10-23. 
  11. ^ Wittzell, Hakan (1999). "Chloroplast DNA variation and reticulate evolution in sexual and apomictic sections of dandelions". Molecular Ecology 8 (12): 2023. doi:10.1046/j.1365-294x.1999.00807.x. PMID 10632854. 
  12. ^ Dijk, Peter J. van (2003). "Ecological and evolutionary opportunities of apomixis: insights from Taraxacum and Chondrilla". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 358 (1434): 1113. doi:10.1098/rstb.2003.1302. PMC 1693208. PMID 12831477. 
  13. ^ Thomas Gaskell Tutin (1976). Flora Europaea: Plantaginaceae to Compositae (and Rubiaceae). Cambridge University Press. pp. 332–. ISBN 978-0-521-08717-9. Retrieved 29 October 2010. 
  14. ^ Rothmaler, Werner (1966). Exkursionsflora: Kritischer Ergänzungsband Gefäßpflanzen. p. 347. 
  15. ^ Lyman JC, Ellstrand NC (1984). "Clonal diversity in Taraxacum officinale (Compositae), an apomict". Heredity 53 (1): 1–10. doi:10.1038/hdy.1984.58. 
  16. ^ "ITIS Standard Report Page: Taraxacum officinale". Itis.gov. 2010-05-13. Retrieved 2011-10-23. 
  17. ^ Robert F. Barnes; C. Jerry Nelson; Kenneth J. Moore; Michael Collins (19 January 2007). Forages: The science of grassland agriculture. Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 11–. ISBN 978-0-8138-0232-9. Retrieved 29 October 2010. 
  18. ^ "PLANTS Profile for Taraxacum officinale ssp. ceratophorum (common dandelion) | USDA PLANTS". Plants.usda.gov. Retrieved 2011-10-23. 
  19. ^ "Taraxacum ceratophorum". Calflora. Retrieved 2011-10-23. 
  20. ^ "Taraxacum ceratophorum in Flora of North America @". Efloras.org. Retrieved 2011-10-23. 
  21. ^ a b c "What is AKEPIC? | Alaska Natural Heritage Program". Akweeds.uaa.alaska.edu. 2010-11-15. Retrieved 2011-10-23. 
  22. ^ Britton, N. F.; Brown, Addison (1970). An illustrated flora of the northern United States and Canada: from Newfoundland to the parallel of the southern boundary of Virginia, and from the Atlantic Ocean westward to the 102d meridian. New York: Dover Publications. p. 315. ISBN 0-486-22644-1. 
  23. ^ http://www.nps.gov/akso/NatRes/EPMT/Species_bios/Taraxacum%20officinale.pdf
  24. ^ Loewer, Peter (2001). Solving weed problems. Guilford, Conn.: Lyons Press. p. 210. ISBN 1-58574-274-0. 
  25. ^ Jonas: Mosby's Dictionary of Complementary and Alternative Medicine. (c) 2005, Elsevier.
  26. ^ a b Kowalchik, Claire; Hylton, William H.; Carr, Anna (1987). Rodale's illustrated encyclopedia of herbs. Emmaus, Pa.: Rodale Press. p. 141. ISBN 0-87857-699-1. 
  27. ^ Vít Bojňanský; Agáta Fargašová (2007). Atlas of Seeds and Fruits of Central and East-European Flora: The Carpathian Mountains Region. シュプリンガー・ジャパン株式会社. pp. 751–. ISBN 978-1-4020-5361-0. Retrieved 29 October 2010. 
  28. ^ a b Stewart-Wade, S.M.; S. Newmann, L.L.Collins, G.J. Boland (2002). "The biology of Canadian weeds. 117. Taraxacum officinale G.H. Weber ex Wiggers". Canadian Journal of Plant Science 82: 825–853. doi:10.4141/P01-010. 
  29. ^ Richardson, Jonathan (1985). "In praise of the archenemy". Audubon 87: 37–39. 
  30. ^ "Taraxacum officinale". Fs.fed.us. Retrieved 2011-10-23. 
  31. ^ Stearn, W.T. 1992. Botanical Latin: History, grammar, syntax, terminology and vocabulary, Fourth edition. David and Charles.
  32. ^ "Recipes - Dandelion Wine". Cooks.com. Retrieved 2011-10-23. 
  33. ^ Clarke, Charlotte Bringle (1977). Edible and useful plants of California. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 191. ISBN 0-520-03261-6. 
  34. ^ "Common Dandelion". Wildmanstevebrill.com. Retrieved 2012-07-20. 
  35. ^ "winemaking: Dandelion Wines". Winemaking.jackkeller.net. 2004-05-22. Retrieved 2012-07-20. 
  36. ^ Gibbons, E. Stalking the Wild Asparagus. David McKay, New York. 1962.
  37. ^ Wera Sztabowa, "Krupnioki i moczka, czyli gawędy o śląskiej kuchni", Wydawnictwo Śląsk, Katowice, 1990, ISBN 83-216-0935-X.
  38. ^ a b c d e Katrin Schütz, Reinhold Carle & Andreas Schieber (2006). "Taraxacum—a review on its phytochemical and pharmacological profile". Journal of Ethnopharmacology 107 (3): 313–323. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2006.07.021. PMID 16950583. 
  39. ^ Mahesh, A.; Jeyachandran, R.; Cindrella, L.; Thangadurai, D.; Veerapur, V. P.; Muralidhara Rao, D. (2010). "Hepatocurative potential of sesquiterpene lactones of Taraxacum officinale on carbon tetrachloride induced liver toxicity in mice". Acta Biologica Hungarica 61 (2): 175–190. doi:10.1556/abiol.61.2010.2.6. 
  40. ^ Stuart, Malcolm (1979). The Encyclopedia of Herbs and Herbalism (1st Grosset & Dunlap ed. ed.). New York: Grosset & Dunlap. p. 271. ISBN 0-448-15472-2. 
  41. ^ Plantwatch - Plants[dead link]
  42. ^ "Dandelion - The Natural History Museum - Country Cures". Nhm.ac.uk. Retrieved 2012-07-20. 
  43. ^ A. Dyer (1976) Dyes from natural sources. G. Bell & Sons Ltd., London
  44. ^ John Kohnke. "Australian stringhalt". South East Victoria Equine Network. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]