Tarchonanthus camphoratus

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Tarchonanthus camphoratus
Tarchonanthus camphoratus CamphorTree South African Strandveld 9.JPG
A large, grey Camphor Tree growing in Harold Porter Botanical Garden, South Africa.
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae
Genus: Tarchonanthus
Species: T. camphoratus
Binomial name
Tarchonanthus camphoratus
L.

Tarchonanthus camphoratus (known as camphor bush for its scent, or leleshwa in Kenya), is a shrub or small tree, widespread in Africa south of the Sahel.

Description[edit]

The camphor bush can reach up to 6 meters in height. The twigs and younger stems are white-felted, as are the undersides of the leaves. The upper leaf surface is dark olive-green. Tarchonanthus camphoratus is dioecious. Flowers are usually present from December to May (in South Africa), with cream colored panicles on a discoid head. Male flowering heads have several flowers whilst the female has only a few. The fruit is a dense and woolly achene.[1]

Cultivation and uses[edit]

Tarchonanthus camphoratus wood is close-grained, attractive, durable and rich in aromatic oils. Its use as wood fuel and a source of charcoal, is an abuse of a valuable resource. It is also used as a traditional building material, in horticulture, and in tribal papermaking. Wild leleshwa is also a source [2][3] of essential oils [4][5] used as fragrances. Its leaves are used by the Maasai to scent their homes and persons.

Medicinal values[edit]

Detail of foliage
Tarchonanthus camphoratus00.jpg

Tarchonanthus camphoratus is used as a traditional remedy for respiratory illnesses.[6] The species has wide range of local uses, including dental hygiene.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hilliard, O.M. Compositae in Natal. University of Natal Press, 1977. pp. 110-112.
  2. ^ Young, T.P. and C. Francombe (1991). "Growth and yield estimates in natural stands of leleshwa (Tarchonanthus camphoratus)". Forest Ecology and Management 41: 309–321. doi:10.1016/0378-1127(91)90111-8. 
  3. ^ Kennedy, A.D. (1998). "Coppicing of Tarchonanthus camphoratus (Compositae) as a source of sustainable fuel-wood production: an example from Laikipia Plateau, Kenya". African Journal of Ecology 36: 148–158. 
  4. ^ Mwangi, J.W., Achola, K.J. et al. (1994). "Volatile constituents of the essential oil of Tarchonanthus camphoratus L.". Journal of Essential Oil Research 6: 183–185. doi:10.1080/10412905.1994.9698351. 
  5. ^ Bishay, D.W., Attia, A.A. and Fayed, M.A. (2002). "Flavones and a quaternary alkaloid from Tarchonanthus camphoratus L.". Bull. Pharm. Sci. Assiut Univ. 25(1): 1–6. 
  6. ^ [1] "Tarchonantus Camphoratus Herba", Google Docs.