- 1 History
- 2 Early military role
- 3 Settlements
- 4 Sher Shah Suri era
- 5 Ahmad Shah Abdali era
- 6 Post Ahmad Shah Abdali Era
- 7 British India era
- 8 Tareen relationship with Abdali Durrani
- 9 Family tree of Tareen tribe
- 10 Branches or septs of the Tareen tribe
- 11 Tareen Residences
- 12 Languages
- 13 Places
- 13.1 In Afghanistan
- 13.2 Kandahar district
- 13.3 In Baluchistan Province (Pakistan)
- 13.4 (A) Quetta District
- 13.5 (B) Pishin District
- 13.6 (C) Mastung District
- 13.7 (D) Qilla Abdullah District
- 13.8 (E) Loralai District
- 13.9 (F) Ziarat District
- 13.10 (G) Harnai District
- 13.11 Tareens in the Khyber Pukhtoonkhwa
- 13.12 Tareens in Pakistani Punjab
- 14 Tareens in India
- 15 Notable Tareens/Tarins
- 16 References
Tareen was great grand son of Qais Abdur Rashid (see List of non-Arab Sahaba). Tareen's year of birth was around about 700 to 720 AD. The descendants of Tareen inhabit parts of Afghanistan, India and Pakistan.
Early military role
Historically, little is known or heard of them prior to the invasions of India by Sultan Muhammad Ghori, c. 12th century, in which some Tareens played a significant military role and gradually began to move Eastwards into various parts of what used to be North-West India and is now Pakistan.
By the 15th or 16th century, by and large the various sections of the Tareen tribe had settled in and occupied the areas they still inhabit, indeed some of them assimilating into earlier cultures and/or ethnic groups in these areas.
Sher Shah Suri era
Sher Shah Suri brought Pashtun tribes to Bihar and got them settled in different parts of central and northern India. Tareens were also settled in a significant number in Bihar, a State in India, as it was the headquarters of Sher Shah Suri. Significant number of Tareens settled in Bhagalpur, a city in Bihar. Among their earlier known chiefs in Bhagalpur was Alaf Khan, Mansab Haft Hazari.
Ahmad Shah Abdali era
During the forays into India by Ahmad Shah Abdali (also known as Ahmad Shah Durrani, Emir of Afghanistan) c. 1750s–60s, a contingent of Tareens/Tarins settled in the Hazara region of the North-West Frontier (now Khyber Pukhtoonkhwa, Pakistan) came into prominence for the role they played at the Third Battle of Panipat, January 1761, against the Marhatta Confederacy. This little community belonging chiefly to the Batezai section of the Tor Tareen/Tarin, thereafter gained wide renown as their chiefs were appointed as the Durrani governors and administrators of the lower Hazara plains, as well as the neighbouring Chach area of Attock in Northern Punjab.
Post Ahmad Shah Abdali Era
During Sikh rule in the Punjab (c 1820–1849) and encroachments into tribal area, the various Tareen clans and septs resisted occupation and consequently suffered heavy indemnities.
British India era
Later on, at the British annexation of the Punjab (March 1849), most of the Tareens within British territory or along its borders initially resisted the new invaders but later reconciled themselves to this dispensation and gradually found service with the British Raj, chiefly in the military and civil administration, and some of their elders and notables from their communities in Baluchistan, the Frontier and the Punjab, rose to considerable prominence between the 1850s to 1947. Meanwhile, the Tareens in Afghanistan remained intractable and fought the British during the First and Second Afghan wars.
Tareen relationship with Abdali Durrani
The Pashtuns believe that they are descended from the common ancestor Qais Abdur Rahid. In the case of the Tareen, they believe they are descended from his first son, Sarban, his son Sharkhbun, and his son Tareen, the founder of the tribe. Tareen had a number of sons, who correspond with the major divisions of the tribe. One was named Bor Tareen, later Abdali, who is the legendary founder of the great Durrani tribe. As this has grown into one of the largest and most important of all Pashtun tribes, it is considered separate from the main Tareen factions.
Family tree of Tareen tribe
Branches or septs of the Tareen tribe
The two main Tareen divisions, discounting the Abdali/Durrani, are the Spin Tareen (Safed Tareen, or White Tareen) and the Tor Tareen (Black Tareen), founded by Tareen's eponymous sons. Tareen was also said to have had a fourth son, Zhar Tareen. According to the Imperial Gazetteer of India (1908), The principal "Khels" (septs) and subsections of the Tareen tribe are
- Bor or Abdaal
Of these, the Tor and Bor/Abdal are the most important and numerous and have been discussed further below
Zharh Tareen are divided into following principal section:
Tor Tareens are divided into the following principal sections:
* Khudaidadzai (Murshid/Pirkhana)
Bor Tareen or Abdal Tareen
The Bor or Abdali Tareens inhabit Afghanistan comprise chiefly of these sections:
The Bor/Abdali Tareens came to be known as 'Durranis' after Ahmad Shah Abdali became Emir of Afghanistan, and gradually this term superseded their original name. The Abdali/Durranis later on expanded into a separate tribal entity and the Durrani confederacy is generally considered as a separate tribe in itself, and one of the two most powerful tribal confederacies in Afghanistan, the other being the Ghilzai tribe.
They now live in Afghanistan mainly Loy Kandahar, in Baluchistan and the North-West Frontier provinces of Pakistan as well as in smaller numbers in Punjab and Sindh, as well as in parts of India. (Further details are given below under 'Places')
The principal language of Tareens is Pashto. Formerly, Persian was used as the formal language for official records and correspondence; and until the late 19th-century tombstones were also inscribed in Persian. The Pashto dialect of the Tareen tribes in Pishin, Quetta, Gulistan and Dukki (Distt. Loralai)in Baluchistan is just like the language spoken in pastho. Those who have settled away from Pishin generally speak local languages (such as Multani/Seraiki in Multan, Hindko in Hazara, Urdu in Bhopal, Sindhi in Sind, Punjabi in Punjab), although some few of these populations still retain Pashto too, and are bilingual in that respect.Tareeno, a dialect of Pashto admixed with other languages, is the language spoken by the Harnai Tareens in Baluchistan and has certain interesting features for linguists.
Tareens are found in Kandahar, Orzgun, Karabagh (Ghazni) ( Laghmani, province of parwan ) and in Helmand in Afghanistan. While most numerous in the Kandahar area, they also hold considerable influence in Oruzgan, where the important provincial capital town is Tarin Kowt (Lit. 'Fortress of the Tareens'). In Afghanistan the largest number of Tareens are from the Bor (or Abdal) Tareen section (i.e. now mostly known as 'Durranis') and after them the Tor Tareens number came.
Kandahar is one of the Largest of Thirty four provinces of Afghanistan. It is Located in Southern Afghanistan, Between Helmand, Oruzgun, Zabul province, and Bordering Balochistan Pakistan. History shows that many Afghan rulers were from Kandahar, such as Ahmed Shah Durrani, Abdur Rahman Khan, Nadir Khan, Zahir Shah, Hamid Karzai etc. Kandahar province is made up of 17 districts, and each district has its own chief. The main inhabitants of Kandahar province are Pashtuns. The population of Kandahar province is 990,200. The main Pashtun tribes of Kandahar province are Bor or Abdal Tareen (including Achakzai, Barakzai, Mohammadzai, Popalzai, Alikozai, Ishaqzai, Alizai, Noorzai), Tor Tareen (including Nurzai, Saggi) Barech, Kiral, Ghilzai, Hotak, Tarakai, Kakar. There are also Hazara, Tajik, Brahui, Baloch Living in Kandahar province. The Tareens Located in Kandahar province are Bor Tareen or Abdal Tareen, and Tor Tareen.
In Baluchistan Province (Pakistan)
Balochistan province in Pakistan has a Baluch ethnic majority population as well as a sizeable Pushtun/Pukhtun minority, which dominates the districts of Quetta, Pishin, Qilla Abdullah, Harnai, Loralai, Dukki, Ziarat, Usta Mohammad, and some other places. The Tareens are quite numerous here and, in fact, their largest population outside Kandahar area of Afghanistan is found here, in the localities listed below.
(A) Quetta District
Quetta is a district of Balochistan province of Pakistan. Quetta then part of Afghanistan, was captured in the Second Afghan War (1878–80) by the British troops. The area was originally inhabited by the Kansi tribe. With the arrival of British troops, the doors of development were opened in this area and very soon people saw roads, train and schools here. In April 1883 it was combined with Pishin into a single administrative unit but once again in 1975, Quetta and Pishin were made separate districts. The population of Quetta district was estimated to be over 850,000 in 2005. A large number of Pakhtoons comprising the Kasi, Kakar and Tareen (including Achakzai) dwell here, as well as other races such as the Baloch .
(B) Pishin District
There are three main tribes living in Pishin district such as Tareen (including Achakzai), Kakar and Syed. The Tareens of Pishin are of the Tor Tareen section, and the major subtribes of Tor Tareen in Pishin are Khudadadzai, Alizai, Noorzai, Tor-e-shah, Malikyar, Shakhalzai, Saimzai, Malezai, Hikalzai, Batezai, Khanzai, Kamalzai, Sopanzai, Manzaki, and Kakars of Pishin are living in Barshore and Toba Kakari.
(C) Mastung District
Mastung District is a district located in the northwest of Balochistan province, Pakistan. Prior to 1991, Mastung was a part of Kalat District. However, for administrative purposes, in 1991 it was separated from Kalat and made a new district. In 2005 the population of Mastung district was estimated to be over 180,349. Most of the people in the area are Muslim and Baloch by castes. The Tareen are settled in some number in Mastung District, and they are mostly Zharh Tareen (Zharkhail). They have produced many prominent people in diverse fields.
(D) Qilla Abdullah District
Prior to 1975 Qilla Abdulla was part of Pishin district from which it was separated for administrative reasons. The major tribes of Qilla Abdullah are the Achakzai, Tareen, Kakar, Syed, Noorzai (Abdal Tareen/Durrani) etc. In district Qilla Abdullah there is a sept of Tareens named Segi, who belong to the Tor Tareen section. Recently the Segi and Achakzais had a conflict or feud.
(E) Loralai District
Loralai district was created in October, 1903, with Loralai town as the district headquarters. The vast majority of the population of Loralai district is Pashtun, and the major tribes are the Kakar, Nasir, Khilji/Ghilzai, Tareen and Luni. The Spin Tareen section of the tribe generally resides in Ismail Shahr near Dukki Killi.
(F) Ziarat District
Ziarat is a new district created in July, 1986. The district has only one Sub-Division (Ziarat) and one Tehsil (Ziarat). Ziarat town is headquarters of the district. The Khilafat Hills, where it is located, are the highest range in Baluchistan, with an altitude of 11,400 feet in Ziarat district. Ziarat has some of the oldest Juniper forests in the world. A tourist destination, the economy of the district also benefits from orchards of apples and cherries. The Ziarat district has the highest Human Development Index of all districts in the province. The Founder of Pakistan, Muhammad Ali Jinnah spent the last days of his life in the Government Residency in Ziarat. The population of Ziarat district was estimated to be over 100,000 in 2005. The major tribes of Ziarat are Pashtun tribes such as Tareen, Kakar, Dummar, and Dotani. The language of the district is Pashto.
(G) Harnai District
The name Harnai refers to an influential Hindu personality, Harnam Das, supposed founder of Harnai town, the capital of Harnai District. The town is quite close to Loralai, Ziarat, Sibi and Quetta. Harnai is surrounded by imposing hills on all sides. The encircling hill ranges have the resounding names of 'Khalifat' and 'Zarghun'. Harnai proper has a population of about 200,000. The majority of the population of Harnai are Tareens and they mostly speak a unique dialect, or language, 'Tareeno', which is quite different from the Pushto spoken in other parts of Baluchistan and NWFP provinces, and is probably a mixture of Pushto, Hindi and other languages developed as a 'lingua franca' sometime during the 18th and 19th centuries, when a variety of people of different ethnic origins lived here. There seems to be no earlier historical record or trace of it.
Tareens in the Khyber Pukhtoonkhwa
The Tareens are settled in some numbers in the Haripur and Abbottabad areas of the Hazara region of Khyber Pukhtoonkhwa since c. the 17th or 18th century. They have produced many prominent people in diverse fields and are a small but enterprising group. The Tareens here mostly belong to the Tor, Batezai section of the tribe. There are also some few scattered Tareens in Kheshgi (Nowshera), Swat, Swabi, Peshawar, D.I. Khan etc., in the Khyber Pukhtoonkhwa.
Tareens in Pakistani Punjab
In the areas now comprising Pakistani Punjab, Tareens are found principally in some numbers in Dera Ghazi Khan, Muzafargarh, Lodhran, Attock (Chach area), Multan, Faisalabad and Sargodha districts, although there are small, scattered populations to be found elsewhere too. In a small village Dera Noor Malik, Tehsil Shakar Garh, Distt Narowal, almost the whole population are Tareen Pathans.
Tareens in India
Small populations of the Tareen tribe settled in India at various times from the 12th to the 17th centuries. These are mostly found in and around Bhopal and several towns and cities in UP specially in Sarai Tareen (Sambhal). A few also live in Bihar and Bengal.
- Bostan Khan, 19th-century clan warrior.
- Abdul Majid Khan Tarin, British-Indian legal figure and MP
- Risaldar Mir Dad Khan Tarin, British-Indian Army officer
- Muhammad Ayub Khan, Military Dictator/General, and later President of Pakistan.
- Jehangir Khan Tareen, former Minister for Industries and Special Initiatives.
- Gohar Ayub Khan, former Speaker of the National Assembly of Pakistan and former Foreign Minister.
- Omer Tarin, Pakistani poet, research scholar and writer
- Shaukat Tarin, Prominent Pakistani banker.
- Sardar Bahadur Khan, Ex provincial minister and federal minister.
- Omar Ayub Khan former Pakistani Minister of State for Finance
- J. A. K. Tareen Vice-chancellor of B. S. Abdur Rahman University, former Vice-chancellor of Pondicherry University.
- Gangovsky, Y.V. (1964) The Peoples of Pakistan: An Ethnic Study, Lahore: Progressive Publishers, p.11
- Dr SB Panni
- R.T.I. Ridgeway, "The Pathans", Orig. 1901, reprint Peshawar, 1983
- Nawab Muhammad Hyat Khan, "Hayat i Afghan" (Orig. in Persian 1865) trans. by H.B Priestley "Afghanistan and its Inhabitants", 1874; Reprint Lahore: Sang i Meel Press, 1981
- Dr S.B. Panni, "Tarikh i Hazara", 2nd ed Peshawar, 1969, pp. 270–275
- For notice of some of these, please see List of Notable Tareens/Tarins above