Tarnobrzeg

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Tarnobrzeg
Main Square
Main Square
Flag of Tarnobrzeg
Flag
Coat of arms of Tarnobrzeg
Coat of arms
Tarnobrzeg is located in Poland
Tarnobrzeg
Tarnobrzeg
Coordinates: 50°35′N 21°41′E / 50.583°N 21.683°E / 50.583; 21.683
Country  Poland
Voivodeship POL województwo podkarpackie flag.svg Subcarpathian
County city county
City rights 1593
Government
 • President Norbert Mastalerz
Area
 • Total 85.6 km2 (33.1 sq mi)
Elevation 160 m (520 ft)
Population (2009)
 • Total 49,419
 • Density 580/km2 (1,500/sq mi)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 39-400
Area code(s) +48 015
Car plates RT
Website http://www.tarnobrzeg.pl/

Tarnobrzeg [tarˈnɔbʐɛk] (Yiddish: דזיקאוו-Jikov) is a city in south-eastern Poland (historic Lesser Poland), on the east bank of the river Vistula, with 49,419 inhabitants, as of December 31, 2009.[1] Situated in the Subcarpathian Voivodeship (Polish: Województwo Podkarpackie) since 1999, it had previously been the capital of Tarnobrzeg Voivodeship (1975–1998). Tarnobrzeg lies in the Sandomierz Basin, and directly borders the town of Sandomierz. Its history dates back to the year 1593, when it was granted Magdeburg rights, and belonged to the Tarnowski family. For centuries Tarnobrzeg remained a small town, which did not develop until the post-World War II period, when it became center of an industrial area, based on rich sulfur deposits.

Location and area[edit]

Tarnobrzeg lies along National Road nr. 9, which also makes Polish part of the European route E371. The town also is a railroad hub, with five stations located within its limits (Ocice, Sobow, Tarnobrzeg, Tarnobrzeg Waskotorowy and Wielowies). Rail lines stem from Tarnobrzeg into four directions: southwards towards Dębica, southeast towards Rzeszów, east towards Stalowa Wola, and northwards, towards Sandomierz.

Currently Tarnobrzeg is one of the largest towns of Poland in terms of territory. It covers the area of 85 square kilometres (33 sq mi), and the distance between its extreme northern and southern locations reaches 20 kilometres (12 miles). This is because in 1975, Tarnobrzeg unexpectedly became the capital of a newly created province, Tarnobrzeg Voivodeship. To expand the town, local authorities initiated a policy of annexation of local villages. As a result, in the late 1970s the size of the town quickly grew, when several villages and settlements (Machow, Dzikow, Miechocin, Wielowies, Sielec, Podleze, Sobow, Mokrzyszow) became part of Tarnobrzeg as its districts. The Old Town and historic center of Tarnobrzeg covers a very small area of the town, as 80% of Tarnobrzeg was built after the war.

Administrative divisions of Tarnobrzeg[edit]

Boroughs, districts and osiedla of Tarnobrzeg

Boroughs, districts and osiedla of Tarnobrzeg include:

Yellow gold of Tarnobrzeg

Economy[edit]

Sulphur mining[edit]

The city was a major center for the mining and processing of sulphur and sulphuric acid. However, due to declining profitability, its mines have closed. The mine in Piaseczno was closed first, followed by the Machów mine (after 40 years of working — it had been the biggest open-cast sulphur mine in Europe), and finally the Jeziórko mine in the 1990s. The Jeziórko mine stayed open as long as it did because of the introduction of the modern Frasch process of sulphur extraction.

Since the 1980s, the land in the mining areas has gradually been reclaimed. The Machów mine has been filled with water to form a reservoir used for recreation, and the same is happening to the Jeziórko mine — it is being slowly filled from the nearby Vistula river.

Etymology[edit]

The name Tarnobrzeg refers to the founders of the town, the Tarnowski family. Other names were suggested, such as “Tarnodwor”, “Nowo Dwor”, and “Nowy Tarnów”. Finally, Tarnobrzeg prevailed, and other towns, founded by the Tarnowski family, were also named in a similar fashion, such as Tarnogrod and Tarnopol.

Until the 20th century, however, the name Tarnobrzeg was not popular among residents. In common use were such names, as Dzikow (see also Dzikow Castle) and Miechocin, as these two locations were older, larger and more important. After opening of a rail station called Tarnobrzeg (1887), and creation of the Tarnobrzeg County (1920), the name caught on and became commonly used. Nevertheless, patron saint of the region, is still called Our Lady of Dzikow (see also Dominican Church and Convent of Assumption of Mary in Tarnobrzeg).

Tarnowski family[edit]

The history of Tarnobrzeg is closely tied with the noble Leliwita family, which in the 16th century changed its name into Tarnowski. In 1349 Rafal of Tarnów married a woman named Dzierzka, who was the owner of Wielowies, moving there after the wedding. Their estate gradually expanded, in 1365 they purchased Trzesn and Rzochow, in 1375 Sielec and Sobow, and in 1397, Jan Tarnowski purchased several villages. In the late 15th century, Jan Spytek Tarnowski purchased, among others, Dzikow, together with its fortified stronghold. Stanislaw Tarnowski (1541-1609), who was a courtier of Kings Stefan Batory and Zygmunt III Waza, managed to convince the latter to grant town charter to Nowy Tarnow, later called Tarnobrzeg. His son Michal Stanislaw (1590-1654) in the 1620s began expansion and modernization of the town, planning a street system together with a market square with a town hall. Furthermore, he expanded the Dzikow stronghold and the church at Miechocin.

The development of Nowy Tarnów was stopped during the catastrophic Swedish invasion of Poland (1655 - 1660), when the town was destroyed by the Swedes. After the invasion, Jan Stanislaw Tarnowski funded a Dominican Monastery, with the painting of Our Lady of Dzikow (1678), which was moved there from the Dzikow Castle. In 1734, the Dzikow Confederation was formed in the Dzikow Castle, and among its creators was Jozef Mateusz Tarnowski. In the late 18th century, the castle was remodelled in the late Baroque style, and last owners of Dzikow were Jan Zdzislaw Tarnowski (1862-1937), and Artur Tarnowski (1903-1984).

History[edit]

Main article: History of Tarnobrzeg

Tarnobrzeg was founded in 1593, during the golden age of Poland, to become the residence of the Tarnowski family (see szlachta). In that year, King Zygmunt III Waza granted Magdeburg rights to the village (May 28, 1593). The founder of the town was Stanislaw Tarnowski, Castellan of Sandomierz. In 1772, it became part of the Austrian Empire and remained in the province of Galicia until November 1918. Tarnobrzeg, located very close to the Russian-Austrian border, sustained heavy damage during World War One by invading armies.

In the aftermath of World War I, the short-lived Republic of Tarnobrzeg was declared here, and in 1919, the town became part of Lwow Voivodeship of the newly independent Second Polish Republic. The city suffered significant emigration within the former Austrian empire and elsewhere during the interbellum years (1919 - 1939). A public school system was founded during that time.

In the 1950s, after geological research into fuel deposits, significant sulfur resources were discovered. From early 1960s the city grew rapidly: the population rose from 5,000 to 50,000 in 1990s. After closing the sulfur mine "Siarkopol" in Machów and Jeziórko a stagnation of Tarnobrzeg followed. In 1999 it ceased being a Voivodeship capital and became a city county (powiat grodzki).

Timeline of Tarnobrzeg history (note: the history of Tarnobrzeg itself is not very long. Much older are several districts of the contemporary town, such as Wielowies in its north, and Miechocin in the south).

Jewish community of Tarnobrzeg[edit]

Pre-Holocaust Tarnobrzeg, a shtetl of western Galicia, was home to a thriving and traditional Jewish community. Tarnobrzeg is situated in a region of Poland that is relatively distant from the better-known larger Jewish communities of the country which were located in cities such as Warsaw, Kraków, Lublin, Lwow, Wilno and many others. Nonetheless, the History of Jews in Poland is confluent with the history of the town. Jewish inhabitants of Tarnobrzeg, and their descendants, are considered Galitzianers or Galician Jews.

In the years 1772-1918 (see: Partitions of Poland), Tarnobrzeg was in the province of Galicia as part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, based in Vienna. The 19th century after 1815 was, across Europe, a period of relative peace and stability following the conclusion of the extremely violent Napoleonic Wars. Due to progressive initiatives following Napoleonic times, Tarnobrzeg citizens including the Jewish Community benefited from compulsory free public education mandated by the Austrian Emperor. The same was not true for other Polish Jewry situated in areas outside of Galicia, e.g., Danzig or Warsaw. Compulsory public education was opposed by some Jewish religious authorities who believed that traditional Jewish Torah and Talmud studies should not even be partially supplanted by secular instruction.

The political stability ended in Tarnobrzeg and surrounding areas with the collapse of the Austrian Empire as a result of World War I portended a difficult future for Tarnobrzeg's Jews. Although atrocities and population displacements during World War II dominate the history of Tarnobrzeg's Jews, deportations during World War I to trans-Ural Russia were also highly disruptive and destroyed much of the established community. Many emigrated to the United States or Palestine.

Nearby shtetlach (Jewish or Yiddish-language plural of shtetl) of, e.g., Rozwadów and Ulanów had many commercial and family ties to Tarnobrzeg. There were several affinity groups among the thriving Jewish population before World War II, including Hasidic, Zionist, Bundist (Socialist), and others. Many Jewish citizens of Tarnobrzeg emigrated to Palestine, later to become Israel, during the pre-World War II period.

Prominent Tarnobrzeg citizen Moses Hauser, who was Jewish, was a centenarian whose lifespan nearly coincided with the 19th century. Hauser was a wealthy businessman, trader, and landholder dating from Napoleonic times through the reign of Austrian Emperor Franz Josef. His life is documented in a Yizkor (Memorial) Book published by Tarnobrzeg elders following the Holocaust. Hauser was father to twelve children and many descendents living in the United States, Israel, and elsewhere.

The atrocities committed by the German occupiers against Jewish and Polish citizens of Tarnobrzeg during the Holocaust obliged the Jews to choose between a limited number of mortally dangereous escape routes or alternatively to perish by remaining. Very few people were known to have survived as Jews in Tarnobrzeg, where they would have needed to be hidden by righteous gentiles. Those migrating eastward to communist Russia had to choose between permanent communist citizenship, service in the Red Army in its battles against the Wehrmacht, and loss of freedom to subsequently leave Russia or alternatively to become displaced persons known as DPs. DPs were temporarily relocated by the Russian government to work camps in Siberia, there to wait out the war. Many DPs perished owing to extremely rugged conditions for which they were unprepared, and poor supplies available in wartime trans-Ural Russian Asia. Those who survived were permitted to depart Russian lands following World War II.

Tourism[edit]

Tourist attractions in Tarnobrzeg
Place: Photo: Information: Notes:
Dominican Church and Convent Poland Tarnobrzeg - Monastery.jpg Marian Sanctuary of Our Lady of Dzików, Baroque monastery from the end of 17th century, step of St. James Lesser Polish Way, situated close to Głowacki Sq in Old Town open 6am - 7pm, tourism visitation forbidden during worship services
Chapel and Monastery of Dominicans Sisters and church of St. Michael and St Gertrude in Wielowieś Klasztor dominikanek w Wielowsi.JPG complex of buildings from half of 19th century, a tomb of the founder of the assembly Róża Kolumba Białecka is located at a monastery, its roots go back to the 13th century, according to tradition, the original wooden church was associated with the activities of the Dominican - St. Hyacinth conservation works inside the church
Dzików Castle with park and garden complex Tarnobrzeg - Tarnowski Castle in Dzikow.jpg works on transferring the Historical Museum of City thorough restoration and repair work, possible visit the cellars, open Tue - Fri 10am - 4pm; Sun 12am - 4pm, end of work and re open in 2011 or 2012
Jewish Graveyard Tarnobrzeg - Jewish Graveyard.jpg founded in 1930 closed for visitors
former Synagogue Tarnobrzeg Synagogue.jpg built in 2 half of 19th century, now used as the Municipal Public Library open Mon - Fri 10am - 6pm, Sat 8am - 3pm
Church of Mary Magdalene in Miechocin Kosciol miechocin front.JPG Gothic church from the 14th century, its roots go back to the beginnings of Christianity in the Polish territories closed apart from hours of worship services, Weekdays 6pm, Sun and Fest 7:30am, 10:35am, 5pm
Shindler's Hunting Palace in Mokrzyszów Dworek w Mokrzyszowie.JPG Neogothic building from the 19th century, at present adapted up to needs of the Centre Of The Teacher Education
Church of Our Lady of Perpetual Help in Serbinów Kosciol Tarnobrzeg Serbinow1.JPG huge mosaic presbytery, relics of saints and blessed: Edmund Bojanowski, Jan Bosko, Albert Chmielowski, Zygmunt Gorazdowski, Mother Teresa, Faustyna Kowalska, Gianna Beretta Molla, Padre Pio Perpetual Adoration Chapel open around the clock, the upper church opened in hours of worship services, Weekdays 6am, 8am, 3pm, 6pm, Sun and Fest 7am, 8:30 am, 10am, 11:30am, 1pm, 4pm, 5pm, 7:30pm
Padewicz Manor House in Nagnajów Classical building, situated close to the Wisłostrada St. closed
Zwierzyniecki Wood Zwierzyniec Tarnobrzeg Jesien.JPG rest of Sandomierska Wilderness Zwierzyniecka St leads from the Dzików Castle through Serbinów to the wood
Machowski Reservoir Tarnobrzeg, zalew Machowski.jpg artificial reservoir built on the premises of the former sulfur mine, situated close to the Wisłostrada St. open in 2010
former Granary in Wymysłów Poland Tarnobrzeg - Museum.jpg built in 1843, now used as the Historical Museum of City open Tue - Fri 8am - 3pm; Sat 12am - 4pm
monument of Bartosz Głowacki Poland Tarnobrzeg - Glowacki monument.jpg built in 1904, situeted in the main Town Square, vis-à-vis of Dominican Monastery
City Hall Eclectic building from 1910, former County Hall, now office of the Mayor of Tarnobrzeg, situated close to Surowieckiego Sq open 7:30am – 3:30pm
former Burgher Casino built in early 20th century, now Community Centre of Culture, situated close to Sokola St

Roman Catholic churches and parishes[edit]

Our Lady of Tarnobrzeg

Sport[edit]

Cyclical events[edit]

  • New Year's Run - January
  • Tarnobrzeg Days - May, June
  • International Organ Virtuoso Performances - July, August
  • Saint Dominic's Fair - August
  • Bartoszki Film Festival - August
  • Satyrblues - September
  • International Alfred Freyer Vistula River Run - October
  • Tarnobrzeg Social Days and Tarnobrzeg Days of The Christian Culture - October
  • Barbórkowa Drama Teatralna - December

Twin towns - sister cities[edit]

Tarnobrzeg is twinned with:[2]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ "Population. Size and structure by territorial division". © 1995-2009 Central Statistical Office 00-925 Warsaw, Al. Niepodległości 208. 2009-12-31. Retrieved 2010-11-04. 
  2. ^ a b "Tarnobrzeg Official Website - Partner Cities". Flag of Poland.svg(in Polish) © 1999-2008 Urząd Miasta Tarnobrzeg. Retrieved 2008-10-23. [dead link]
  3. ^ "Banská Bystrica Sister Cities". © 2001-2008. Retrieved 2008-10-23. 
  4. ^ "Miasta partnerskie". Retrieved 2008-10-23. 

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 50°35′N 21°41′E / 50.583°N 21.683°E / 50.583; 21.683