TaskForceMajella

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Coordinates: 42°02′N 14°02′E / 42.03°N 14.03°E / 42.03; 14.03

TaskForceMajella (TFM)
TaskForceMajella-LogoDiagram.jpg
Diagram showing the logos of all directly involved partners in the TaskForceMajella Project
Project Characteristics
Period 1998-2005
Sponsors Eni, NorskHydro
Partners Universities, Research Institutes
Project Manager Dr. J.P. van Dijk (Janpieter van Dijk; Johannes Petrus van Dijk)
Location Montagna della Majella, Central Italy

The TaskForceMajella (TFM) is an industry funded geoscientific research project conducted between the years 1998 and 2005. The project involved numerous universities distributed worldwide, and was sponsored by a number of international major oil companies. The area of research was the Majella Mountain in Central Italy, regarded as an analogue of a faulted and fractured hydrocarbon reservoir as can be found in major provinces like the Middle East, Caspian Basin, Mediterranean Basin, and other areas. The scope was to obtain knowledge on the relation between fracture and fault generation, and all types of geological aspects of the evolution of the geological structure .[1][2]

Introduction[edit]

Brochure for the TaskForceMajella Project; Frontal Part
Brochure for the TaskForceMajella Project; Retro Part

The scope and mission of the Project TaskForceMajella (TFM) is to construct a model of the Montagna della Majella anticline structure as an analogue of a faulted and fractured carbonate reservoir similar to those in production and explored by the sponsors of the Project, Eni and Norsk Hydro (now merged into StaoilHydro) (e.g. Iran, Iraq, Libya, Canada, Caspian Sea area, etc.). The aim is to provide a predictive tool for the exploration and production of these prospects and reservoirs, which are characterized by the fact that their production is for a considerable amount controlled by the presence of fractures and faults.

The Montagna della Majella is a mountain massif in the Apennines, in Abruzzo, central Italy, at the boundary between the provinces of Chieti, Pescara and L'Aquila. It is part of the Central Apennines Mountain range, and consists mainly of carbonate rocks showing a complete sedimentary sequence of Upper Jurassic up till Middle Pliocene of Age (Bally 1954, Int. Rept.),[3] (Donzelli 1969),[4] (Crescenti et al. 1969, a),[5] (Crescenti et al. 1969, b),[6] (Servizio Geologico d’Italia 1970, b),[7] (Catenacci 1974),[8][9] (Vecsei et al. 1998),[10] (Bernoulli et al. 1996),[11] (Vezzani & Ghisetti 1998),[12] (Calamita et al. 2002),[13] (Vezzani et al. 2010).[14]

The TFM Project comprises a study of all geological aspects of the Montagna della Majella and aims at reconstructing a complete model of its geological evolution using both previous and newly collected data, and applying the latest technologies. The Project which can be considered as the largest of this kind ever conducted, comprises numerous Research Institutes and Universities distributed in Italy and other European countries and the United States, with a working team composed of over 100 collaborators such as technical personnel, University Professors and Research Assistants and students.

The structure and technical details which define the Project(van Dijk 2011)[2] were described in a Work Plan which was written in order to define the work schedule, technical specifications, responsibilities and financial specifications and was freely distributed amongst potential project partners (van Dijk 1999-2000, Int. Rept.).[15] A general geological description can be found in the official but not freely available Eni Majella Field Guide (van Dijk et al. 1995, 1996, 1998, 2000, Int. Rept.),[16] and in the Official Field Guide of Central Italy of the Italian Geological Society (Crescenti et al. 2003).[17]

The higher part of the Majella Mountain as seen from the locality Blockhaus. The picture is taken in a southern direction, and shows the part of the mountain which is composed of carbonate platform sediments. On the left part of the picture, the surface trace of an east-dipping normal fault can be observed which accentuates the mountain slope. It is believed that this fault is part of the complex platform slope which was active throughout Mesozoic times.

Why Majella?[edit]

Mainly, six basic arguments are used to explain why the Majella Mountain structure was chosen as the study object of the TFM Project:

Accessibility[edit]

The Majella Mountain structure is located in central Italy, in an area of the National Park; numerous roads and mountain tracks provide access to 60% of the area, excluded the high mountain central sectors. The area is close to the Rome-Pescara highway, with less than 1 hour drive to the nearby international airport of Pescara, and 2 hours drive to the Roma airports.

Tectonic Structure and Dimension[edit]

The tectonic structure of the Majella is similar to many broad foreland anticlines in various hydrocarbon provinces, both in size, dimension and structural characteristics (few tens of kilometres long and wide).

Background knowledge[edit]

Some aspects of the Montagna della Majella anticline were previously studied by some scientific research groups, partly also in collaboration with oil companies such as Exxon, Lasmo and British Gas. A huge data base is present in literature regarding its sedimentary evolution, in studies by French and Swiss research groups. Previous to the TFM Project, in Italy, Torino and Pisa Universities have conducted ten years of geological research in the area during the nineties of the twentieth century, focussing mainly on sedimentary and stratigraphic aspects of the area.

Basin to Carbonate transition: Guarantee of facies variability[edit]

The presence inside the mountain of a major E-W trending platform-basin transition provides the possibility of evaluating many different carbonate facies, ranging from tight platform carbonates to marl-chalk interbedded sequences and porous bioclastic grainstones.

Previous studies and degree of outcropping[edit]

Previous studies, conducted by research consortia mentioned above and during scouting field trips by Eni-Agip experts, had shown that a large amount of data regarding fracture and fault systems and their characteristics can easily be acquired in the area due to the excellent degree of outcropping.

The Majella Petroleum System[edit]

The northern part of the Majella Anticline is locally filled with hydrocarbon which indicates that the "Majella Petroleum System" was active throughout the Neogene and the Majella Anticline can thus be considered as an aborted hydrocarbon reservoir. The chemical characteristics of this oil was previously and extensively studies by Eni experts, and compared with source rocks of nearby oil fields (van Dijk et al. 1995, 1996, 1998, 2000, Int. Rept.).[16] The oil in the Pescara Valley has been dug in open mines since ancient Roman times, and Eni is exploring and producing from subsurface satellite anticlines since the fifties of the previous century. Most of these small oil fields are at present depleted. See below for the description of one of the study sites of the Projects.

General organisational aspects[edit]

Brochure for the TaskForceMajella Project; Retro

The Project was initialised in 1998 and managed throughout its project lifetime by Dr. J.P. van Dijk of the company Eni, through a round-table discussion at the National Conference of the Italian Geological Society (SGI)[18] in Palermo in Sicily. All possible research institutes interested in participating in the Project presented themselves and a lively debate, also attended by Prof. Dr. Alberto Bally (Bally 1954, Int. Rept.)[3][19][20][21] who had worked in the area in the late forties and fifties, initiated the organisation of the working plan. Following that, the official start date was May 2000 when the project work plan was defined. Initial sponsor was Eni[22] E&P Division (former Agip), followed by NorskHydro (After that Hydro O&G and now Statoil[23]) which entered the Project in February 2001.

Partners and components[edit]

The University components were divided into five working groups (Mapping, Stratigraphy, Structure, Fracture and Modelling), each composed of various Universities representatives in a way that each University was part of different Working Groups. The Universities that were involved directly and indirectly are:

  • Torino University (Italy) (Prof. Livio Vezzani, Dott. Andrea Festa, Dott.ssa Anna D’Atri, Dott. Daniele Giordan, Dott.ssa Maria Estefania Sanchez Palomo, Dott. Giuseppe Mancari, Dott. Ivan Vanzo, Dott. Mojca Battistini, Dott.ssa Stefania Lucchesi)
  • Chieti University (Italy) (Prof. Uberto Crescenti, Prof. Fernando Calamita, Dott. Alberto Pizzi, Dott. Giovanni Rusciadelli, Rusciadelli, Dott.ssa Maria Luisa Milia, Dott.ssa Camilla De Girolamo, Dott. Raffaele Montefalcone, Dott. Gabriele Pugliese, Dott.ssa Loretta Finocchio, Dott. Giuseppe Palmitesta, Dott. Michele Morsilli, Dott.ssa Giada Vighi, Dott. Vittorio Scisciani, Dott. Pino Catavitelli, Dott. Fiorenzo Fumanti, Prof. Sergio Rusi, Prof. Enrico Miccadei, Dott.ssa Chiavaroli)
  • Roma 1 University “La Sapienza” (Italy) (Prof. Ernesto Centamore, Dott.ssa Sabina Bigi, Dott. David Rossi, Dott.ssa Patrizia Costa Pisani, Dott.ssa Rinalda Di Stefano, Dott. Mario Del Castello, Dott. Joannes Pignatti, Dott. Raffaele Di Bella)
  • University Roma 3 (Italy) (Late Prof. Renato Fiuniciello, Prof. Maurizio Parotto, Prof. Domenico Cosentino, Dott.ssa Paola Cipollari, Dott.ssa Sveva Corrado, Dott. Giorgio Pipponzo, Dott. Vincenzo Pasquali, Dott. C. Fattori, Dott. T. Piacentini, Dott. S. Gambini, Dott. C. Berti, Dott. P. Pitzianti, Dott. E. Gliozzi, Dott. L. Di Bella)
  • Pisa University (Italy) (Prof. Etta Patacca, Prof. Paolo Scandone, Dott. Donato Merola, Dott. Antonio Cascella, Dott. Ermanno Danese)
  • Camerino University (Italy) (Late Prof. Giuseppe Cello, Dott. Emanuele Tondi, Dott.ssa Maria Chiara Invernizzi, Dott. Luca Micarelli, Dott. Alessandro Zanni, Dott. Bruno Prugni, Dott. Leonardo Marchigiani, Dott.ssa Giordana Bellezza)
  • Perugia University (Italy) (Late Prof. Pialli, Prof. Giorgio Minelli, Dott. Mauro Foglietta (see below), Dott. Cristina Pauselli, Dott. Federico Costanzo, Dott.ssa P.T. Brunozzi, Dott. J. Braun, Dott. A. Frigeri)
  • CNR (Research Centre) Roma (Italy) (Dott. Gian Paolo Cavinato, Dott.ssa Francesca Giardina, Dott. Emiliano Di Luzio, Dott. Mario Tozzi, Dott. Alberto Di Ludovico, Dott. Davide Scrocca) Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche - CNR
  • CNR (Research Centre) Milano (Italy) (Dott. Corrado Magistroni)
  • ETH Zurich (Switzerland) (Prof. Dr. Daniel Bernoulli)
  • Free University of Amsterdam (VU) (the Netherlands) (Prof. Dr. Sierd Cloetingh,[24] Prof. Dr. Dick Nieuwland[25]
  • Stanford University (USA) (Prof. Dr. Atilla Aydin, Dr. Brita Graham, Dr. Marco Antonellini, Dr. Fabrizio Agosta)
  • Montpellier University (France) (Prof. Jean-Pierre Petit,[26] Dott. Pascal Cortes, Dott. Loïc Bazalgette)
  • Liverpool University (United Kingdom) - Dublin University[27] (Ireland) (Prof. Dr. John Walsh,[28] Dr. Chris Bonson)
  • Various Universities - Mauro Foglietta (Reading University)
Group Photo of the TaskForceMajella, 2000
Group Photo of the TaskForceMajella, 2001

The Project benefitted from collaborations and support from regional and local administrations:

Synergy with other projects[edit]

A synergie was created with the technical activities performed in the Stanford Rock Fracture Project ("RFP", ran by Stanford University),[29] and the GeoFracNet consortium ("GFN", ran by Montpellier University)[30] and supported by the company GeoTER.[31] These two projects had overlaps in research objectives though run in a completely different manner: The RFP tackled questions related to fault and fracture zones in different tectonic regimes but mainly in clastic sedimentary rocks, and was sponsored by a considerable amount of Oil Companies, whereas the GFN was sponsored by only a few companies and focussed on specific genetic relationships in different selected sites. Furthermore between the three projects there was an overlap in industrial sponsors and stake holders (though Eni was in the privileged position of being the only company involved in all three of them). In this way, the Projects could mutually benefit from the results obtained, and provide suggestions for steering of their relative research activities.

Office[edit]

A technical office of the TFM was founded and is supported by the Ortona District Office of Eni (DORT) and based in the harbour area of Ortona in the SAF (Deep Water Survey Project) building.

Web Site[edit]

The web site http://www.taskforcemajella.com was set up and was managed by Temars - Eni-Data, the former software company of Eni, based in Bologna. It was designed by Dott. Luca Benvenuti, and remained active until some years after the closure of the Project in 2006 (van Dijk 2002, c).[32]

Logistics[edit]

The logistic service of the Project was performed by Maria Lanzellotti, and was vital for the contacts with local, regional and national administrations for authorisations, contacts with supporting companies, logistics, organisations of meetings of Working Groups and conferences, public relations, etc. Furthermore, in the second stage of the Project, the Association SFERA[33] managed numerous organisational aspects. The TFM web site and a special brochure designed to provide visibility to the Project, played important roles in the organisation and the success of the Project on local, regional and international scales.

Steering[edit]

The Project was monitored by the sponsors through a Steering Committee, and accompanied and guided by a Scientific Committee (The President of the Steering Committee was Prof. U. Crescenti, in this period also the president of the Italian National Geological Society (SGI)).

Geological Map[edit]

The Geological Cartography Project (CARG) of the Italian National Geological Survey (SGN) of the Ministry of Environmental Control of the Italian national administration[34][35] (Dott. B. Compagnioni, Dott. F. Galluzzo) was officially involved in the geological mapping group of the TFM Project in order to follow national standards of cartography and integrate the surface data with the official national geological map sheets of the area. Furthermore and on the other hand, the project CARG benefitted from the technical specifications and experiences of the G-Map tool of the TFM Project. Other sinergies were created with the Italian National Seismic Monitoring Service (Dott.ssa Daniela di Bucci, Dott. Giuseppe Naso, Dott.ssa Roberta Giuliani, Dott.ssa Annamaria Blumetti).

Involvement[edit]

Eni E&P Division, based in San Donato Milanese (Italy), was technically involved in the Project in order to provide regional subsurface data sets (non sensible seismic and well data) for the construction of the regional geological model. Furthermore, the data were confronted with the deep crustal seismic profile which passed through the area, acquired in the CROP the Italian National CROP Project,[36] which data were integrated in the construction of the regional geological model (Profile CROP 11a, 11b, 11c; Civitavecchia - Vasto; CROP references: Prof. Castellerin, Prof. Maurizio Parotto). The photogrammetrical survey engineering group of Eni was heavily involved in the three-dimensional monitoring of sites with specific interest and the analysis of three-dimensional fracture and faults networks at different scales (see below). A number of technical support companies provided the necessary local service.

Main Cartography and Database Support[edit]

Two main supporting items were set up which function and the technical work base for the project data base:

  1. The digital topographic cartography (by CGR Parma)
    • During the year 2000 a new stereophotogrammetrical digital topography was acquired by the Company CGR (“Compagnia Generale Ripreseaeree”[37]), based in Parma (Italy). It is composed of a unique 1:10.000 topographic 3D digital vector based survey of the area, with accompanied high resolution colour Geotiff georeferenced aerial photographs.
  2. The data base management software: G-MAP (by TEMARS-ENI-Data Bologna)
    • A new GIS based system, called G-MAP (application tool in ESRI’s ArcView environment, now called ArcGIS), was designed by Dott. Luca Benvenuti of the Eni ITC Company Temars-Eni Data, based in Bologna (Italy), to incorporate all geological data collected in the project, and accompanied by a web-browse release. The software can be viewed as a forerunner of nowadays digital geological mapping systems and online map based storage environments like Google Earth and similar.

Main activities and some results[edit]

Cartography[edit]

All Working Groups of the Project have contributed to a completely new geological mapping of the Majella anticline. Each single outcrop was separately mapped and all data relative to the mapping are stored in the digital data base system G-MAP, especially designed for the Project. The working group 'Stratigraphy' coordinated the stratigraphic aspects of the mapping, whereas the working group 'Structure' coordinated the collection of structural data. The working group 'Fracture' provided the structural field data collected, integrating them with other structural geological data.

A geological map of the Majella Mountain was compiled on a 1:25,000 scale which showed the distribution of the main stratigraphic units (Patacca & Scandone 2006, in press.).[38]

In addition to these field data, the G–MAP data base (see above) comprised all cartographic material (digital maps on various scales), location of all data collected in the Project such as the stereophotogrammetrical sites, sample sites, stratigraphic and sedimentological logs, and the various interpreted geological maps.

Parallel to these structural cartography activities, a three-dimensional model was constructed based on the geological map of the area by (Donzelli 1969).[4] This map was vectorised and calibrated in three dimensions, using geological profiles available. The work was performed in Milano, by the Archs. Pasquale Femia and Antonio Sergi, in collaboration with Eni E&P and Interservice. The outcome was a complete 3D model of the area constructed in the software AutoCad of AutoDesk, and a series of 1:25,000 scale geological maps. The work can be regarded as the first step in the industrial process known as "Seismic to simulation", where from the available geophysical and geological information a model is constructed which is the basis of a dynamic reservoir simulation.

Stratigraphy[edit]

The working group 'Stratigraphy', led by Pisa University and coordinated by Pisa and Rome-I Universities, constructed a stratigraphic map of the Majella Mountain focussing on the carbonate succession. A new sequence stratigraphic scheme was built based on the field work, 25 sections were logged in detail (see e.g. (Cippolari et al. 2003), [39] and about 4000 spot samples were analysed. The stratigraphic map was constructed in collaboration with the members of the field mapping working group 'Structure', using the main structural elements as a geometrical framework.

The codification of the new stratigraphic framework was used in the G-MAP data base system in order to define the stratigraphic reference for all structural geological data collected.

A new geological map of the Majella Mountain was compiled on a 1:25,000 scale which showed the distribution of these newly defined stratigraphic units (Patacca & Scandone 2006, in press.).[38]

Numerical simulations were performed of the sedimentory evolution of the Carbonate Platform margin and slope (Morsilli et al. 2003, in press),[40] (Rusciadelli et al. 2003) ,[41] (Rusciadelli 2005).[42]

Structure[edit]

The working group 'Structure', led by Chieti University and coordinated by Chieti and Rome-III University, constructed a structural map of the Majella mountain. This structural framework is accompanied by five structural cross-sections of the anticline, which together provide an overview of the internal structure of the Majella mountain. The Working Group furthermore performed a systematic analysis of kinematic data collected on fault surfaces (indications for type of movement and timing of the fault network). This resulted in a detailed framework for the deformation history of the Majella anticline, which shows the style of movement on various sets of faults and their relationships in time. In order to obtain a constraint on the type of stress field responsible for the deformations observed, a paleostress analysis using numerical inversion techniques was performed on the same kinematic data, and a palaeo-stress map was constructed.

Connected to the structural cartography and mapping, analyses was conducted regarding the slope stability of the area and the occurrence of large scale land-slides that occurred in (pre-)historical times. Some results can be found in (Di Luzio et al. 2003, a),[43] (Di Luzio et al. 2003, b),[44] and (Scarascia-Mugnozza et al. 2003).[45]

Another fundamental piece of research performed during the project concerns the analysis of present day uplift and subsidence rates of the area using remote sensing techniques such as Radar Interferometric techniques. The first results of the research were published by (Pizzi 2003),[46] and (Pizzi & Pugliese 2004).[47]

Fracture acquisition and modeling[edit]

Fault Zone in biocalcarenites exposed near the village Pennapiedimonte.

The working group 'Fracture', led and coordinated by Camerino University, has examined the fracture network of the Majella anticline on various scales using different acquisition and analysis techniques. About 50 vertical and horizontal outcrop surfaces were scanned and properties (orientation, dimension, surface texture, aperture) of about 4500 fractures were measured. Additionally, 25 scan lines on main faults were measured in order to analyse the properties of the fault zones and their relation to the stratigraphy and structural setting. Furthermore, in collaboration with Eni SpA and Serma SrL[48] personnel, data acquisition was performed on a number of selected sites using stereo-photogrammetrical techniques, which allowed the acquisition of three-dimensional data on the fault and fracture networks up to tens of metres scale. Using these techniques, about 120.000 fractures were measured at these selected sites. Some results of these analyses and modelling can be found in (Marchegiani et al. 2002),[49] (Cello et al. 2003),[50] (Tondi & Cello 2003),[51] (Marchegiani et al. 2006),[52] (Tondi et al. 2006),[53] and (Bazalgette et al. 2010).[54]

Hundreds of smaller and larger areas were studied during the TFM Project, and three sites of particular interest are mentioned here:

The ancient Madonna della Mazza stone Quarry, located on the eastern central side of the mountain massif near the village Pretoro, was extensively studied by the various members of the project, on various scales and applying different type of data acquisition and analyses techniques. The quarry was identified in 1993 by an Eni scouting field trip. In 1995 it was extensively described for the first time and its potential for fracture studies was outlined (van Dijk et al. 1995, 1996, 1998, 2000, Int. Rept.).[16] After these preliminary notes, the studies of the TaskForceMajella were performed (such as a complete 3D photogrammetrical survey), and the quarry became one of the favorite sites for a visit during many field excursions (van Dijk 2002, c).[32] For this purpose, the quarry was extensively cleaned and made available for visiting and studying, will all kinds of instruments, as part of the logistics activities of the TFM Project. During these numerous visits, the results of the TaskForceMajella Project were illustrated, and the quarry became well known as the site where deformation bands in carbonate rocks had been discovered and described for the first time (van Dijk et al. 2002).[55] The first results of the fracture studies were published by (Tondi et al. 2006).[53]

Bitumen occurrence in the Valle Romana Quarry, Lettomanoppello.

Another extensively studied site (where also three-dimensional photogrammetrical surveys were performed on various scales) regards the ancient Valle Romana bitumen quarry situated in the area of the village Lettomanoppello, where calcarenites partially impregnated with heavy oil testify that the Majella anticline can be regarded as a partially filled oil reservoir. This, still active quarry was identified in 1992 by an Eni field scouting as a potential study site. In 1995 it was extensively described for the first time (van Dijk et al. 1995, 1996, 1998, 2000, Int. Rept.).[16] Studies that formed part of TaskForceMajella were carried out, following on these preliminary but exhaustive notes (The present owner Italcementi gave their permission, thanks to the extensive logistics efforts performed for the TFM Project). Amongst other, the quarry was covered by a complete topographic and 3D photogrammetrical survey on various scales. For obvious reasons, the quarry became one of the favorite sites visited on many field excursions (van Dijk 2002, c).[32] The first results of the fracture studies were successively published by (Agosta et al. 2009)[56] and (Agosta et al. 2010)[57] (see also (van Dijk 2011)[2]).

A site of intensive study was the Valle Santo Spirito, situated in the area of the village Fara San Martino. This area is characterised by steep canyons in strongly lithified platform carbonates which show characteristic deformation patterns. Basic observations and characterisation of the site were described by (van Dijk et al. 1995, 1996, 1998, 2000, Int. Rept.)[16] Extensive photogrammetrical surveys at various scales were conducted in this area during the TFM Project. Some results of the studies can be found in (Marchegiani et al. 2002),[49] and (Bazalgette et al. 2010).[54]

The pain stacking analysis of all these data resulted in a number of major constraints on the relation between fracture network and anticline structure and evolution, and fault zones and mechanical Stratigraphy.

Numerical simulation and analogue modeling[edit]

Example of a Discrete Fault and Fracture Network generated for a piece of rock part of the Madonna della Mazza Quarry. The model is based on the discretization of the actual fractures observed in the rock (it is a deterministic "Data Driven Model" (van Dijk 2002, b),[58] not probabilistic). Size of the model: circa 1 cubic meter. The sedimentary bedding is indicated in brown; Three different colours are used for the fracture types; blu-closed fractures; purple-remobilized fractures; red-open fractures

The Working Group Modelling, led by the Research Centre CNR of Rome, has performed various types of modeling exercises, such as:

  • the construction of a regional subsurface model based on the interpretation and calibration of a number of composite seismic sections (Rome, Pisa and Chieti University),
  • the numerical modelling of the deformation history of the anticline (Eni and Perugia University) using Fracture mechanics related algorithms,
  • a number of modeling exercises were performed to generate three-dimensional models of Discrete Fault and Fracture Networks (van Dijk 1998)[59] for different type settings (Camerino University, Eni, NorskHydro), which properties are used to populate dynamic simulators during the dynamic simulation of hydrocarbon reservoirs, and
  • the analogue modelling through sandbox experiments of the deformation history of the area (Amsterdam University).

These modelling exercises provide insight into the relationships between the deformation styles we observe today and the processes that are responsible for these end-results. In order to perform the numerical and analogue simulations, data had to be collected in order to describe the geomechanical properties of the various tectonostratigraphic units and environments that characterise the Majella anticline and its bordering area. Representative samples were collected by the various operational units of the Project and laboratory deformation experiments were performed in Eni and in NorskHydro mechanical laboratories.

See also[edit]

Area[edit]

Geology[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Sometimes the TFM is confused with a project of petroleum exploration in a selected area. This is based on a misunderstanding and wishfull thinking. No initiative of this kind has ever been conducted by the involved energy companies. The area of the Majella Mountain shows no exploration potential whatsoever and is, in that sense, not interesting at all. The area was selected for scientific reasons in order to study the Mountain as an example of an uplifted reservoir which due to its uplift never became a real reservoir, not as a potential reservoir itself. In the surrounding areas similar small analogue subsurface structures were drilled and have produced moderate amounts of hydrocarbons.
  2. ^ a b c van Dijk 2011.
  3. ^ a b Bally 1954, Int. Rept..
  4. ^ a b Donzelli 1969.
  5. ^ Crescenti et al. 1969, a.
  6. ^ Crescenti et al. 1969, b.
  7. ^ Servizio Geologico d’Italia 1970, b.
  8. ^ Catenacci 1974.
  9. ^ http://www.apat.gov.it/Media/carta_geologica_italia/tavoletta.asp?foglio=147
  10. ^ Vecsei et al. 1998.
  11. ^ Bernoulli et al. 1996.
  12. ^ Vezzani & Ghisetti 1998.
  13. ^ Calamita et al. 2002.
  14. ^ Vezzani et al. 2010.
  15. ^ van Dijk 1999-2000, Int. Rept..
  16. ^ a b c d e van Dijk et al. 1995, 1996, 1998, 2000, Int. Rept..
  17. ^ Crescenti et al. 2003.
  18. ^ http://www.socgeol.it
  19. ^ http://www.mssu.edu/seg-vm/bio_albert_w__bally.html
  20. ^ http://terra.rice.edu/department/faculty/bally/bally.html
  21. ^ http://www.springerlink.com/content/n3w531vvn7026233
  22. ^ http://www.eni.com
  23. ^ http://www.statoil.com
  24. ^ http://www.falw.vu.nl/en/research/earth-sciences/tectonics-and-structural-geology/people/cloetingh.asp
  25. ^ http://www.newtec.nl)
  26. ^ http://www.gm.univ-montp2.fr/spip/spip.php?article607
  27. ^ http://www.fault-analysis-group.ucd.ie
  28. ^ http://www.fault-analysis-group.ucd.ie/Indices/STAFF.html
  29. ^ http://pangea.stanford.edu/research/geomech/RFP/RFP.html
  30. ^ http://www.dstu.univ-montp2.fr/geofracnet
  31. ^ http://www.geoter.fr
  32. ^ a b c van Dijk 2002, c.
  33. ^ http://www.sferae.org
  34. ^ http://www.apat.gov.it/site/it-it/Progetti/Progetto_CARG_-_Cartografia_geologica_e_geotematica
  35. ^ http://www.isprambiente.gov.it/MEDIA/carg/abruzzo.html
  36. ^ http://www.crop.cnr.it
  37. ^ http://www.cgrit.it
  38. ^ a b Patacca & Scandone 2006, in press..
  39. ^ Cippolari et al. 2003.
  40. ^ Morsilli et al. 2003, in press.
  41. ^ Rusciadelli et al. 2003.
  42. ^ Rusciadelli 2005.
  43. ^ Di Luzio et al. 2003, a.
  44. ^ Di Luzio et al. 2003, b.
  45. ^ Scarascia-Mugnozza et al. 2003.
  46. ^ Pizzi 2003.
  47. ^ Pizzi & Pugliese 2004.
  48. ^ http://www.paginegialle.it/pgol/5-serma/3-rho
  49. ^ a b Marchegiani et al. 2002.
  50. ^ Cello et al. 2003.
  51. ^ Tondi & Cello 2003.
  52. ^ Marchegiani et al. 2006.
  53. ^ a b Tondi et al. 2006.
  54. ^ a b Bazalgette et al. 2010.
  55. ^ van Dijk et al. 2002.
  56. ^ Agosta et al. 2009.
  57. ^ Agosta et al. 2010.
  58. ^ van Dijk 2002, b.
  59. ^ van Dijk 1998.

Sources - further reading[edit]

This is a series of references made to scientific works that treat the geoscience of the Majella Mountain, and publications related to the subjects treated in the TaskForceMajella Project.

  • Bally, A. (1954, Int. Rept.), "Geologische Untersuchungen in den SE-Abruzzen (Gebiet schwischen der Eben von Sulmona und den Taebern des Pescara und des unteren Sangro).", PhD Thesis Zürich Univ., Bühler Buchdruck, Zürich, 291 pp. 
  • Bernoulli, D., Anselmetti, F.S., Eberli, G.P., Mutti, M., Pignatti, J.S., Sanders, D.G.K., and Vecsei, A. (1996), "Montagna della Maiella: the sedimentary and sequential evolution of a Bahamian-type carbonate platform of the south-tethyan continental margin.", Mem. Soc. Geol. Ital., 51, 7-12. 
  • Calamita, F., Scisciani, V., Montefalcone, R., Paltrinieri, W., and Pizzi, A. (2002), "L’eredità del paleomargine dell’Adria nella geometria del sistema orogenetico centro-apenninico: L’area abruzzese esterna.", Mem. Soc. Geol. Ital., 57, 355-358. 
  • Catenacci, V. (1974), "Foglio 147, Lanciano.", Note illustrative della carta geologica d’Italia - Alla scala 1:100.000. Ministero dell’Industria, del Commercio e dell’Artigianato, Servizio Geologico d’Italia. Nuova Tecnica Grafica, Roma, 87 pp. 
  • Crescenti, U., Crostella, A., and Donzinelli, G. (1969, a), "Stratigrafia della serie calcarea dal Lias al Miocene nella regione marchigiano-abruzzese.", Mem. Soc. Geol. Ital., 8, 141. 
  • Crescenti, U., Crostella, A., Donzinelli, G., and Raffi, G. (1969, b), "Stratigrafia della serie calcarea dal Lias al Miocene nella regione marchigiano-abruzzese (Parte II -Litostratigrafia, biostratigrafia, paleogeografia).", Mem. Soc. Geol. Ital., 8 (2), 343-420. 
  • Donzelli, G. (1969), "Studio geologico della Maiella.", A cura di U. Crescenti, Univ. G. D’Annuzio, Chieti, Dip. Scienze della Terra. Tip. Di Virgilio, Chieti, 1997, 49 pp. 
  • Servizio Geologico d’Italia (1970, b), "Carta Geologica d’Italia (scala 1:100.000). Foglio 147 "Lanciano", 1970.", Servizio Geologico d'Italia, Roma. 
  • van Dijk, J.P. (1998), "Analysis and modelling of fractured reservoirs.", SPE paper 50570, Europec; European Petroleum Conference, Vol.1, 31-43. 
  • van Dijk, J.P. (2002, b), Paper 8, "Data Driven Fracture Models.", SFERA Inaugural Meeting 2002, Pescara (Italy), Abstracts Volume: 41–45. 
  • Vecsei, A., Sanders, D., Bernoulli, D., Eberli, G.P., and Pignatti, J.S. (1998), "Cretaceous to Miocene sequence stratigraphy and evolution of the Maiella carbonate platform margin, Italy.", In: De Graciansky, pp.C., Jacquin, T. and Vail, pp.R. (Eds.); Mesozoic and Cenozoic Sequence Stratigraphy of European Basins, Spec.Publ. Soc.econ.Paleont.Mineral., n. 60, 53-74. 
  • Vezzani, L., and Ghisetti, F. (1998), "Carta Geologica dell’Abruzzo 1:100.000.", Regione Abruzzo, Settore Urbanistica-Beni ambientali e culturali. SELCA, Firenze, 1998. 

Sources - TFM related papers[edit]

This list contains papers issued during and after the TaskForceMajella Project, which are the result of research conducted directly for the Project, in relation with the Project, and/or benefitting considerably of the activities of the Project, issued both during and after the Project.

  • Agosta, Fabrizio, Alessandroni, Mauro, Tondi, Emanuele, Aydin, Atilla (2009), "Oblique normal faulting along the northern edge of the Majella Anticline, central Italy: Inferences on hydrocarbon migration and accumulation.", Journal of Structural Geology, Vol. 31, pp. 674-690 
  • Agosta, F., Alessandroni, M., Antonellini, M. E. Tondi, E., and Giorgioni, M. (2010), "From fractures to flow: A field-based quantitative analysis of an outcropping carbonate reservoir.", Tectonophysics, Vol. 490, pp. 197-213. 
  • Bazalgette, L., Petit, J.-P., Amrhar, M., and Ouanaïmi, H. (2010), "Aspects and origins of fractured dip-domain boundaries in folded carbonate rocks.", Journal of Structural Geology, Vol. 32, pp. 523-536. 
  • Cello, G., Tondi, E., van Dijk, J.P., Mattioni, L., Miccarelli, L., and Pinti, S. (2003), "Geometry, kinematics and scaling properties of faults and fractures as tools for modelling geofluid reservoirs: examples from the Apennines, Italy.", In: Nieuwland, D. (Ed.); New Insights into Structural Interpretation and Modelling. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, Vol. 212, pp. 7-22. 
  • Cippolari, P., Cosentino, D., Di Bella, L., Gliozzi, E., and Pipponzi, G. (2003), "Inizio della sedimentazione d'avanfossa nella Maiella meridionale: la sezione di Fonte dei Pulcini (Taranto Peligna).", Studi Geologici Camerti, Numero speciale 2003, pp. 63-71. 
  • Crescenti, U., Miccadei, E., and Praturlon, A. (2003), "Abruzzo. 15 itinerari.", Guide Geologiche Regionali a cura della Società Geologica Italiana, Vol. 10. 337 pp. BE-MA editrice, Milano. 
  • Di Luzio, E., Bianchi-Fasani, G., Saroli, M., Esposito, C., Cavinato, G.P., and Scarascia-Mugnozza, G. (2003, a), "Massive rock slope failure in the central Apennines (Italy): the case of the Campo di Giove rock avalanche.", Bullettin of Engineering Geology and the Environment, in press. 2003. 
  • Di Luzio, E., Saroli, M., Esposito, C., Bianchi-Fasani, G., Cavinato, G.P., and Scarascia-Mugnozza, G. (2003, b), "The influence of inherited structural framework on deep-seated gravity deformation phenomena: the fault-bounded Maiella anticline (central Apennines, Italy).", Geomorphology, in press. 2003. 
  • Grasmueck, M., Eberli, G.P., Marchesini, P., Coll, M., Sekti, R.P., Lamarche, J., Graham Wall, B., and Gillespie, P. (2010), "Fracture and Deformation Band Visualization Using Full-Resolution 3D Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) in Cretaceous Carbonates.", Poster Presentation, AAPG Annual Convention and Exhibition, Denver, Colorado, June 7–10, 2009. 
  • Lavenu, A.P.C., Lamarche, J., Salardon, R., Gallois, A., and Gauthier, D.M. (2012), "Relating Background Fractures to Diagenesis and Rock Physical Properties in a Platform-Slope Transect, Example of Maiella Mountain (Central Italy).", Oral presentation at AAPG Hedberg Conference, Fundamental Controls on Flow in Carbonates, July 8–13, 2012, Saint-Cyr Sur Mer, Provence, France, AAPG, 6 pp. 
  • Marchegiani, L., van Dijk, J.P., Gillespie, P.A., Tondi, E., and Cello, G. (2006), "Scaling properties of the dimensional and spatial characteristics of fault and fracture systems in the Majella Mountain, Central Italy.", In: Fractal Analysis of Natural hazards. Geol. Soc. London, Special Publications, Vol. 261, 113-131. 
  • Marchegiani, L., van Dijk, J.P., Tondi, E., and Cello, G. (2002), Paper 17,, "Scaling Properties of Fracture Networks in the Majella Mountain, Central Italy.", SFERA Inaugural Meeting 2002, Pescara (Italy), Abstracts Volume: 80–81. 
  • Marchesini, P., Grasmueck, M.P., Eberli, G., Zeller, M., and Van Dam, R. (2010), "Tracking Fluid Flow with 4-D Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) in a fractured Carbonate Reservoir.", AAPG Annual Convention and Exhibition, 11–14 April 2010, 1 p. 
  • Morsilli, M., Rusciadelli, G., and Milia, M.L. (2003, in press), 3D reconstruction of a Cretaceous scalopped bank margin: the Apulia Carbonate Platform (Montagna della Maiella, Italy). 
  • Patacca, E., and Scandone, P. (2006, in press.), "Geological Map of the Majella Mountain. Scale 1:25.000.", S.E.L.C.A., Firenze (It.) 
  • Pizzi, A. (2003), "Plio-Quaternary uplift rates in the outer zone of the central Apennine fold-and-thrust belt, Italy.", Quaternary International, 101-102C, 229 - 237. 
  • Pizzi, A., and Pugliese, G. (2004), "InSAR-DEM analyses integrated with geologic field methods for the study of long-term seismogenic fault behavior: Applications in the axial zone of the central Apennines (Italy).", Journal of Seismology, Vol. 8, n. 3, 313-329. 
  • Rusciadelli, G., Sciarra, N., and Magnifesta, M. (2003), "2D Modelling of large-scale margin collapses along an ancient carbonate platform edge (Maiella Mt., Central Apennines, Italy): Geological model and conceptual framework.", Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 3140, pp. 1-18. 
  • Rusciadelli, G. (2005), "The Maiella Escarpment (Apulia platform, Italy): Geology and Modeling of an Upper Cretaceous Scalloped Erosional Platform margin.", Boll. Soc. Geol. Ital., Vol. 124, pp. 661-673. 
  • Scarascia-Mugnozza, G., Bianchi-Fasani, G., Esposito, C., Di Luzio, E., Martino, S., Saroli, M., and Evans, S.G. (2003), "Rock avalanche and mountain slope deformation in a convex, dip-slope: the case of the Maiella Massif (central Italy).", In: Evans, S.G., Scarascia-Mugnozza, G., Ermanns, R., Strom, A. (Eds). Massive rock slope failure. Nato Science Series Book, Kluiver Academic Publisher, in press. 2003. 
  • Tondi, E., and Cello, G. (2003), "Spatiotemporal evolution of the Central Apennines fault system (Italy).", J. of Geod., 36, 113-128. 
  • Tondi, E., Antonellini, M., Aydin, A., Marchegiani, L., and Cello, G. (2006), "The role of deformation bands, stylolites and sheared stylolites in fault development in carbonate grainstones of Majela Mountain, Italy.", J. Struct. Geol., 28, 376-391. 
  • van Dijk, J.P. (2002, c), "The Project TaskForceMajella.", SFERA Inaugural Meeting 2002, Pescara (Italy), Abstracts Volume: 105–113. 
  • van Dijk, J.P. (1999-2000, Int. Rept.), "TaskForceMajella. Project description.", Editions 1999 (Italian), 2000 (English). 22 pp, with appendices. Eni-Agip, GEBA-GESE, 1999-2000. 
  • van Dijk, J.P. (2011), "TaskForceMajella: Internationale inspanningen ontsluieren geheimen oliereservoir.", GEA, Juni 2011, Vol. 44, nr. 2, pp. 35-59. 
  • van Dijk, J.P., Gillespie, P., Rawnsley, K., Ameen, M., Cello, G., Petit, J.P., Marchegiani, L., Meazza, O., Bonora, E., Pau, S., Assoni, S., and Orsini, R. (2002), Paper 9, "A new faulting mechanism in carbonate rocks. Examples from Majella Mountain Anticline, Italy.", SFERA Inaugural Meeting 2002, Pescara (Italy), Abstracts Volume: 46–49. 
  • van Dijk, J.P., Nardon, S., and Reali, S. (1995, 1996, 1998, 2000, Int. Rept.), "Montagna della Majella. Field Trip Guide Book.", 1st, 2nd, 2nd-bis and 3rd Editions. Eni-Agip, PETR-GEBA-GESE, 1995-2000. 
  • Vezzani, L., Festa, A., and Ghisetti, F.C. (2010), "Geology and Tectonic Evolution of the Central-Southern Apennines, Italy.", The Geological Society of America, Special Paper 469, 58 pp. With 15 Annexes., ISBN 978-0-8137-2469-0 

External links[edit]