Task Force 80
|Task Force 80 (TF-80)|
|Active||1 October 2012 – present|
|Country||United States of America|
|Branch||United States Navy|
|Role||Maritime Headquarters (MHQ)|
|Part of||United States Fleet Forces Command|
|Garrison/HQ||Naval Station Norfolk, Virginia|
|Director||Rear Admiral Bradley R. Gehrke, USN|
Task Force 80, abbreviated as TF-80, is the designation of several U.S. Navy task forces, with its current use associated with a major task force within the United States Fleet Forces Command headquartered at Naval Station Norfolk, Virginia.
During World War Two, Task Force 80 was the designation for the Western Naval Task Force, under the command of Vice Admiral Henry K. Hewitt, USN, during the Allied invasion of Sicily and Salerno landings, the first sustained land assault and invasion of the European continent undertaken by the Allied powers. The Western Naval Task Force landed the U.S. Seventh Army under Lieutenant General George S. Patton, USA, on the southern coast of the island of Sicily on 10 July 1943. This task force subsequently landed the U.S. Fifth Army under Lieutenant General Mark W. Clark, USA, in southern Italy near the seaport of Salerno on 9 September 1943.
After World War Two, Task Force 80 was the designation for a 1948 joint Navy-Coast Guard task force consisting of the Wind-class icebreakers USCGC Edisto and USCGC Eastwind, as well as the Andromeda-class attack cargo ship USS Wyandot. This Task Force 80 resupplied weather stations at Thule, Greenland, and on Ellesmere Island while establishing a new weather station on the northern point of that island. Additionally, the ships performed reconnaissance for the establishment of additional weather stations, carried out cold-weather operations, tested equipment, and collected a variety of scientific data.
Finally, Task Force 80 was the designation for the Naval Patrol and Protection of Shipping Force of the U.S. Atlantic Fleet during the Cold War and thereafter. This TF-80's mission was the coordination of the U.S. naval forces in order to protect merchant marine shipping from hostile action in the event of a theoretical third Battle of the Atlantic.
According to the executive summary of the commander's vision and guidance of October 2012, U.S. Fleet Forces Command is based upon the three tenets of war-fighting, forward operations, and readiness as set forth in the Navigation Plan 2013–2017 guidance from the Chief of Naval Operation. To achieve these objectives, Fleet Forces Command was realigned to a command structure centered around a Maritime Operations Center and Maritime Headquarters.
The Maritime Operations Center (MOC) is the lead agency for all phases of the pre-deployment fleet response training plan (FRTP) cycle involving those naval units assigned to the Fleet Forces Command. In essence, the MOC is responsible for the transition of all naval units from their operational phase to their tactical phase prior to their overseas deployment.
The Maritime Headquarters (MHQ) is the lead agency for all phases prior to the pre-deployment training cycle, including resourcing, policy development, assessment, procurement, and pre-introduction of naval units assigned to the Fleet Forces Command. In essence, the MHQ is responsible for the transition of all naval units from their strategical phase to their operational phase prior to their pre-deployment training cycle.
Consequently, effective 1 October 2012, Task Force 20 was re-designated as Task Force 80, a major task force within the U.S. Fleet Forces Command. TF-80 serves as the designation for the Maritime Headquarters (MHQ) component for Fleet Forces Command, and it is organized into the following task groups. They are:
- Task Group 80.1 — Strike Force Training Atlantic
- Task Group 80.2 — Carrier Strike Group Two
- Task Group 80.3 — Carrier Strike Group Eight (pictured)
- Task Group 80.4 — Carrier Strike Group Ten
- Task Group 80.5 — Carrier Strike Group Twelve
- Task Group 80.6 — Navy Expeditionary Combat Command
- Task Group 80.7 — Patrol Coastal Squadron One
- Task Group 80.8 — Destroyer Squadron Fourteen
- Task Group 80.9 — Expeditionary Strike Group Two
- Task Group 80.11 — Naval Air Force Atlantic
- Task Group 80.12 — Reconnaissance – Commander Patrol and Reconnaissance Group (RECON – CPRG)
- Task Group 80.14 — Explosive Ordnance Disposal Group Two
- Task Group 80.15 — Coastal Riverine Group Two
Task Force 80 organizes its units in order to execute at-sea and other operational objectives conducted under command authority of the U.S. Navy. The commander of Task Force 80 is the director of the Maritime Headquarters staff, an active-duty two-star rear admiral. When constituted as a joint task force for multi-service operations with the U.S. Northern Command, Task Force 80 will be re-designated as Task Force 180. TF-180's objective is to execute the Maritime Command Element (MCE) functions based on the U.S. eastern seaboard as directed by Joint Forces Maritime Component Commander North (JFMCC-N) who is also the Fleet Forces commander. Task Force 180 is supported in this task by applicable capabilities and assets provided from Fleet Operations Task Forces of the U.S. Fleet Forces Command when these fleet formations are acting as joint task forces.
- "Rear Admiral Bradley R. Gehrke". Official Biography. United States Navy. 6 September 2013. Retrieved 2012-09-09.
- Morison 2011, pp. 385–394
- Morison 2011, pp. 52–147
- Morison 2011, pp. 225–314
- "Edisto". Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. Navy Department, Naval History & Heritage Command. Retrieved 2013-03-16.
- "Wyandot". Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. Navy Department, Naval History & Heritage Command. Retrieved 2013-03-16.
- Kikkert, Peter; Lackenbauer, P. Whitney (2 October 2011). "Setting an Arctic Course: Task Force 80 and Canadian Control in the Arctic, 1948". Northern Mariner / Le Marin du Nord 21 (4). Retrieved 2013-03-16.
- Metcalf 1949
- "Commander, Task Force 80 (CTF-80), Protection of Shipping Force, Naval Control and Protection of Shipping (NCAPS)". GlobalSecurity.org. May 7, 2011. Retrieved 2013-03-16.
- Polmar 1993, p. 34 (Table 6-3)
- Department of Defense Handbook 2004, p. 298
- Admiral William E. Gortney, USN (October 2012). "Commander's Vision and Guidance: Executive Summary". Retrieved 2012-03-17. "Pages 1—4."
- Admiral Jonathan Greenert, USN (2012). "CNO’s Navigation Plan 2013–2017". Retrieved 2012-03-17.
- "USFF Commanders Guidance Brief to Senior Staff 17 Sep_FINAL". Scribd.com. September 17, 2012. Retrieved 2012-03-15. "Slides 22, 43—49."
- "Rename and Modify Mission of Commander, Patrol and Reconnaissance Group Atlantic and Change Immediate Superior in Command of Patrol Squadron Three Zero". Documents. United States Navy. July 9, 2012. Retrieved 2013-10-08. "DNS-33/12U102106. Formerly known as Patrol and Reconnaissance Group Atlantic."
- "Philippine Navy". The Official Navy Field Philippine Forums. 2009. Retrieved 2013-03-16.
- This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. The entries can be found here and here.
- Metcalf, William G. (1949). Oceanographic Program of the US Navy Task Force 80 Arctic Operation, Summer 1948. Woods Hole, Massachusetts: Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. OCLC 37318616. Retrieved 2013-03-16. "Available on microfilm."
- "Volume 3: Organization, Strategic Information, Policies". Department of Defense Handbook (4th ed.). Washington, DC: International Business Publication, USA. 2004. ISBN 978-0-7397-0668-8.
- Morison, Samuel Eliot (2011) . "Volume 9: Sicily-Salerno-Anxio, January 1943 – June 1944". The History of United States Naval Operations in World War Two. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-1-5911-4575-2. Retrieved 2013-03-16.
- Polmar, Norman (1993). The Naval Institute Guide to The Ships and Aircraft of the U.S. Fleet (15th ed.). Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-675-2.
- Hutchins, Susan G.; Kemple, William G.; Kleinman, David L.; Miller, Scot; Pfeiffer, Karl; Weil, Shawn; Horn, Zachary; Puglisi, Matthew (2009). Maritime Headquarters with Maritime Operations Center: A Research Agenda for Experimentation. Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School.
- Lawlor, Maryann (November 2007). "A New Role for Maritime Headquarters". SIGNAL (Fairfax, Virginia: AFCEA). Retrieved 2013-03-18.
- Task Force 80 — GlobalSecurity.org