Tat language (Caucasus)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Tat
Tati
Native to Azerbaijan, Israel, Russia, USA
Region Northeastern Azerbaijan
Native speakers
unknown (undated figure of 28,000 excluding Judeo-Tat)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3 ttt
Linguasphere 58-AAC-g
{{{mapalt}}}

The Tat language or Tat/Tati Persian[3] or Tati is a Southwestern Iranian language and a variety of Persian[3][4][5][6][7] spoken by the Tats in Azerbaijan and Russia. Its written form is related to Middle Persian Pahlavi. There is also an Iranian language called Judeo-Tat spoken by Jews of the Caucasus that is related to Tat.

The Tats are an indigenous Iranian people in the Caucasus.[8][9]

Vladimir Minorsky mentions in the first edition of Encyclopaedia of Islam that like most Persian dialects, Tati is not very regular in its characteristics, and occupies a position between modern Persian and the Caspian dialects.[10] According to him, The Great Russian Encyclopedia of 1901 gives the number of Tati speakers in 1901 as 135,000.[10] In the 1930s, Minorsky estimated the number of Tati speakers to be 90,000 and the decrease to be the result of gradual Turkicization.[10]

Tat is endangered,[11][12] classified as "severely endangered" by UNESCO's Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger.[13]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Tat at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  2. ^ Windfuhr, Gernot. The Iranian Languages. Routledge. 2009. p. 417.
  3. ^ a b Gernot Windfuhr, "Persian Grammar: history and state of its study", Walter de Gruyter, 1979. pg 4:""Tat- Persian spoken in the East Caucasus""
  4. ^ V. Minorsky, "Tat" in M. Th. Houtsma et al., eds., The Encyclopædia of Islam: A Dictionary of the Geography, Ethnography and Biography of the Muhammadan Peoples, 4 vols. and Suppl., Leiden: Late E.J. Brill and London: Luzac, 1913–38.
  5. ^ V. Minorsky, "Tat" in M. Th. Houtsma et al., eds., The Encyclopædia of Islam: A Dictionary of the Geography, Ethnography and Biography of the Muhammadan Peoples, 4 vols. and Suppl., Leiden: Late E.J. Brill and London: Luzac, 1913–38. Excerpt: Like most Persian dialects, Tati is not very regular in its characteristic features"
  6. ^ C Kerslake, Journal of Islamic Studies (2010) 21 (1): 147-151. excerpt:"It is a comparison of the verbal systems of three varieties of Persian—standard Persian, Tat, and Tajik—in terms of the 'innovations' that the latter two have developed for expressing finer differentiations of tense, aspect and modality..." [1]
  7. ^ Borjian, Habib, "Tabari Language Materials from Il'ya Berezin's Recherches sur les dialectes persans", Iran and the Caucasus, Volume 10, Number 2, 2006 , pp. 243-258(16). Excerpt:"It embraces Gilani, Ta- lysh, Tabari, Kurdish, Gabri, and the Tati Persian of the Caucasus, all but the last belonging to the north-western group of Iranian language."
  8. ^ H. Pilkington,"Islam in Post-Soviet Russia",Psychology Press, Nov 27, 2002. p. 27: "Among other indigenous peoples of Iranian origin were the Tats, the Talishes and the Kurds"
  9. ^ T. M. Masti︠u︡gina, Lev Perepelkin, Vitaliĭ Vi͡a︡cheslavovich Naumkin, "An Ethnic History of Russia: Pre-Revolutionary Times to the Present",Greenwood Publishing Group, 1996 . p. 80:""The Iranian Peoples (Ossetians, Tajiks, Tats, Mountain Judaists)"
  10. ^ a b c V. Minorsky, "Tat" in M. Th. Houtsma et al., eds., The Encyclopædia of Islam: A Dictionary of the Geography, Ethnography and Biography of the Muhammadan Peoples, 4 vols. and Suppl., Leiden: Late E.J. Brill and London: Luzac, 1913–38. Excerpt: Like most Persian dialects, Tati is not very regular in its characteristic features"
  11. ^ Published in: Encyclopedia of the world’s endangered languages. Edited by Christopher Moseley. London & New York: Routledge, 2007. 211–280.
  12. ^ Do the Talysh and Tat Languages Have a Future in Azerbaijan?
  13. ^ UNESCO Interactive Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger

External links[edit]