|Also called||one-lakh car|
|Assembly||Sanand Plant, Sanand, Gujarat, India|
|Body style||4-door one-box|
|Engine||2 cylinder SOHC petrol Bosch multi-point fuel injection (single injector) all aluminium 624 cc (38 cu in)|
|Transmission||4 speed synchromesh with overdrive in 4th|
|Wheelbase||2,230 mm (87.8 in)|
|Length||3,099 mm (122.0 in)|
|Width||1,495 mm (58.9 in)|
|Height||1,652 mm (65.0 in)|
|Kerb weight||600 kg (1,300 lb)–635 kg (1,400 lb)|
|Designer(s)||Girish Wagh, Justin Norek, Pierre Castinel|
The Tata Nano is a city car manufactured by Tata Motors. Made and sold in India, the Nano is the cheapest car in the world today. Before it went on sale, a price of 1 lakh (US$1,800) was widely touted. Since its 2009 debut, the price has increased. Nevertheless, the Nano remains the lowest-cost four-wheeled passenger vehicle in India.
After having successfully launched the low cost Tata Ace truck in 2005, Tata Motors began development of an affordable car that would appeal to the many Indians who drive motorcycles. The purchase price of this no frills auto was brought down by dispensing with most nonessential features, reducing the amount of steel used in its construction, and relying on low cost Indian labor, as well as a new design concept called Frugal Engineering. 
“Frugal Engineering” was a term coined in 2006 by Renault Chief Executive Carlos Ghosen to describe the design process behind the Tata Nano. This type of design concept was designed to better the those at the bottom of the pyramid.  However, “A Study on Consumer Perceptions & Expectations for Tata Nano” shows that the bottom of the pyramid is not very aware of what they are getting when purchasing a Tata Nano.  While that paper may seem to focus on the Indian contribution, the Nano was a truly international effort. “Tata turned to Germany’s Bosch for a new engine-management system; Italy’s I.D. E. A. Institute and Trilix for styling and exterior design; India’s Sona Koyo for lightweight steering shafts; America’s Johnson Controls for the seating system; Japan’s Toyo for the engine-cooling Germany’s Behr for the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning system; and India’s Madras Rubber Factory for tougher than normal rear tires.”  So to call it the Indian Car is understandable, but misleading. The Nano is an excellent example of LAPD. The "LAPD (lean principle applied product development) process is implemented with utilization of external sources of knowledge and utilization of the digital technology that support the product development process in order to complement the weakness of technological capability."  While the Nano is engineerd from the bottom up, the existing economies of scale from other manufactures are not to be ignored. For the Nano, Tata motors chose to "outsource 85% of the Nano’s components and use 60% fewer vendors than normal to reduce transaction costs and achieve better economies of scale".
The introduction of the Nano received much media attention due to its low price.
Expectations and effects 
Expectations created for the car during the run up to its production may have been out of proportion with its realized success. A 2008 study, by Indian rating agency CRISIL, thought the Nano would expand the nation's car market by 65%, but, as of late 2012, news reports have detailed the underwhelming response of the Indian consumer to the offering; sales in the first two fiscal years after the car's unveiling remained steady at about 70,000 units although Tata appears intent on maintaining a capacity to produce the car in much larger quantities, some 250,000 per year, should the need arise.
It was anticipated that its 2009 debut would greatly affect the used car market, and prices did drop 25-30% prior to the launch. Sales of the Nano's nearest competitor, the Maruti 800, fell by 20% immediately following the unveiling of the Nano. It is unknown if the Nano has had a lasting effect on the prices of and demand for close substitutes, however. In July 2012, Tata Group Chairman, Ratan Tata, said that the car has immense potential in the developing world while admitting that early opportunities were wasted due to initial problems.
Singur factory pullout 
Tata Motors announced in 2006 that the Nano would be manufactured in Singur, West Bengal. Local farmers soon began protesting the forced acquisition of their land the new factory entailed. Tata first delayed the Nano launch and later decided to build the car in a different state, Gujarat, instead.
Gujarat factory controversy 
The plant was moved to Gujarat after the controversy in Singur. The Gujarat plant came under severe criticism from sections of society, due to a large amount of soft-loan offered by the Gujarat government. The Gujarat government offered a loan of Rs. 9570 Crores, with a meagre interest rate of 0.1% and with the loan to be paid back in 20 years. The government also promised to build a four-lane road and give exemption on electricity duty, registration and transfer charges of land. The government also promised to put up a waste disposal plant, supply natural gas through a pipeline and provide 100 acres near Ahmedabad for a township. 
The opposition parties alleged mass corruption in the project. The opposition is also claiming that the project is actually heavily subsidied by the people to the tune of Rs. 60,000 per car, which is more than half of the initial offer price of the car.  This subsidization comes in many forms. The farmers who agreed to lease their land to Tata motors found out afterward that they would not receive any compensation. The land that government sold to the company was done so for under half of its market value. This is where the savings lie.  The conservative estimates start at US $800 million, which is more than Tata's investment.
|Wikinews has related news: World's cheapest car launched in India, will go on sale in April|
Announced as the least expensive production car in the world, Tata aimed for a price of one lakh rupees, or 100,000, which was approximately $2,000 US at the time. Only the very first customers were able to purchase the car at that price, however, and, as of 2012, the price for the basic Nano is around 150,000. Increasing material costs may be to blame for this rapid rise in price.
Compared to the Volkswagen Beetle it has a relatively low price, however. In 1990, a Beetle from Mexican factories was priced at $5,300, about $9,313 in today's money. The Ford Model T's initial price was about $850, equivalent to $21,719 today.
Cost-cutting features 
The Nano's design implements many measures that make its manufacture cheap.
- The Nano's trunk is only accessible from inside the car, as the rear hatch does not open.
- One windscreen wiper instead of the usual pair (also seen earlier on certain Citroen and Mercedes models) 
- No power steering, unnecessary due to its light weight
- Three lug nuts on the wheels instead of the usual four (also seen on Smart) 
- Only one wing mirror
- Radio or CD player is optional (the idea picked on some basic car models in North America) 
- No airbags on any model 
- 624cc rear engine has only 2 cylinders (recently implemented in new Fiat 500, with a surcharge) 
- No air conditioning in base model (as on most basic car models in Europe and North America) 
Tata Nano 800 
There are reports for a larger capacity Tata Nano, the car will feature an 800cc engine and will compete with the segment topper Maruti Suzuki Alto 800. Most probably the car will be launched by 2013-end and it will have a competitive price tag of around Rs. 2.5 lakh. The 800 version will be the last among the three upgraded versions of Nano, while other two Tata Nano Diesel and Nano CNG will be launched shortly. 
Technical specifications 
The Nano (2012) is a 38 PS (28 kW; 37 hp) car with a two-cylinder 624 cc rear engine.
The development of the Nano had led to 31 Design and 37 Technology patents being filed
|Engine:||2 cylinder petrol with Bosch multi-point fuel injection (single injector) all aluminium 38 metric horsepower (28 kW) 624 cc (38 cu in)|
|Value Motronic engine management platform from Bosch|
|2 valves per cylinder overhead camshaft|
|Compression ratio: 9.5:1|
|bore × stroke: 73.5 mm (2.9 in) × 73.5 mm (2.9 in)|
|Power: 38 PS (28 kW; 37 hp) @ 5500 +/-500 rpm|
|Torque: 51 N·m (38 ft·lbf) @ 3000 +/-500 rpm|
|Layout and Transmission||Rear wheel drive|
|4-speed manual transmission|
|Steering||mechanical rack and pinion w/o servo|
|Turning radius: 4 metres|
|Performance||Acceleration: 0-60 km/h (37 mph): 8 seconds|
|Maximum speed: 105 km/h (65 mph)|
|Fuel efficiency (overall): 25.35 kilometres per litre (4.24 litres per 100 kilometres (66.6 mpg-imp; 55.5 mpg-US))|
|Body and dimensions||Seat belt: 4|
|Trunk capacity: 150 L (5.3 cu ft)|
|Suspension, Tires & Brakes||Front brake: 180 mm drum|
|Rear brake: 180 mm drum|
|Front track: 1,325 mm (52.2 in)|
|Rear track: 1,315 mm (51.8 in)|
|Ground clearance: 180 mm (7.1 in)|
|Front suspension: McPherson strut with lower A arm|
|Rear suspension: Independent coil spring|
|12 in (30.5 cm) wheels|
|Supplier ||Part/system |
|Bosch||Oxygen sensor, Gasoline injection system (diesel will follow), starter, alternator, brake system|
|Continental AG||Gasoline fuel supply system, fuel level sensor|
|Caparo||Inner structural panels|
|HSI AUTO||Static sealing systems (Weather Strips)|
|Rane Madras Limited||Steering Assembly|
|Denso||Windshield wiper system (single motor and arm)|
|FAG Kugelfischer||Rear-wheel bearing|
|Federal-Mogul||Pistons, Piston rings, Spark plugs, Gaskets, Systems protection|
|Ficosa||Rear-view mirrors, interior mirrors, manual and CVT shifters, washer system|
|ITW Deltar||Outside and inside door handles|
|Mahle||Camshafts, spin-on oil filters, fuel filters and air cleaners|
|Ceekay Daikin/Valeo||Clutch sets|
|Visteon||Air induction system|
|ZF Friedrichshafen AG||Chassis components, including tie rods|
|Behr||HVAC for the luxury version|
|Dürr||Lean Paint Shop|
Radical powerplants 
While the Nano is driven by a petrol engine, several more-radical powerplants have been proposed but not put into production yet. A luxury version was also shown at an autoshow.
Compressed-air engine 
Tata Motors signed an agreement in 2007 with a French firm, Motor Development International, to produce a compressed air car Nano. While the vehicle was supposed to be able to travel approximately 200 kilometres (120 mi) on $3 US of electricity to compress the air, Tata's Vice President of Engineering Systems confirmed in late 2009 that vehicle range continues to be a problem.
Electric vehicle 
If an EV Nano is sold it is expected to be the "world's cheapest electric car", use lithium-ion batteries, and have a range of 80 miles (130 km). A Norwegian electric car specialist, Miljøbil Grenland AS, has been named as a supposed partner in the project.
European export 
Car fires 
There were reports of several fire incidents involving the Nano. The company denied those were connected to the car’s design or its parts and blamed “foreign electrical equipment” found on top of the exhaust system. The company offered to retrofit the exhaust and electrical systems but refused to recall the cars. Tata extended the warranty on the car, including those already sold, from 18 months to four years in early December 2010.
- 2010 Business Standard Motoring Indian car of the year
- 2010 Bloomberg UTV-Autocar car of the year
- 2010 Edison Awards, first place in the transportation category
- 2010 Good Design Awards, in the category of transportation 
In the media 
- Small Wonder: The Making of Nano–a book about the creation of the Tata Nano.
- A Megafactories episode on this vehicle.
See also 
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Tata Nano|
- "Manufacturing: Sanand". Tata Motors. Retrieved June 6, 2012.
- "Official specifications for Tata Nano". Tata Motors.
- Patton, Phil. "A Tata Nano Takes Manhattan".(The New York Times, Feb. 11, 2010)
- Meredith, Robyn (Thu, Apr 19, 2007). "The Next People Car". Forbes. Yahoo! - ABC News Network. Retrieved June 6, 2012.
- Sehgal, Vikas, Kevil Dehoff, and Ganesh Panneer. "The importance of frugal engineering." Strategy+ Business 59 (2010): 1-5.
- Sehgal, Vikas, Kevil Dehoff, and Ganesh Panneer. "The importance of frugal engineering." Strategy+ Business 59 (2010): 1-5.
- Upadhyay, Pooshan, and Keertiman Sharma. "A Study on Consumer Perceptions & Expectations for Tata Nano." Adhyayan (2010): 21.
- Prahalad, Coimbatore Krishnarao, and Raghunath Anant Mashelkar. "Innovation's holy grail." Harvard Business Review 88.7-8 (2010): 134.
- Lim, Chaisung, Seokhee Han, and Hiroshi Ito. "Low-cost disruptive innovation by an Indian automobile manufacturer." (2009).
- Johnson, Mark W., Clayton M. Christensen, and Henning Kagermann. "Reinventing your business model." Harvard business review 86.12 (2008): 57-68.
- "Bodacious Tata: India Delivers World's Cheapest Car". Spiegel Online International. SPIEGEL GRUPPE. 01/11/2008. Retrieved June 6, 2012.
- "Tata Nano may expand market by 65%: CRISIL- Automobiles-Auto-News By Industry-News-The Economic Times". Economictimes.indiatimes.com. 2008-01-12. Retrieved 2009-06-08.
- Avinash Nair (Apr 26 2012). "Two years on, Tata Nano sales yet to hit top gear". The Indian Express. Retrieved 29 October 2012.
- "Tata Nano sends used car prices tumbling in India". The Motor Report. 11 February 2008. Retrieved 30 July 2011.
- "Nanomania overwhelms Indian car market". Autocar.co.uk. 2008-02-07. Retrieved 2008-02-10.
- "Why Ratan Tata thinks Nano has 'enormous potential'". 13 July 2012.
- "Nano wars: Tata threatens to make the world’s cheapest car somewhere else". The Economist. The Economist Newspaper Limited. Aug 28th 2008. Retrieved June 6, 2012.
- For initial delay, see Rain, political unrest delay Tatas' dream car rediff.com, August 3, 2007 03:04 IST
- "Modi Offers 9570 Crore soft loan to nano". ibnlive.in.com. November 12, 2008. Retrieved January 10, 2013.
- "Each Nano will cost Rs 60,000 to Gujarat exchequer: Gohil". indianexpress.com. January 16,2009. Retrieved Janauary 10,2013.
- Sud, Nikita. "The Nano and Good Governance in Gujarat." Economic & Political Weekly 13 (2008).
- Thomas, Kenneth P. "Investment incentives and the global competition for capital." (2011).
- KURCZEWSKI, NICK (March 23, 2009). "Tata Nano Launched in Mumbai". Wheels Blog. The New York Times. Retrieved June 6, 2012.
- For only first customers receiving 100,000, see "Tata Motors to deliver first Nano on Friday". Thompson Reuters. Thu Jul 16, 2009. Retrieved June 6, 2012.
- For 2012 price, see "Price List: Select to view citywise ex-showroom price of the Nano.". Tata Motors. Retrieved June 6, 2012.
- UHLIG, MARK (October 20, 1990). "Mexico City Journal; Miss the VW Bug? It Lives Beyond the Rio Grande". New York Times. Retrieved August 8, 2012.
- 2012 National Geographic "Megafactories" about Nano
- "Quick Spin: 2011 Tata Nano CX - Driving the world's cheapest car". Autoblog Canada. Sep 15th 2010. Retrieved 29 July 2011.
- BIJOY KUMAR Y (April 12, 2009). "Tata Nano - Nano second to none!". Business Standard Motoring. Retrieved June 6, 2012.
- "Features". Welcome to Nan. Tata. Retrieved 5/13/12.
- "Tata Nano". CarDekho.com. Jan 30th 2013. Retrieved 28 Jan 2013.
- Ruth David (January 10, 2008). "Tata Unveils The Nano, Its $2,500 Car". Forbes.com.
- "Nano Mania". Autocar India. February 2008. Archived from the original on 2008-04-27. Retrieved 2008-02-05.
- "India's £1,250 car". autoexpress.co.uk. Retrieved 2008-01-14.
- "India’s Tata low-cost Nano took a lot of high-tech". ae-plus.
- TaMo’s ambitious ‘Air Car’ faces starting trouble dnaindia.com, Nov 25, 2009, 2:34 IST.
- Hall, Kenneth (2008-07-10). "Tata Nano could come with optional air-powered engine". MotorAuthority. Retrieved 2010-08-29.
- "Tata plans E-Nano, electric version of Rs1-lakh car". domain-b.com. 2008-08-20. Retrieved 2009-06-08.
- "World's cheapest EV: Tata Nano electrifies Geneva show". USA Today. 2010-03-04.
- "Let Tata's Nano be electric". Merinews.com. Retrieved 2009-06-08.
- "World's cheapest EV: Tata Nano electrifies Geneva show — Drive On: A conversation about the cars and trucks we drive — USATODAY.com". Content.usatoday.com. 2010-03-04. Retrieved 2010-08-29.
- Tata unveils a Nano for Europe autonews.com, March 4, 2009 06:01 CET.
- Tata’s Nano, the Car That Few Want to Buy nytimes.com, December 9, 2010.
- "BS Motoring Jury Award 2010: Tata Nano". Business Standard. Dec 26, 2009. Retrieved June 6, 2012.
- fe Bureaus (Monday, Jan 18, 2010 at 2317 hrs IST). "Nano, Pulsar among winners of Bloomberg UTV-Autocar awards". Financialexpress.com. Retrieved 2010-02-22.
- "Edison Awards 2010 honoring innovation in the development and launch of new products and services". Edisonawards.com. 2010-04-02. Retrieved 2010-10-17.
- "Tata Nano shines! Wins global design award — Rediff.com Business". Rediff.com. 2010-01-05. Retrieved 2010-12-23.
- Ratan Tata didn’t want Nano stitched like shirt around button: Book dnaindia.com, Sunday, Oct 31, 2010, 13:36 IST.
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