Tata Nano

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Tata Nano
Tata Nano im Verkehrszentrum des Deutschen Museums.JPG
Overview
Manufacturer Tata Motors
Also called one-lakh car
Production 2008–present
Assembly Sanand Plant, Sanand, Gujarat, India[1]
Designer Girish Wagh, Justin Norek, Pierre Castinel[2]
Body and chassis
Class City car
Body style 4-door one-box
Layout RR layout
Powertrain
Engine 2 cylinder SOHC petrol Bosch multi-point fuel injection (single injector) all aluminium 624 cc (38 cu in)
Transmission 4 speed synchromesh with overdrive in 4th
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,230 mm (87.8 in)[3]
Length 3,099 mm (122.0 in)[3]
Width 1,495 mm (58.9 in)[3]
Height 1,652 mm (65.0 in)[3]
Kerb weight 600 kg (1,300 lb)–635 kg (1,400 lb)[3]

The Tata Nano is a city car manufactured by Tata Motors. Made and sold in India, the Nano is the cheapest new car in the world today with a price of INR100,000 (approximately US$2000 at launch).

History[edit]

After having successfully launched the low cost Tata Ace truck in 2005, Tata Motors began development of an affordable car that would appeal to the many Indians who drive motorcycles.[4] The purchase price of this no frills auto was brought down by dispensing with most nonessential features, reducing the amount of steel used in its construction, and relying on low cost Indian labour.[citation needed]

The introduction of the Nano received much media attention due to its low price.[5]

Expectations and effects[edit]

Expectations created for the car during the run up to its production may have been out of proportion with its realised success. A 2008 study, by Indian rating agency CRISIL, thought the Nano would expand the nation's car market by 65%,[6] but, as of late 2012, news reports have detailed the underwhelming response of the Indian consumer to the offering; sales in the first two fiscal years after the car's unveiling remained steady at about 70,000 units although Tata appears intent on maintaining a capacity to produce the car in much larger quantities, some 250,000 per year, should the need arise.[7]

It was anticipated that its 2009 debut would greatly affect the used car market, and prices did drop 25-30% prior to the launch.[8] Sales of the Nano's nearest competitor, the Maruti 800, fell by 20% immediately following the unveiling of the Nano.[9] It is unknown if the Nano has had a lasting effect on the prices of and demand for close substitutes, however. In July 2012, Tata's Group chairman Ratan Tata, who retired in January 2014, said that the car had immense potential in the developing world while admitting that early now opportunities were wasted due to initial problems.[10]

Singur factory pullout[edit]

Tata Motors announced in 2006 that the Nano would be manufactured in Singur, West Bengal.[11] Local farmers soon began protesting the forced acquisition of their land the new factory entailed.[11] Tata first delayed the Nano launch and later decided to build the car in a different state, Gujarat, instead.[12]

Price[edit]

Announced as the most affordable production car in the world, Tata aimed for a price of one lakh rupees, or INR100,000, which was approximately $2,000 US at the time.[13] Only the very first customers were able to purchase the car at that price, however, and, as of 2012, the price for the basic Nano is around INR 150,000.[14] Increasing material costs may be to blame for this rapid rise in price.[15]

Compared to the Volkswagen Beetle it has a relatively low price, however. In 1990, a Beetle from Mexican factories was priced at $5,300,[16] about $9,567 in today's money. The Ford Model T's initial price was about $850, equivalent to $22,311 today.[17]

The second-generation Nano is expected to be sold in the United States by 2015. Tata is aiming for the Nano to be the cheapest new car in the US.[18] The original Nano is not street legal in the US, and cannot legally be sold as a grey market import until 2034, when the original 2009 models receive a 25-year exemption from the US Customs and Border Protection.[19] Despite a readily-available dealership network in the US through the Jaguar Land Rover division of Tata, Tata Motors won't use Jaguar Land Rover to sell the Nano.[20]

Cost-cutting features[edit]

Tata Nano engine in trunk that's only accessible from inside as a cost reduction feature
Tata Nano dashboard is very simple. CD player and radio on this deluxe model
The car's exterior and interiors were designed at Italy's Institute of Development in Automotive Engineering.[4]

The Nano's design implements many measures to reduce manufacturing costs.

Comparison with the Maruti 800, the Tata Nano's closest competitor:

Tata Nano Maruti 800
* The Nano's trunk is only accessible from inside the car, as the rear hatch does not open.[21] * Maruti 800 initially had only an opening rear-windscreen, but later got a full hatchback.
* One windscreen wiper instead of the usual pair (also seen earlier on certain Citroen and Mercedes models)[5] * Two windscreen wipers.
* No power steering initially, unnecessary due to its light weight.[5] Added in higher variants in later models. * Power Steering only in higher variants.
* Three lug nuts on the wheels instead of the usual four (also seen on Smart)[22] * Four lug nuts per wheel.
* Only one wing mirror on base models. Higher variants fitted with passenger side ORVM from 2012 onwards.[5] * No option for both side ORVMs in any variant.
* Radio or CD player is optional (the idea picked on some basic car models in North America and all basic cars in India) [5] * Radio/CD Player is optional.
* No airbags on any model[23] * No airbags in any variant.
* 624cc rear engine has 2 bigger cylinders (312cc each)[5] * 800cc front engine has 3 smaller cylinders (266cc each).
* No air conditioning in base model (as on most basic car models in Europe and North America)[5] * No air conditioning in base model
* Front passenger seat same as the driver seat, and the headrests are integrated. * Front passenger seat same as the driver seat, but headrests separate. Later models switched to integrated headrests.
* Thinner 135/70-R12 space saver spare tyre. * Full size spare tyre.
* No external fuel filler cap. Fuel inlet is accessed by opening the front hood. * External fuel filler cap.
* Front door power windows only offered on highest variant. PW switches placed on central console rather than on door pads. * Front door power windows only offered on highest variant.

Technical specifications[edit]

The Nano (2012) is a 38 PS (28 kW; 37 hp) car with a two-cylinder 624 cc rear engine.

The car complies with Bharat Stage 4 Indian Emissions Standards, which are roughly equivalent to Euro 4 and can also meet European emission standards[which?] as well.[citation needed]

The development of the Nano had led to 31 Design and 37 Technology patents being filed

Engine: 2 cylinder petrol with Bosch multi-point fuel injection (single injector) all aluminium 38 metric horsepower (28 kW) 624 cc (38 cu in)
Value Motronic engine management platform from Bosch
2 valves per cylinder overhead camshaft
Compression ratio: 9.5:1
bore × stroke: 73.5 mm (2.9 in) × 73.5 mm (2.9 in)
Power: 38 PS (28 kW; 37 hp) @ 5500 +/-500 rpm[3]
Torque: 51 N·m (38 ft·lbf) @ 3000 +/-500 rpm
Layout and Transmission Rear wheel drive
4-speed manual transmission
Steering mechanical rack and pinion w/o servo
Turning radius: 4 metres[3]
Performance Acceleration: 0-60 km/h (37 mph): 8 seconds[3]
Maximum speed: 105 km/h (65 mph)[3]
Fuel efficiency (overall): 25.35 kilometres per litre (4.24 litres per 100 kilometres (66.6 mpg-imp; 55.5 mpg-US))
Body and dimensions Seat belt: 4[24]
Trunk capacity: 150 L (5.3 cu ft)[25]
Suspension, Tires & Brakes Front brake: 180 mm drum[3]
Rear brake: 180 mm drum[3]
Front track: 1,325 mm (52.2 in)[3]
Rear track: 1,315 mm (51.8 in)[3]
Ground clearance: 180 mm (7.1 in)[3]
Front suspension: McPherson strut with lower A arm
Rear suspension: Independent coil spring
12-inch wheels[26]
Supplier[27] Part/system[27]
Texspin Clutch Bearings
Bosch Oxygen sensor, Gasoline injection system (diesel will follow), starter, alternator, brake system
Continental AG Gasoline fuel supply system, fuel level sensor
Caparo Inner structural panels
HSI AUTO Static sealing systems (Weather Strips)
Delphi Instrument cluster
Rane Madras Limited Steering Assembly
Denso Windshield wiper system (single motor and arm)
FAG Kugelfischer Rear-wheel bearing
Federal-Mogul Pistons, Piston rings, Spark plugs, Gaskets, Systems protection
Ficosa Rear-view mirrors, interior mirrors, manual and CVT shifters, washer system
Freudenberg Engine sealing
GKN Driveshafts
INA Shifting elements
ITW Deltar Outside and inside door handles
Johnson Controls Seating
Mahle Camshafts, spin-on oil filters, fuel filters and air cleaners
Saint-Gobain Glass
TRW Brake system
Ceekay Daikin/Valeo Clutch sets
Vibracoustic Engine mounts
Visteon Air induction system
ZF Friedrichshafen AG Chassis components, including tie rods
Behr HVAC for the luxury version
Dürr Lean Paint Shop


Radical powerplants[edit]

While the Nano is driven by a petrol engine, several more-radical powerplants have been proposed but not put into production. Also, an upscale version was shown at an autoshow.

Compressed-air engine[edit]

Tata Motors signed an agreement in 2007 with a French firm, Motor Development International, to produce a compressed air car Nano.[28] While the vehicle was supposed to be able to travel approximately 200 kilometres (120 mi) on $3 US of electricity to compress the air, Tata's Vice-President of Engineering Systems confirmed in late 2009 that vehicle range continues to be a problem.[28][29]

Electric vehicle[edit]

Tata has discussed the possibility of producing an electric version,[30] and while it showcased an electric vehicle Nano at the 2010 Geneva Motor Show,[31] no such car is currently on the market.

If an EV Nano is sold it is expected to be the "world's cheapest electric car",[32] use lithium-ion batteries, and have a range of 80 miles (130 km).[33] A Norwegian electric car specialist, Miljøbil Grenland AS, has been named as a supposed partner in the project.[30]

Bi-Fuel variant[edit]

The Nano CNG emax is launched in October 2013. It can run on either gasoline or compressed natural gas. Initially, it will be sold in Delhi and parts of Maharashtra and Lucknow, where CNG is available at fuel outlets.[34]

European export[edit]

A Nano Europa concept car

An upscale Nano concept car called the Europa was shown at the 2009 Geneva Motor Show.[35]

Car fires[edit]

There were reports of several fire incidents involving the Nano.[36] The company denied those were connected to the car’s design or its parts and blamed "foreign electrical equipment" found on top of the exhaust system.[36] The company offered to retrofit the exhaust and electrical systems but refused to recall the cars.[36] Tata extended the warranty on the car, including those already sold, from 18 months to four years in early December 2010.[36]

Reception[edit]

The Nano has received a tepid reception from Indian consumers. Reasons given have included that it is still too expensive compared with a motorcycle.[37] Also it is identified as the cheapest car,[38] whereas a secondhand car that was more expensive when new has more social cachet.[39] The fires and other safety issues have also been nominated.[37]

Crash safety[edit]

In 2014 a Nano was crashed for NCAP by ADAC in Germany. Despite Tata's claim that it was expecting 4 stars, the Nano actually achieved zero stars.[40]

Sales[edit]

Nominal factory output is 250,000 pa

FY 2009-2010 30,000 approx

FY 2010-2011 70,432

FY 2011-2012 74,527[41]

FY 2012-2013 53,848[42]

FY 2013-2014 first half (April to Sept.) 10,202[34]

Awards[edit]

In the media[edit]

  • Small Wonder: The Making of Nano–a book about the creation of the Tata Nano.[47]
  • A Megafactories episode on this vehicle.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Manufacturing: Sanand". Tata Motors. Retrieved 6 June 2012. 
  2. ^ Patton, Phil. Patton, Phil (11 February 2010). "A Tata Nano Takes Manhattan". The New York Times. (The New York Times, 11 February 2010)
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "Official specifications for Tata Nano". Tata Motors. 
  4. ^ a b Meredith, Robyn (19 April 2007). "The Next People Car". Forbes. Yahoo! - ABC News Network. Retrieved 6 June 2012. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g "Bodacious Tata: India Delivers World's Cheapest Car". Spiegel Online International. SPIEGEL GRUPPE. 01/11/2008. Retrieved 6 June 2012. 
  6. ^ "Tata Nano may expand market by 65%: CRISIL- Automobiles-Auto-News By Industry-News". The Economic Times. 12 January 2008. Retrieved 8 June 2009. 
  7. ^ Avinash Nair (26 April 2012). "Two years on, Tata Nano sales yet to hit top gear". The Indian Express. Retrieved 29 October 2012. 
  8. ^ "Tata Nano sends used car prices tumbling in India". The Motor Report. 11 February 2008. Retrieved 30 July 2011. 
  9. ^ "Nanomania overwhelms Indian car market". Autocar. 7 February 2008. Retrieved 10 February 2008. 
  10. ^ "Why Ratan Tata thinks Nano has 'enormous potential'". 13 July 2012. 
  11. ^ a b "Nano wars: Tata threatens to make the world’s cheapest car somewhere else". The Economist. The Economist Newspaper Limited. 28 August 2008. Retrieved 6 June 2012. 
  12. ^ For initial delay, see Rain, political unrest delay Tatas' dream car Rediff.com, 3 August 2007 03:04 IST
  13. ^ KURCZEWSKI, NICK (23 March 2009). "Tata Nano Launched in Mumbai". The New York Times. Retrieved 6 June 2012. 
  14. ^ For only first customers receiving INR 100,000, see Krishnan, Janaki (16 July 2009). "Tata Motors to deliver first Nano on Friday". Thompson Reuters. Retrieved 6 June 2012. 
  15. ^ Nelson Ireson (5 August 2008). "Rising costs could eat Tata Nano’s profits". Motor Authority, Tuesday 5 August 2008. 
  16. ^ UHLIG, MARK (20 October 1990). "Mexico City Journal; Miss the VW Bug? It Lives Beyond the Rio Grande". The New York Times. Retrieved 8 August 2012. 
  17. ^ 2012 National Geographic "Megafactories" about Nano
  18. ^ Healey, James R. (24 April 2013). "10 cheapest cars: Why (almost) nobody buys them". USA Today. 
  19. ^ http://autos.yahoo.com/blogs/motoramic/feds-crush-land-rover-defender-scare-illegal-importers-152348269.html
  20. ^ http://usnews.rankingsandreviews.com/cars-trucks/daily-news/090608-Tata-Nano-World-s-Cheapest-Car-Coming-to-U-S-/
  21. ^ "Quick Spin: 2011 Tata Nano CX - Driving the world's cheapest car". Autoblog Canada. 15 September 2010. Retrieved 29 July 2011. 
  22. ^ BIJOY KUMAR Y (12 April 2009). "Tata Nano - Nano second to none!". Business Standard Motoring. Retrieved 6 June 2012. 
  23. ^ "Features". Tata. Retrieved 13 May 2012. 
  24. ^ Ruth David (10 January 2008). "Tata Unveils The Nano, Its $2,500 Car". Forbes. 
  25. ^ "Nano Mania". Autocar India. February 2008. Archived from the original on 27 April 2008. Retrieved 5 February 2008. 
  26. ^ "India's £1,250 car". autoexpress.co.uk. Retrieved 14 January 2008. 
  27. ^ a b "India’s Tata low-cost Nano took a lot of high-tech". ae-plus. 
  28. ^ a b TaMo’s ambitious ‘Air Car’ faces starting trouble Daily News and Analysis, 25 Nov 2009, 2:34 IST.
  29. ^ Hall, Kenneth (10 July 2008). "Tata Nano could come with optional air-powered engine". MotorAuthority. Retrieved 29 August 2010. 
  30. ^ a b "Tata plans E-Nano, electric version of Rs 1-lakh car". domain-b.com. 20 August 2008. Retrieved 8 June 2009. 
  31. ^ "World's cheapest EV: Tata Nano electrifies Geneva show". USA Today. 4 March 2010. 
  32. ^ "Let Tata's Nano be electric". Merinews.com. Retrieved 8 June 2009. 
  33. ^ "World's cheapest EV: Tata Nano electrifies Geneva show — Drive On: A conversation about the cars and trucks we drive". USA Today. 4 March 2010. Retrieved 29 August 2010. 
  34. ^ a b http://online.wsj.com/article/DN-CO-20131008-004342.html Tata Motors Introduces Bi-Fuel Version of Nano Minicar published by Wall Street Journal written by Santanu Choudhury
  35. ^ Tata unveils a Nano for Europe autonews.com, 4 March 2009 06:01 CET.
  36. ^ a b c d Tata’s Nano, the Car That Few Want to Buy The New York Times, 9 December 2010.
  37. ^ a b http://www.defence.pk/forums/world-affairs/164315-where-did-all-go-wrong-tata-s-nano.html
  38. ^ http://www.slideshare.net/avinash2701/marketing-lessons-from-tata-nano
  39. ^ "Cheap proves costly for Tata Nano in status-conscious India". NYDailyNews.com (New York). AFP. 30 January 2012. Retrieved 4 February 2014. 
  40. ^ Oltermann, Philip; McClanahan, Paige (30 January 2014). "Tata Nano safety under scrutiny after dire crash test results". The Guardian. Retrieved 4 February 2014. 
  41. ^ http://www.indianexpress.com/news/two-years-on-tata-nano-sales-yet-to-hit-top-gear/941736/%7Cproduction figures for 2009 to 2012
  42. ^ http://www.hindustantimes.com/Autos/Latest-News/Popularity-continues-to-elude-Nano-sales-down-88/Article1-1055088.aspx
  43. ^ "BS Motoring Jury Award 2010: Tata Nano". Business Standard. 26 December 2009. Retrieved 6 June 2012. 
  44. ^ fe Bureaus (18 Jan 2010 at 2317 hrs IST). "Nano, Pulsar among winners of Bloomberg UTV-Autocar awards". The Financial Express. Retrieved 22 February 2010. 
  45. ^ "Edison Awards 2010 honoring innovation in the development and launch of new products and services". Edisonawards.com. 2 April 2010. Retrieved 17 October 2010. 
  46. ^ "Tata Nano shines! Wins global design award — Rediff.com Business". Rediff.com. 5 January 2010. Retrieved 23 December 2010. 
  47. ^ Ratan Tata didn’t want Nano stitched like shirt around button: Book Daily News and Analysis, Sunday, 31 Oct 2010, 13:36 IST.

External links[edit]