Tatra KT4

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Tatra KT4
Erfurt, Tatra KT4.jpg
KT4D in Erfurt
Manufacturer ČKD Tatra
Constructed 1977 - 1997
Number built 1747
Specifications
Articulations 1
Length 18,100 mm (59 ft 5 in)
Width 2,200 mm (7 ft 3 in)
Height 3,100 mm (10 ft 2 in)
Weight 19.9 tonnes (19.6 long tons; 21.9 short tons)
Passenger capacity seats 26-38 (depends on model)
Passenger capacity standing 105-168 (depends on model)
Maximum speed 65 km/h (40 mph)
Doors 4
Engine power 4 x 40 kW (54 hp) Motors
Bogies 2
Gauge 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in), 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 38 in), 1,524 mm (5 ft)

Tatra KT4 is the name of a 4 axle type articulated tramcar developed by the Czech firm ČKD Tatra. The first pre-production vehicles entered service in Potsdam in 1975, with the first production vehicles in 1977. A total of 1747 units were built, with initial deliveries to East Germany (DDR) and later The USSR and SFR Yugoslavia. KT4 variants were built for both standard gauge and meter gauge tramways. Production of the KT4 tramcar was halted in 1991 due to worldwide economic and political changes at the time. The production was shortly resumed in 1997 to produce the last 20 units for Belgrade, Serbia.

Since the start of the 1990s many of the earliest production tramcars have gone through extensive refurbishment and rebuilding, including the replacement of folding doors and the installation of low floor center sections.

History[edit]

[1] The KT4 was originally designed to demands set out by the needs of the GDR, who found bogie cars too expensive and needed a solution to their aging fleet of two-axle vehicles. The first steps into the KT4s design were made when ČKD Tatra modified a six-axle K2 tramcar, to a four-axle suspended articulation formation which later presented itself in the KT4. The KT4 has identical pedal control systems and bogies as the Tatra T3 bogie tramcar. As production continued the design was improved, noted particularly in 1983 with the addition of thyristor control

Variations[edit]

Variations of the KT4 exist, though they are generally subtle and focused around seat layout and pantograph type.

  • KT4D - German Model
  • KT4SU - Soviet Union Model
  • KT4YU - Yugoslavian Model

KT4D[edit]

The KT4D Model, was delivered to the following GDR cities;

City Delivery Years Number Delivered
Berlin 1976–1988 574
Brandenburg 1979–1983 16
Cottbus 1978–1990 65
Erfurt 1976–1990 156
Frankfurt (Oder) 1987–1990 34
Gera 1978–1990 60
Görlitz 1987–1990 11
Gotha 1981–1982 6
Leipzig 1976 8
Potsdam 1974–1987 45
Plauen 1976–1988 45
Zwickau 1987–1988 22
TOTAL 1974-1990 1042

In 1984 Leipzig handed over their 8 trams to Berlin. Since the early 2000s (decade) the Tatra tramcars in the former GDR are being replaced and sold to other countries in Central and Eastern Europe.

Original KT4D[edit]

Modernised KT4D[edit]

sold KT4D[edit]

KT4SU[edit]

The Soviet Union ordered the KT4SU for their meter gauge tramways, the following cities received deliveries;

City Delivery Years Number Delivered
Yevpatoria 1987–1990 18
Kaliningrad 1987–1990 30
Liepāja 1983–1988 22
Lviv 1976–1988 145
Pyatigorsk 1988–1990 25
Zhytomyr 1981–1988 20
Tallinn 1980–1988 74
Vinnytsia 1980–1990 81
TOTAL 1976-1990 415

KT4YU[edit]

The KT4YU, is the Yugoslav variant of the tramcar, these were delivered to the now Serbian and Croatian capitals. The last KT4s ever produced were delivered to Belgrade in 1997, these tramcars were equipped with IGBT-modules and named KT4M-YUB (where B stands for Belgrade to be distinguished from Zagreb model). In 2002. 30 Belgrade tramcars were modernized in Goša / Inekon, and marked as KT4-YUBM.

City Delivery Years Number Delivered
Belgrade 1980–1997 220
Zagreb 1985–1986 51
TOTAL 1980-1997 271

Other variations of the KT4[edit]

A series of KT4 trams were also produced for Pyongyang, North Korea, but have subsequently had their articulation removed.

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Source: The Development of The Modern Tram, by Brian Patton

Statistical Data, is duplicated from TatraWagen.de (In German)