Tatra T3

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Tatra T3
Tram Tatra T3 Praha 6102.jpg
T3 in Prague
Chemnitz, Tatra T3D, interior.jpg
Interior of T3D
Manufacturer Czech Republic ČKD Tatra
Constructed 1960-1999
Number built 14,113
Capacity 23 seats
87 standing
Specifications
Train length 14,000 mm (45 ft 11 in)
Width 2,500 mm (8 ft 2 in)
Height 3,050 mm (10 ft 0 in)
Doors 3
Bogies 2
Track gauge 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in), 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 38 in), 1,524 mm (5 ft)

The T3 is a famous type of tramcar produced by Tatra. During its period of production, between 1960 and 1999, 13,991 multiple units and 122 sidecars were sold worldwide, mostly in Central and Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. Well maintained tramcars of this type are very reliable, a late 2000s survey conducted in Prague tram system has shown 98.9% reliability, best of the Prague tram system fleet.[1]

Types[edit]

T3[edit]

T3 tram car in Plzeň

The design of the T3 had to meet difficult specifications. The car should have the same capacity as its predecessor (the Tatra T2), but be easier to build. In order to achieve this goal for example the vehicle walls were thinner and were fitted with laminate seats instead of cushioned leatherrette seats the T2 used. The T3 was delivered to all tramway companies in the former Czechoslovakia. It was most numerous in Prague, where over 1,000 vehicles were delivered. The T3 still forms (mostly in various modernised versions) the backbone of the Czech tram fleet.

T3SU[edit]

T3SU tram car in Kyiv
T3SU tram on the "Rapid Tram" line in Volgograd

(SU for Soviet Union)

As with the T2SU the first T3SU was delivered with the modification of removing the middle door and replacing it with seats. Later cars, however, were delivered with the third door in place. Again the vehicles had a closed operator's compartment and were adapted for the harsh climatic conditions. Altogether 11 368 T3SU were delivered, making it world-wide the largest production of a single type of streetcar. The disadvantage of this, however, was the fact that by producing so many of one type of unit the replacement by more modern cars was slow.

The T3SU was delivered from 1963, first to Moscow and later to 33 further Soviet cities.

T3SUCS[edit]

Tatra T3SU trams in Odesa, Ukraine
Inside T3SUCS manufactured after 1983
The ceiling of the Tatra-T3 tram, manufactured before 1983

(SUCS for Soviet Union-modified Czechoslovakia)

Originally the production of the T3 was stopped 1976 and production was concentrated on newer vehicles. The Slovak city Košice, however, ordered two motor coaches, as an exception. Starting from 1985 the production of the replacement type KT8D5 should start, however this was by then obsolete. Further production of T3 would have been too expensive, so instead vehicles of the type T3SU were re-imported and adapted. The closed operator's cab was maintained, the vehicles had all three doors in place and differed from the original T3 only in few details. Traction formation with this vehicles is possible and is sometimes practiced.

T3SU Evolution[edit]

Looking at T3SU trams manufactured in different times, one can notice minor changes both in exterior appearance and interior design.

Exterior details:

  • Narrow passenger windows - disappeared before the year of 1966
  • The narrow window route designators - disappeared about 1969
  • The illumination of the number of route on top - began in 1980s
  • Oval turn indicator at the front became two rectangular lights. The same lamps began to be fitted to the rear - 1985???
  • Small grid in the forward section of the tram from the left side appeared on all T3SU trams manufactured in 1983 and later.
  • Two small red lamps near the tramcar-to-tramcar "control circuit port" both from the front and from behind - 1985???
  • Additional red horizontal lamps from behind

Interior:

  • sofa-style seats - from the early 1960s until the early 1970s.
  • "toilet"-like seats - from early 1970s until the middle of 1980s.
  • Cream colour of saloon ~ with 1977-1978 (now nevertheless all yellow-dark-blue)

T3D[edit]

Modernized T3D tram in Chemnitz

(D for Deutschland, then DDR)

In Germany (and/or in the former GDR) the first three T3D cars operated started operation in 1964 and 1965 in Dresden. The cars were used in part due to their width of 2.50 m (8 ft 2 in). They operated as single cars or as multiple units (Motor+Motor, Motor+Motor+Trailer) and/or as mini trams (Motor+Trailer). The use of trailer cars was due to the use of original Czech T3 electrical equipment, which had enough power to support trailer cars. However, due to reduced available power, the maximum speed of the streetcar reached only 55 km/h, instead of the usual 65 km/h (40 mph).

Only German and Yugoslav networks had trailer cars. The car was designated as B3D and had the same body as T3D. Today, only Chemnitz uses T3s in full service, having T3D-M (modified).

T3YU[edit]

T3YU in Osijek (before modernization)

(YU for Yugoslavia)

From 1967 onwards, vehicles supplied to Yugoslavia differed from the standard type T3 by having different pantographs and trucks. In addition, trailer cars were used, as in the GDR. Beside two Czechoslovakian and one Soviet tram networks, the vehicles were the only narrow profile cars of the type.

T3R[edit]

(R for Romania)

Romania was instructed by Comecon at the end of the 1960s to order RA cars. The first vehicles came in 1967 to the city of Galaţi and differed from the Czechoslovak vehicles by having different electrical equipment, necessary for the network's 750 V DC voltage. Since the car boxes were built too wide for use elsewhere, the cars remain in Galaţi.

Same name has type shortly manufactured in 1997.

T3RF[edit]

4 Tatra T3RF were the very last T3 trams built. They were made for Samara and Izhevsk, but only Samara had bought 2 of them. In 2002 2 other trams were sold to Brno and modernized.

Modernized Tatra-T3 trams[edit]

Tram modernized from T3SUCS to T3P in Bratislava (Slovakia) Hlavná stanica (Main Railway Station) terminate stop
Tram modernized from T3SU to MTTD on the historic Boulevard Ring tram line in Moscow

In most Czech cities and in some foreign cities such as Bratislava, Moscow, Riga and Odessa, Tatra-T3 trams became very common pieces of equipment. As a result the service personnel and maintenance workers became very good with repairing and servicing the equipment. This served as one of the reasons (the other being the expense of buying new vehicles) for modifying the existing Tatra-T3 trams, rather they buying newer cars.

The modernization normally includes:

  • Restoration of the car body
  • Digital/Electronic destination sign installation
  • Acoustic information system
  • Installation of new traction motors
  • Thyristor-Controlled traction system for the motors.
  • Re-design of the interior, which varies by city and transit authority.
  • Pantograph replacements (also depends on the transport authority)

More radical modernization includes insertion of a low floor section.

Production[edit]

14,113 trams were produced and delivered to:[2]

City Year T3 T3SUCS T3SU T3D B3D T3YU B3YU T3R Total
Russia Barnaul 1967–1985 0 0 444 0 0 0 0 0 444
Slovakia Bratislava 1964–1989 58 130 0 0 0 0 0 0 188
Czech Republic Brno 1963–1989, 2002 (Tatra T3RF trams built in 1998-1999 for Russia) 109 53 0 0 0 0 0 0 162
Germany Karl-Marx-Stadt (today Chemnitz) 1966–1988 0 0 0 132 62 0 0 0 194
Ukraine Dnipropetrovsk 1968–1987 0 0 370 0 0 0 0 0 370
Ukraine Dniprodzerzhynsk 1972–1986 0 0 183 0 0 0 0 0 183
Ukraine Donetsk 1967–1987 0 0 251 0 0 0 0 0 251
Romania Iaşi 1971–1974 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 70 70
Romania Galați 1971–1974 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 50 50
Russia Grozny 1981–1986 0 0 70 0 0 0 0 0 70
Russia Irkutsk 1967–1968 0 0 30 0 0 0 0 0 30
Russia Izhevsk 1966–1986, 1998-1999 0 0 270 0 0 0 0 0 270
Ukraine Kharkiv 1967–1987 0 3 [3] 735 0 0 0 0 0 735
Ukraine Kyiv 1964–1987 0 0 923 0 0 0 0 0 923
Slovakia Košice 1963–1989 97 89 0 0 0 0 0 0 184
Ukraine Kramatorsk 1967 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 2
Russia Krasnodar 1980–1986 0 0 115 0 0 0 0 0 115
Ukraine Kryvyi Rih 1986–1987 0 0 50 0 0 0 0 0 50
Russia Kursk 1966–1987 0 10 [4] 278 0 0 0 0 0 288
Czech Republic Liberec 1965–1987 20 34 0 0 0 0 0 0 54
Ukraine Mariupol 1967–1975 0 0 32 0 0 0 0 0 32
Russia Moscow 1963–1987 0 0 2069 0 0 0 0 0 2069
Czech Republic Most 1967–1987 9 67 0 0 0 0 0 0 76
Russia Nizhny Novgorod 1978–1986 0 0 220 0 0 0 0 0 220
Russia Novokuznetsk 1967–1986 0 0 215 0 0 0 0 0 215
Ukraine Odesa 1966–1987 0 0 484 0 0 0 0 0 484
Czech Republic Olomouc 1966–1987 30 39 0 0 0 0 0 0 69
Russia Oryol 1976–1985 0 0 85 0 0 0 0 0 85
Croatia Osijek 1966–1982 0 0 0 0 0 26 4 0 30
Czech Republic Ostrava 1965–1987 97 127 0 0 0 0 0 0 224
Czech Republic Pilsen 1964–1989 48 80 0 0 0 0 0 0 128
Czech Republic Prague 1960–1989 901 272 20 0 0 0 0 0 1193
Russia Pyatigorsk 1967–1987 0 0 117 0 0 0 0 0 117
Latvia Riga 1974–1987 0 0 243 0 0 0 0 0 243
Russia Rostov-on-Don 1967–1987 0 0 405 0 0 0 0 0 405
Russia Samara 1964–1986 0 0 619 0 0 0 0 0 619
Bosnia-Herzegovina Sarajevo 1967–1969 0 0 0 0 0 20 0 0 20
Germany Schwerin 1973–1988 0 0 0 115 56 0 0 0 171
Uzbekistan Tashkent 1983–1985 0 0 18 0 0 0 0 0 18
Russia Ufa 1966–1987 0 0 360 0 0 0 0 0 360
Russia Ulyanovsk 1966–1986 0 0 401 0 0 0 0 0 401
Russia Tula 1965–1986 0 0 401 0 0 0 0 0 401
Russia Tver 1967–1986 0 0 306 0 0 0 0 0 306
Russia Vladikavkaz 1972–1987 0 0 129 0 0 0 0 0 129
Russia Volgograd 1967–1987 0 0 425 0 0 0 0 0 425
Russia Volzhsky[disambiguation needed] 1967–1980 0 0 75 0 0 0 0 0 75
Russia Voronezh 1977–1986 0 0 209 0 0 0 0 0 209
Russia Yekaterinburg 1964–1986 0 0 530 0 0 0 0 0 530
Ukraine Zaporizhia 1966–1987 0 0 304 0 0 0 0 0 304
Total 1369 911 11368 247 118 46 4 50 14113

Note: This is production list. Public transport companies may sell used trams to other companies, thus number of cities where are (or were) these trams may be higher.

References[edit]

  1. ^ IHNED.cz - Nový model tramvají Porsche je nejporuchovější ze všech. Každá sedmá stojí
  2. ^ "Tatra T3 deliveries". Strassenbahnen-Online. Retrieved 2007-12-09. 
  3. ^ Transfer from Prague during 2011-2012
  4. ^ Yransfer from Prague in 2012

External links[edit]