Tau Ceti

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Tau Ceti d)
Jump to: navigation, search
This article is about the star. For the video game, see Tau Ceti (video game).
Tau Ceti
Location of Tau Ceti
Cercle rouge 100%.svg

Tau Ceti (circled) in the south of the constellation Cetus.
Observation data
Epoch J2000      Equinox J2000
Constellation Cetus
Pronunciation /ˌt ˈst/
Right ascension 01h 44m 04.0829s[1]
Declination −15° 56′ 14.928″[1]
Apparent magnitude (V) 3.50 ± 0.01[2]
Characteristics
Spectral type G8.5 V[1]
U−B color index +0.22[1]
B−V color index +0.72[1]
Variable type None
Astrometry
Radial velocity (Rv) −16.4[1] km/s
Proper motion (μ) RA: −1721.94[1] mas/yr
Dec.: 854.17[1] mas/yr
Parallax (π) 273.96 ± 0.17[2] mas
Distance 11.905 ± 0.007 ly
(3.650 ± 0.002 pc)
Absolute magnitude (MV) 5.69 ± 0.01[2]
Details
Mass 0.783 ± 0.012[2] M
Radius 0.793 ± 0.004[2] R
Luminosity 0.52 ± 0.03[3] L
Surface gravity (log g) 4.4[4] cgs
Temperature 5,344 ± 50[5] K
Metallicity −0.55 ± 0.05[6]
28 ± 3% Sun
Rotation 34 days[7]
Age 5.8[8] Gyr
Other designations
Durre Menthor,[9][10] 52 Ceti, BD-16°295, FK5 59, GCTP 365.00, GJ 71, HD 10700, HIP 8102, HR 509, LFT 159, LHS 146, LTT 935, SAO 147986.[1]
Database references
SIMBAD data
ARICNS data

Tau Ceti or Durre Menthor (τ Cet, τ Ceti) is a star in the constellation Cetus that is spectrally similar to the Sun, although it has only about 78% of the Sun's mass. At a distance of just under 12 light-years from the Solar System, it is a relatively nearby star, and is the closest solitary G-class star.[nb 1] The star appears stable, with little stellar variation.

Tau Ceti is metal-deficient, a deficiency usually associated with systems having no giant planets and few terrestrial planets. Observations have however detected more than ten times as much dust surrounding Tau Ceti as is present in the Solar System.

Since December 2012, there has been evidence of possibly five planets orbiting Tau Ceti, with one of these being potentially in the habitable zone.[11][12] Because of its debris disk, any planet orbiting Tau Ceti would face far more impact events than the Earth. Despite this hurdle to habitability, its solar analog (Sun-like) characteristics have led to widespread interest in the star. Given its stability, similarity and relative proximity to the Sun, Tau Ceti is consistently listed as a target for the Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence (SETI), and it appears in some science fiction literature.[13]

It can be seen with the unaided eye as a third-magnitude star.[nb 2] As seen from Tau Ceti, the Sun would be a third-magnitude star in the constellation Boötes.[nb 3]

Name[edit]

Tau Ceti does not have a widely-recognized traditional name, and is usually simply referred to as Tau Ceti.

The name "Tau Ceti" is the Bayer designation for this star, established in 1603 as part of German celestial cartographer Johann Bayer's Uranometria star catalogue: it is "number T" in Bayer's sequence of constellation Cetus. It has the proper name Durre Menthor,[14] which comes from the Arabic Al Durr' Al-Manthūur (الدرر المنثور), meaning The Scattered Pearls (of the Broken Necklace).[10] In the catalogue of stars in the Calendarium of Al Achsasi al Mouakket, written at Cairo about 1650, this star was designated Thālith al Naʽāmāt (تالت ألنعامة - taalit al naʽāmāt), which was translated into Latin as Tertia Struthionum, meaning the third of the ostriches.[15] This star, along with η Cet (Deneb Algenubi), θ Cet (Thanih Al Naamat), ζ Cet (Baten Kaitos), and υ Cet, were Al Naʽāmāt (ألنعامة), the Hen Ostriches.[16][17]

In Chinese, the "Square Celestial Granary" (Chinese: 天倉; pinyin: Tiān Cāng) refers to an asterism consisting of τ Ceti, ι Ceti, η Ceti, ζ Ceti, θ Ceti and 57 Ceti.[18] Consequently, τ Ceti itself is known as the "Fifth Star of Square Celestial Granary" (Chinese: 天倉五; pinyin: Tiān Cāng wǔ).[19]

Distance[edit]

Tau Ceti distance estimates

Source Parallax, mas Distance, pc Distance, ly Ref.
Woolley et al. (1970) 277 ± 5 3.61+0.07
−0.06
11.77+0.22
−0.21
[20]
Gliese & Jahreiß (1991) 286 ± 4.9 3.5 ± 0.06 11.4+0.2
−0.19
[21]
van Altena et al. (1995) 276.5 ± 2.5 3.62 ± 0.03 11.8 ± 0.11 [22]
Perryman et al. (1997)
(Hipparcos)
274.17 ± 0.8 3.647 ± 0.011 11.9 ± 0.03 [23]
Perryman et al. (1997)
(Tycho)
(absents) [24]
van Leeuwen (2007) 273.96 ± 0.17 3.6502 ± 0.0023 11.905 ± 0.007 [25]
RECONS TOP100 (2012) 273.97 ± 0.17[nb 4] 3.65 ± 0.0023 11.905 ± 0.007 [26]

Non-trigonometric distance estimates are marked in italic. The best estimate is marked in bold.

Motion[edit]

The proper motion of a star is its amount of movement across the celestial sphere, determined by comparing its position relative to more distant background objects. Tau Ceti is considered to be a high-proper-motion star, although it only has an annual traverse of just under two arc seconds.[nb 5] It will require about two thousand years before the location of this star shifts by more than a degree. A high proper motion is an indicator of closeness to the Sun.[27] Nearby stars can traverse an angle of arc across the sky more rapidly than the distant background stars and are good candidates for parallax studies. In the case of Tau Ceti, the parallax measurements indicate a distance of 11.9 light-years. This makes it one of the closest star systems to the Sun, and the next-closest spectral class-G star after Alpha Centauri A.[28]

The radial velocity of a star is its motion toward or away from the Sun. Unlike proper motion, a star's radial velocity cannot be directly observed, but must be determined through measurement of the spectrum. Due to the Doppler shift, the absorption lines in the spectrum of a star will be shifted slightly toward the red (or longer wavelengths) if the star is moving away from the observer, or toward blue (or shorter wavelengths) when it moves toward the observer. In the case of Tau Ceti, the radial velocity is about −17 km/s, with the negative value indicating that it is moving toward the Sun.[29]

The distance to Tau Ceti, along with its proper motion and radial velocity, allow the motion of the star through space to be calculated. The space velocity relative to the Sun is about 37 km/s.[nb 6] This result can then be used to compute an orbital path of Tau Ceti through the Milky Way galaxy. It has a mean galacto-centric distance of 9.7 kiloparsec (32000 light-years) and an orbital eccentricity of 0.22.[30]

Physical properties[edit]

The Sun (left) is both larger and somewhat hotter than the less active Tau Ceti (right).

The Tau Ceti system is believed to have only one stellar component. A dim optical companion has been observed, which is possibly gravitationally bound, but it is more than 10 arcseconds distant from the primary.[31]

Most of what is known about the physical properties of Tau Ceti and its system has been determined through spectroscopic measurements. By comparing the spectrum to computed models of stellar evolution, the age, mass, radius and luminosity of Tau Ceti can be estimated. However, using an astronomical interferometer, measurements of the radius of the star can be made directly to an accuracy of 0.5%.[2] It deploys a long baseline to measure angles much smaller than can be resolved with a conventional telescope. Through this means, the radius of Tau Ceti has been measured as 79.3 ± 0.4% of the solar radius.[2] This is about the size that is expected for a star with somewhat lower mass than the Sun.[32]

Rotation[edit]

The rotation period for Tau Ceti was measured by periodic variations in the classic H and K absorption lines of singly ionized calcium, or Ca II. These lines are closely associated with surface magnetic activity,[33] so the period of variation measures the time required for the activity sites to complete a full rotation about the star. By this means the rotation period for Tau Ceti is estimated to be 34 d.[7] Due to the Doppler effect, the rotation rate of a star affects the width of the absorption lines in the spectrum. (Light from the side of the star moving away from the observer will be shifted to a longer wavelength; light from the side moving towards the observer will be shifted toward a shorter wavelength.) So by analyzing the width of these lines, the rotational velocity of a star can be estimated. The projected rotation velocity for Tau Ceti is:

 v_\mathrm{eq} \cdot \sin i \approx 1\  \text{km}/\text{s}.

where veq is the velocity at the equator and i is the inclination angle of the rotation axis to the line of sight. For a typical G8 star, the rotation velocity is about 2.5 km/s. The relatively low rotational velocity measurements may indicate that Tau Ceti is being viewed from nearly the direction of its pole.[34][35]

Metallicity[edit]

The chemical composition of a star provides important clues to its evolutionary history, including the age at which it formed. The interstellar medium of dust and gas from which stars form is primarily composed of hydrogen and helium with trace amounts of heavier elements. As nearby stars continually evolve and die, they seed the interstellar medium with an increasing portion of heavier elements. Thus younger stars will tend to have a higher portion of heavy elements in their atmospheres than do the older stars. These heavy elements are termed metals by astronomers and the portion of heavy elements is the metallicity.[36] The amount of metallicity in a star is given in terms of the ratio of iron (Fe), an easily observed heavy element, to hydrogen. A logarithm of the relative iron abundance is compared to the Sun. In the case of Tau Ceti, the atmospheric metallicity is roughly:

 \left [ \frac{\mathrm{Fe}}{\mathrm{H}} \right ] = -0.50

or about a third the solar abundance. Past measurements have varied from −0.13 to −0.60.[4][37]

This lower abundance of iron indicates that Tau Ceti is almost certainly older than the Sun. Its age had previously been estimated to be about 10 Ga but is now thought to be around half that at 5.8 Ga.[8] This compares with 4.57 Ga for the Sun. However, computed age estimates for Tau Ceti can range from 4.4–12 Ga, depending on the model adopted.[32]

Besides rotation, another factor that can widen the absorption features in the spectrum of a star is pressure broadening. The presence of nearby particles will affect the radiation emitted by an individual particle. So the line width is dependent on the surface pressure of the star, which in turn is determined by the temperature and surface gravity. This technique was used to determine the surface gravity of Tau Ceti. The log g, or logarithm of the star's surface gravity, is about 4.4—very close to the log g = 4.44 for the Sun.[4]

Luminosity and variability[edit]

The luminosity of Tau Ceti is equal to only 55% of the Sun's luminosity.[30] A terrestrial planet would need to orbit this star at a distance of about 0.7 AU in order to match the solar-insolation level of the Earth. This is approximately the same as the average distance between Venus and the Sun.

The chromosphere of Tau Ceti—the portion of a star's atmosphere just above the light-emitting photosphere—currently displays little or no magnetic activity, indicating a stable star.[38] One nine-year study of temperature, granulation, and the chromosphere showed no systematic variations; Ca II emissions around the H and K infrared bands show a possible 11-year cycle, but this is weak relative to the Sun.[34] Alternatively it has been suggested that the star could be in a low-activity state analogous to a Maunder minimum—a historical period, associated with the Little Ice Age in Europe, when sunspots became exceedingly rare on the Sun's surface.[39][40] Spectral line profiles of Tau Ceti are extremely narrow, indicating low turbulence and observed rotation.[41] The amplitude of the star's oscillations are about half those of the Sun, and have a lower mode lifetime.[2]

Debris disk[edit]

In 2004, a team of UK astronomers led by Jane Greaves discovered that Tau Ceti has more than ten times the amount of cometary and asteroidal material orbiting it than does the Sun. This was determined by measuring the disk of cold dust orbiting the star produced by collisions between such small bodies.[42] This result puts a damper on the possibility of complex life in the system, as any planets would suffer from large impact events roughly ten times more frequently than Earth. Greaves noted at the time of her research: "it is likely that [any planets] will experience constant bombardment from asteroids of the kind believed to have wiped out the dinosaurs."[43] Such bombardments would inhibit the development of biodiversity between impacts.[44] However, it is possible that a large Jupiter-sized gas giant could deflect comets and asteroids.[42][nb 7]

The debris disk was discovered by measuring the amount of radiation emitted by the system in the far infrared portion of the spectrum. The disk forms a symmetric feature that is centered on the star, and the outer radius averages 55 AU. The lack of infrared radiation from the warmer parts of the disk near Tau Ceti imply an inner cut-off at a radius of 10 AU. By comparison, the Solar System's Kuiper belt extends from 30–50 AU. To be maintained over a long period of time, this ring of dust must be constantly replenished through collisions by larger bodies.[42] The bulk of the disk appears to be orbiting Tau Ceti at a distance of 35–50 AU, well outside the orbit of the habitable zone. At this distance, the dust belt may be analogous to the Kuiper belt that lies outside the orbit of Neptune in the solar system.[42]

Tau Ceti shows that stars need not lose large disks as they age and such a thick belt may not be uncommon among Sun-like stars.[45] Tau Ceti's belt is only 120th as dense as the belt around its young neighbor, Epsilon Eridani.[42] The relative lack of debris around the Sun may be the unusual case: one research team member suggests the Sun may have passed close to another star early in its history and had most of its comets and asteroids stripped away.[43] Stars with large debris disks have altered astronomical thinking about planet formation; debris disk stars, where dust is continually generated by collisions, appear to form planets readily.[45]

Life and planet searches[edit]

Principal factors driving research interest in Tau Ceti are its Sun-like characteristics and their implications for possible planets and life. Hall and Lockwood report that "the terms 'solarlike star,' 'solar analog,' and 'solar twin' [are] progressively restrictive descriptions."[46] Tau Ceti fits the second category, given its similar mass and low variability, but relative lack of metals.[nb 8] The similarities have inspired popular culture references for decades, as well as scientific examination.

Tau Ceti was a target of a few radial velocity planetary searches. As of 1988, observations ruled out any periodical variations attributable to massive planets around Tau Ceti inside of Jupiter-like distances.[47][48] Up until December 2012 ever-more-precise measurements continued to rule out such planets.[48] The velocity precision reached so far is about 11 m/s measured over a five-year time span.[49] This result excludes the presence of hot Jupiters, and probably excludes any planets with minimum mass greater than or equal to Jupiter's mass and with orbital periods less than 15 years.[50] In addition, a survey of nearby stars by the Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera was completed in 1999, including a search for faint companions to Tau Ceti; none were discovered to limits of the telescope's resolving power.[51]

These searches only excluded larger brown dwarf bodies and giant planets so smaller, Earth-like planets in orbit around the star were not precluded.[51] If "hot Jupiters" did exist in close orbit they would likely disrupt the star's habitable zone; their exclusion was thus considered a positive for the possibility of Earth-like planets.[47][52] General research has shown a positive correlation between the presence of extrasolar planets and a relatively high metal parent star, suggesting that stars with lower metallicity such as Tau Ceti have a reduced chance of possessing planets.[53] Primitive life on Tau Ceti planets might reveal itself through an atmospheric composition unlikely to be inorganic, just as oxygen on Earth is indicative of life.[54]

SETI and HabCat[edit]

Tau Ceti may be a search target for the Terrestrial Planet Finder

The most optimistic search project to date was Project Ozma, which was intended to "search for extraterrestrial intelligence" (SETI) by examining selected stars for indications of artificial radio signals. It was run by the astronomer Frank Drake, who selected Tau Ceti and Epsilon Eridani as the initial targets. Both are located near the solar system and are physically similar to the Sun. No artificial signals were found despite 200 hs of observations.[55] Subsequent radio searches of this star system have also turned up negative.

This lack of results has not dampened interest in observing the Tau Ceti system for biosignatures. In 2002, astronomers Margaret Turnbull and Jill Tarter developed the Catalog of Nearby Habitable Systems (HabCat) under the auspices of Project Phoenix, another SETI endeavour. The list contained more than 17000 theoretically habitable systems, approximately 10% of the original sample.[56] The next year, Turnbull would further refine the list to the 30 most promising systems out of 5000 within one hundred light-years of the Sun, including Tau Ceti; this will form part of the basis of radio searches with the Allen Telescope Array.[57] She also chose Tau Ceti for a final shortlist of just five stars suitable for searches by the (indefinitely postponed)[58] Terrestrial Planet Finder telescope system, commenting that "these are places I'd want to live if God were to put our planet around another star."[59]

Planets[edit]

On December 19, 2012, evidence was presented that is consistent with a system of five planets orbiting Tau Ceti.[6] The planets' minimum mass estimates are between two and six times the Earth's mass, with periods ranging from 14 to 640 days. One of them, tentatively named Tau Ceti e, appears to orbit about half as far from Tau Ceti as the Earth does from the Sun. With Tau Ceti's luminosity of 52% that of the Sun and a distance from the star of 0.552 AU, the planet would receive 1.71 times as much stellar radiation as Earth does, slightly less than Venus with 1.91 times Earth's. Nevertheless, some research places it within the star's habitable zone.[11][12] Planetary Habitability Laboratory has calculated that Tau Ceti f, which would receive 28.5% as much starlight as Earth, compared to Mars with 43%, would be narrowly within the habitable zone of the star as well.[60]

The Tau Ceti planetary system
Companion
(in order from star)
Mass Semimajor axis
(AU)
Orbital period
(days)
Eccentricity Inclination Radius
b 2.00 ± 0.80 M 0.105 ± 0.006 13.965 ± 0.02 0.16 ± 0.22
c 3.1 ± 1.40 M 0.195 ± 0.01 35.362 ± 0.1 0.03 ± 0.28
d 3.60 ± 1.7 M 0.374 ± 0.02 94.11 ± 0.7 0.08 ± 0.26
e 4.30 ± 2.01 M 0.552 ± 0.03 168.12 ± 2.0 0.05 ± 0.22
f 6.67 ± 3.50 M 1.35 ± 0.09 642 ± 37 0.03 ± 0.26

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Alpha Centauri A is closer, but is a member of a triple system.
  2. ^ It can not be observed above latitude 75°N, as that is 90° north of the declination, 15°S. In practice, atmospheric effects will reduce visibility of the object when it is near the horizon.
  3. ^ From Tau Ceti the Sun would appear on the diametrically opposite side of the sky at the coordinates RA=13h 44m 04s, Dec=15° 56′ 14″, which is located near Tau Boötis. The absolute magnitude of the Sun is 4.8, so, at a distance of 3.65 pc, the Sun would have an apparent magnitude:
    \begin{smallmatrix} m = M_v + 5\cdot((\log_{10} 3.64) - 1) = 2.6 \end{smallmatrix}.
  4. ^ Weighted parallax based on parallaxes from van Altena et al. (1995) and van Leeuwen (2007).
  5. ^ The net proper motion is given by:
    \begin{smallmatrix} \mu = \sqrt{ {\mu_\delta}^2 + {\mu_\alpha}^2 \cdot \cos^2 \delta } = 1907.79\,\text{mas/y} \end{smallmatrix} where μα and μδ are the components of proper motion in the R.A. and Declination, respectively, and δ is the Declination. See:
    Majewski, Steven R. (2006). "Stellar Motions". University of Virginia. Retrieved 2007-09-27. 
  6. ^ The space velocity components are: U = +18; V = +29, and W = +13. This yields a net space velocity of:
    \begin{smallmatrix} \sqrt{18^2 + 29^2 + 13^2} = 36.5\,\text{km/s.} \end{smallmatrix}
  7. ^ Whether Jupiter actually provides protection to the inner solar system is still unresolved. See, for instance:
    "Jupiter: Friend Or Foe?". Science daily. 2007-08-25. Retrieved 2009-03-10. 
  8. ^ The star 18 Scorpii, arguably the truest Solar twin, presents a contrastive example to Tau Ceti: its metallicity is in keeping with Sol but its variability is significantly higher. See:
    Hall, J. C.; Lockwood, G. W. (2000). "Evidence of a Pronounced Activity Cycle in the Solar Twin 18 Scorpii". The Astrophysical Journal 545 (2): L43–L45. Bibcode:2000ApJ...545L..43H. doi:10.1086/317331. 

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i "LHS 146 – High proper-motion Star". SIMBAD. Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2009-01-14. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h Teixeira, T. C.; Kjeldsen, H.; Bedding, T. R.; Bouchy, F.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Cunha, M. S.; Dall, T.; Frandsen, S.; Karoff, C.; Monteiro, M. J. P. F. G.; Pijpers, F. P. (January 2009). "Solar-like oscillations in the G8 V star τ Ceti". Astronomy and Astrophysics 494 (1): 237–242. arXiv:0811.3989. Bibcode:2009A&A...494..237T. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:200810746. 
  3. ^ Pijpers, F. P. (2003). "Selection criteria for targets of asteroseismic campaigns". Astronomy and Astrophysics 400 (1): 241–248. arXiv:astro-ph/0303032. Bibcode:2003A&A...400..241P. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20021839. 
  4. ^ a b c de Strobel, G. Cayrel; Hauck, B.; François, P.; Thevenin, F.; Friel, E.; Mermilliod, M.; Borde, S. (1991). "A catalogue of Fe/H determinations – 1991 edition". Astronomy and Astrophysics Supplement Series 95 (2): 273–336. Bibcode:1992A&AS...95..273C. 
  5. ^ Santos, N. C.; Israelian, G.; García López, R. J.; Mayor, M.; Rebolo, R.; Randich, S.; Ecuvillon, A.; Domínguez Cerdeña, C. (2004). "Are beryllium abundances anomalous in stars with giant planets?". Astronomy and Astrophysics 427 (3): 1085–1096. arXiv:astro-ph/0408108. Bibcode:2004astro.ph..8108S. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20040509. 
  6. ^ a b Tuomi, M.; et al. "Signals embedded in the radial velocity noise: Periodic variations in the Tau Ceti velocities". Astronomy & Astrophysics (preprint). arXiv:1212.4277. Bibcode:2012yCat..35519079T. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201220509. 
  7. ^ a b Baliunas, S.; Sokoloff, D.; Soon, W. (1996). "Magnetic Field and Rotation in Lower Main-Sequence Stars: an Empirical Time-dependent Magnetic Bode's Relation?". Astrophysical Journal Letters 457 (2): L99. Bibcode:1996ApJ...457L..99B. doi:10.1086/309891. 
  8. ^ a b Mamajek, Eric E.; Hillenbrand, Lynne A. (November 2008). "Improved Age Estimation for Solar-Type Dwarfs Using Activity-Rotation Diagnostics". The Astrophysical Journal 687 (2): 1264–1293. arXiv:0807.1686. Bibcode:2008ApJ...687.1264M. doi:10.1086/591785. 
  9. ^ Malin, David (June 8, 2008). "Cetus". David Malin Images. Retrieved 2009-06-24. 
  10. ^ a b Anonymous. "Cetus". Omnipelagos.com. Retrieved 2009-06-24.  < الدرر المنثور al durr' al-manthūur The Scattered Pearls (of the Broken Necklace).
  11. ^ a b "Tau Ceti's planets nearest around single, Sun-like star". BBC News. December 19, 2012. 
  12. ^ a b "Tau Ceti May Have a Habitable Planet". Astrobiology Magazine. December 19, 2012. 
  13. ^ Rutkowski, Chris A. (2010), The Big Book of UFOs, Dundurn, p. 33, ISBN 1554887607 
  14. ^ Moore, Patrick; Rees, Robin (2011). Patrick Moore's Data Book of Astronomy (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 409. ISBN 0-521-89935-4. Retrieved 2011-04-28. 
  15. ^ Knobel, E. B. (June 1895). "Al Achsasi Al Mouakket, on a catalogue of stars in the Calendarium of Mohammad Al Achsasi Al Mouakket". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 55: 429. Bibcode:1895MNRAS..55..429K. doi:10.1093/mnras/55.8.429. 
  16. ^ Allen, R. H. (1963). Star Names: Their Lore and Meaning (Reprint ed.). New York: Dover Publications Inc. p. 162. ISBN 0-486-21079-0. Retrieved 2010-12-12. 
  17. ^ η Cet as Aoul al Naamat or Prima Sthrutionum (the first of the ostriches), θ Cet as Thanih al Naamat or Secunda Sthrutionum (the second of the ostriches), τ Cet as Thalath al Naamat or Tertia Sthrutionum (the third of the ostriches), and ζ Cet as Rabah al Naamat or Quarta Sthrutionum (the fourth of the ostriches). υ Cet should be Khamis al Naamat or Quinta Sthrutionum (the fifth of the ostriches) consistently, but Al Achsasi Al Mouakket designated the title the fifth of the ostriches to γ Gam with uncleared consideration.
  18. ^ 陳久金 (2005). 中國星座神話 (in Chinese). 台灣書房出版有限公司. ISBN 978-986-7332-25-7. 
  19. ^ 陳輝樺 (Editor) (July 10, 2006). "天文教育資訊網" [Activities of Exhibition and Education in Astronomy (AEEA)] (in Chinese). 
  20. ^ Woolley R.; Epps E. A.; Penston M. J.; Pocock S. B. (1970). "Woolley 71". Catalogue of stars within 25 parsecs of the Sun. Retrieved 2014-09-28. 
  21. ^ Gliese, W. and Jahreiß, H. (1991). "Gl 71". Preliminary Version of the Third Catalogue of Nearby Stars. Retrieved 2014-09-28. 
  22. ^ Van Altena W. F., Lee J. T., Hoffleit E. D. (1995). "GCTP 365". The General Catalogue of Trigonometric Stellar Parallaxes, Fourth Edition. Retrieved 2014-09-28. 
  23. ^ Perryman et al. (1997). "HIP 8102". The Hipparcos and Tycho Catalogues. Retrieved 2014-09-28. 
  24. ^ Perryman et al. (1997). "HIP 8102". The Hipparcos and Tycho Catalogues. Retrieved 2014-09-28. 
  25. ^ van Leeuwen F. (2007). "HIP 8102". Validation of the new Hipparcos reduction. Retrieved 2014-09-28. 
  26. ^ "RECONS TOP100". THE ONE HUNDRED NEAREST STAR SYSTEMS brought to you by RECONS (Research Consortium On Nearby Stars). 2012. Retrieved 2014-09-28. 
  27. ^ Reid, Neill (February 23, 2002). "Meeting the neighbours: NStars and 2MASS". Space Telescope Science Institute. Retrieved 2006-12-11. 
  28. ^ Henry, Todd J. (October 1, 2006). "The One Hundred Nearest Star Systems". Research Consortium on Nearby Stars. Archived from the original on November 28, 2006. Retrieved 2006-12-11. 
  29. ^ Butler, R. P.; Marcy, G. W.; Williams, E.; McCarthy, C.; Dosanjh, P.; Vogt, S. S. (1996). "Attaining Doppler Precision of 3 M s-1". Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 108: 500. Bibcode:1996PASP..108..500B. doi:10.1086/133755. 
  30. ^ a b Porto de Mello, G. F.; del Peloso, E. F.; Ghezzi, L. (2006). "Astrobiologically interesting stars within 10 parsecs of the Sun". Astrobiology 6 (2): 308–331. arXiv:astro-ph/0511180. Bibcode:2006AsBio...6..308P. doi:10.1089/ast.2006.6.308. PMID 16689649. 
  31. ^ Pijpers, F. P.; Teixeira, T. C.; Garcia, P. J.; Cunha, M. S.; Monteiro, M. J. P. F. G.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J. (2003). "Interferometry and asteroseismology: The radius of τ Ceti". Astronomy & Astrophysics 401 (1): L15–L18. Bibcode:2003A&A...406L..15P. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20030837. Retrieved 2007-09-24. 
  32. ^ a b Di Folco, E.; Thévenin, F.; Kervella, P.; Domiciano de Souza, A.; du Foresto, V. Coudé; Ségransan, D.; Morel, P. (2004). "VLTI near-IR interferometric observations of Vega-Like Stars". Astronomy and Astrophysics 426 (2): 601–617. Bibcode:2004A&A...426..601D. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20047189. 
  33. ^ "H-K Project: Overview of Chromospheric Activity". Mount Wilson Observatory. Retrieved 2006-11-15. 
  34. ^ a b Gray, D. F.; Baliunas, S. L. (1994). "The activity cycle of tau Ceti". Astrophysical Journal 427 (2): 1042–1047. Bibcode:1994ApJ...427.1042G. doi:10.1086/174210. 
  35. ^ Hall, J. C.; Lockwood, G. W.; Gibb, E. L. (1995). "Activity cycles in cool stars. 1: Observation and analysis methods and case studies of four well-observed examples". Astrophysical Journal 442 (2): 778–793. Bibcode:1995ApJ...442..778H. doi:10.1086/175483. 
  36. ^ Carraro, G.; Ng, Y. K.; Portinari, L. (1999). "Age Metallicity Relation and Star Formation History of the Galactic Disk". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 296 (4): 1045–1056. arXiv:astro-ph/9707185. Bibcode:1997astro.ph..7185C. doi:10.1046/j.1365-8711.1998.01460.x. 
  37. ^ Flynn, C.; Morell, O. (1997). "Metallicities and kinematics of G and K dwarfs". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 286 (3): 617–625. arXiv:astro-ph/9609017. Bibcode:1996astro.ph..9017F. doi:10.1093/mnras/286.3.617. 
  38. ^ Frick, P.; Baliunas, S. L.; Galyagin, D.; Sokoloff, D.; Soon, W. (1997). "Wavelet Analysis of Stellar Chromospheric Activity Variations". The Astrophysical Journal 483 (1): 426–434. Bibcode:1997ApJ...483..426F. doi:10.1086/304206. 
  39. ^ Judge, P. G.; Saar, S. H. (July 18, 1995). "The outer solar atmosphere during the Maunder Minimum: A stellar perspective". High Altitude Observatory. Bibcode:2007ApJ...663..643J. doi:10.1086/513004. 
  40. ^ Judge, Philip G.; Saar, Steven H.; Carlsson, Mats; Ayres, Thomas R. (2004). "A Comparison of the Outer Atmosphere of the "Flat Activity" Star τ Ceti (G8 V) with the Sun (G2 V) and α Centauri A (G2 V)". The Astrophysical Journal 609 (1): 392–406. Bibcode:2004ApJ...609..392J. doi:10.1086/421044. 
  41. ^ Smith, G.; Drake, J. J. (July 1987). "The wings of the calcium infrared triplet lines in solar-type stars". Astronomy and Astrophysics 181 (1): 103–111. Bibcode:1987A&A...181..103S. 
  42. ^ a b c d e J. S. Greaves, M. C. Wyatt, W. S. Holland, W. R. F. Dent (2004). "The debris disc around tau Ceti: a massive analogue to the Kuiper Belt". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 351 (3): L54–L58. Bibcode:2004MNRAS.351L..54G. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2004.07957.x. 
  43. ^ a b McKee, Maggie (July 7, 2004). "Life unlikely in asteroid-ridden star system". New Scientist. Retrieved 2007-09-25. 
  44. ^ Schirber, Michael (March 12, 2009). "Cometary Life Limit". NASA Astrobiology. Retrieved 2009-03-12. 
  45. ^ a b Greaves, Jane S. (January 2005). "Disks Around Stars and the Growth of Planetary Systems". Science 307 (5706): 68–71. Bibcode:2005Sci...307...68G. doi:10.1126/science.1101979. PMID 15637266. 
  46. ^ Hall, J. C.; Lockwood, G. W. (2004). "The Chromospheric Activity and Variability of Cycling and Flat Activity Solar-Analog Stars". The Astrophysical Journal 614 (2): 942–946. Bibcode:2004ApJ...614..942H. doi:10.1086/423926. 
  47. ^ a b Campbell, Bruce; Walker, G. A. H. (August 1988). "A Search for Substellar Companions to Solar-Type Stars". Astrophysical Journal 331: 902–921. Bibcode:1988ApJ...331..902C. doi:10.1086/166608. 
  48. ^ a b "Tables of Stars monitored by spectroscopy, with NO planet found". Extrasolar Planets Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2007-09-28. 
  49. ^ Endl, M.; Kurster M.; Els S. (2002). "The planet search program at the ESO Coud´e Echelle spectrometer". Astronomy & Astrophysics 392 (2): 585–594. arXiv:astro-ph/0207512. Bibcode:2002A&A...392..671E. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20020937. 
  50. ^ Walker, Gordon A. H.; Walker Andrew H.; Irwin W.Alan; et al. (1995). "A Search for Jupiter-Mass Companions to Nearby Stars". Icarus 116 (2): 359–375. Bibcode:1995Icar..116..359W. doi:10.1006/icar.1995.1130.  —Note that this study does not exclude the possibility of a large planet with a mass greater than Jupiter's and an orbital plane that is nearly perpendicular to the line of sight.
  51. ^ a b Schroeder, D. J.; Golimowski, D. A.; Brukardt, R. A. et al. (2000). "A Search for Faint Companions to Nearby Stars Using the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2". Astronomical Journal 119 (2): 906–922. Bibcode:2000AJ....119..906S. doi:10.1086/301227. Retrieved 2007-08-14. 
  52. ^ "Tau Ceti". Sol Company. Retrieved 2007-09-25. 
  53. ^ Gonzalez, G. (March 17–21, 1997). "The Stellar Metallicity - Planet Connection". ASP Conference Series. Bibcode:1998bdep.conf..431G. 
  54. ^ Woolf, Neville; Angel, J. Roger (September 1998). "Astronomical Searches for Earth-like Planets and Signs of Life". Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics 36 (1): 507–537. Bibcode:1998ARA&A..36..507W. doi:10.1146/annurev.astro.36.1.507. 
  55. ^ Alexander, Amir (2006). "The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, A Short History". The Planetary Society. Retrieved 2006-11-08. 
  56. ^ Turnbull, Margaret C.; Tarter, Jill (March 2003). "Target Selection for SETI. I. A Catalog of Nearby Habitable Stellar Systems". Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 145 (1): 181–198. arXiv:astro-ph/0210675. Bibcode:2003ApJS..145..181T. doi:10.1086/345779. 
  57. ^ "Stars and Habitable Planets". Sol Company. Retrieved 2007-09-21. 
  58. ^ "NASA budget statement". Planetary Society. 2006-02-06. Retrieved 2006-07-17. 
  59. ^ "Astronomer Margaret Turnbull: A Short-List of Possible Life-Supporting Stars". American Association for the Advancement of Science. February 18, 2006. Retrieved 2007-09-21. 
  60. ^ Torres, Abel Mendez (December 28, 2012). "Two Nearby Habitable Worlds?". Planetary Habitability Laboratory. University of Puerto Rico. Retrieved 2013-03-22. 

External links[edit]

Coordinates: Sky map 01h 44m 04.0829s, −15° 56′ 14.928″