Tauranga (New Zealand electorate)

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Tauranga electorate boundaries used since the 2014 election

Tauranga is a New Zealand parliamentary electorate, returning one Member of Parliament to the House of Representatives of New Zealand. The current MP for Tauranga is Simon Bridges of the National Party, who won the seat in the 2008 New Zealand general election, after the previous MP, Bob Clarkson of the National Party, retired.

Population centres[edit]

The previous electoral redistribution was undertaken in 1875 for the 1875–76 election. In the six years since, New Zealand's European population had increased by 65%. In the 1881 electoral redistribution, the House of Representatives increased the number of European representatives to 91 (up from 84 since the 1875–76 election). The number of Māori electorates was held at four. The House further decided that electorates should not have more than one representative, which led to 35 new electorates being formed, including Tauranga, and two electorates that had previously been abolished to be recreated. This necessitated a major disruption to existing boundaries.[1]

The electorate includes Tauranga, Mt Maunganui and Omanu Beach, but excluding Hairini, Maungatapu, Matapihi and Welcome Bay.

History[edit]

Tauranga electorate was created for the 1881 election, which determined the composition of the 8th Parliament. Initially, it existed until the 1890 election and during that time, it was represented by four MPs.[2]

The 1881 election was hotly contested. Four candidates were nominated: George Morris, who had previously represented the East Coast electorate; George Vesey Stewart, then the owner of the Bay of Plenty Times; William Kelly, who had also previously represented the East Coast electorate; and Henry Thomas Rowe, a surveyor and commission agent.[3] Rowe announced his retirement from the contest on 6 December three days out from election day, urging his supporters to vote for Stewart instead.[4] The unofficial results were released the day after the election (Saturday, 10 December) and Morris had a majority of 13 votes over Stewart, with the official declaration to be made on 12 December.[5] This was deferred until 14 December, with Morris ahead by 10 votes.[6] Stewart stood for the Tauranga mayoralty a few months later and was elected the town's first mayor.[7]

Morris was re-elected in the 1884 election, but resigned in April 1885, as he had been appointed to the Legislative Council.[8] The resulting by-election on 22 May 1885 was won by John Sheehan, who died on 12 June 1885.[9] The second 1885 by-election on 11 July was won by Lawrence Grace, who represented the electorate until the end of the term in 1887.[10] The 1887 election was won by William Kelly, who represented the electorate until the end of the term in 1890,[11] at which time the electorate was abolished.[2]

The electorate was recreated in 1908.[2] William Herries was the first representative, elected at the 1908 election; he had since the 1896 election represented the Bay of Plenty electorate. He became a member of the Reform Party when it formed itself in the following year. Herries represented the electorate until his death on 22 February 1923.[12]

The resulting 1923 by-election was won by Charles MacMillan, who also represented the Reform Party. MacMillan won the three subsequent general elections[13] before he was beaten in the 1935 election by Labour's Charles Harris Burnett.[14] At the next election held in 1938, Burnett was beaten by National's Frederick Doidge, who held the electorate until his retirement in 1951.[15]

Doidge was succeeded by George Walsh, who won the 1951 election. Walsh served for seven terms and retired in 1972. Keith Allen was the next representative, first elected in 1972 and an MP until his death shortly before the 1984 election.

Allen's death did not cause a by-election, as it occurred within six months of the next general election. The 1984 election was won by Winston Peters, who had previously represented the Hunua electorate. In 1990 until March 1991, Peters was Minister of Māori Affairs,[16] but he was sacked from Cabinet by Prime Minister Jim Bolger in October 1991 after repeatedly criticising his National Party leadership. Peters remained as a National backbencher, continuing to criticise the party. In late 1992, when the National Party was considering possible candidates for the elections in the following year, it was decided that Peters would not be allowed to seek renomination for the Tauranga electorate. Peters unsuccessfully challenged this decision in the High Court, and in early 1993, he chose to resign from the party and from Parliament. This prompted a by-election in Tauranga some months before the scheduled general election. Peters stood as an independent and won with over 90% of the vote, assisted by the major parties not standing candidates against him.[17] Shortly before the 1993 election, Peters established New Zealand First and retained the Tauranga electorate. He continued to represent Tauranga until he was defeated in the 2005 election by National's Bob Clarkson.[18]

Clarkson's defeat of Winston Peters was significant, as this resulted in New Zealand First losing its only electorate seat. The party still gained parliamentary representation by polling over the five percent threshold, however. Clarkson retired at the end of the parliamentary term. He was succeeded by National's Simon Bridges, who won the 2008 election, with Peters coming a distant second.[19] Bridges was re-elected in 2011.[20]

Members of Parliament[edit]

Key

 Independent    Reform    Labour    National    NZ First    United Future  

Election Winner
1881 election George Morris
1884 election
1885 by-election John Sheehan
1885 by-election Lawrence Grace
1887 election William Kelly
(Electorate abolished 1890–1908)
1908 election William Herries
1911 election
1914 election
1919 election
1922 election
1923 by-election Charles MacMillan
1925 election
1928 election
1931 election
1935 election Charles Harris Burnett
1938 election Frederick Doidge
1943 election
1946 election
1949 election
1951 election George Walsh
1954 election
1957 election
1960 election
1963 election
1966 election
1969 election
1972 election Keith Allen
1975 election
1978 election
1981 election
1984 election Winston Peters
1987 election
1990 election
1993 by-election
1993 election
1996 election
1999 election
2002 election
2005 election Bob Clarkson
2008 election Simon Bridges
2011 election
2014 election

List MPs[edit]

Members of Parliament elected from party lists in elections where that person also unsuccessfully contested the Tauranga electorate. Unless otherwise stated, all MPs terms began and ended at general elections.

Election Winner
1996 election Katherine O'Regan
1999 election Margaret Wilson
2002 election Larry Baldock
Margaret Wilson
2005 election Winston Peters
2011 election Brendan Horan

Election results[edit]

2011 election[edit]

General Election 2011: Tauranga[20]

Notes: Green background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member.
A Green tickY or Red XN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

Party Candidate Votes % ±% Party Votes % ±%
National Green tickY Simon Bridges 21,971 61.40 +4.59 19,858 54.23 -0.08
Labour Deborah Mahuta-Coyle 4,707 13.15 +5.45 5,496 15.01 -7.61
NZ First Brendan Horan 4,611 12.88 -12.24 5,455 14.90 +4.78
Green Ian McLean 2,458 6.87 +2.93 3,208 8.76 +4.18
Conservative Larry Baldock 1,512 4.23 +4.23 1,499 4.09 +4.09
ACT Kath McCabe 190 0.53 -0.05 426 1.16 -1.73
Māori Awanui Black 123 0.34 +0.34 182 0.50 -0.07
Mana Jayson Gardiner 90 0.25 +0.25 59 0.16 +0.16
Democrats Katherine Ransom 63 0.18 +0.09 22 0.06 -0.01
Independent Yvette Lamare 61 0.17 +0.17
United Future   205 0.56 -0.12
Legalise Cannabis   184 0.50 +0.13
Libertarianz   18 0.05 -0.01
Alliance   8 0.02 -0.02
Informal votes 699 283
Total Valid votes 35,786 36,620
National hold Majority 17,264 48.24 +16.55

Electorate (as at 26 November 2011): 48,133[21]

2008 election[edit]

General Election 2008: Tauranga[19]

Notes: Green background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member.
A Green tickY or Red XN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

Party Candidate Votes % ±% Party Votes % ±%
National Simon Bridges 21,051 56.81 +15.19 20,418 54.31 +9.04
NZ First Winston Peters 9,309 25.12 -14.47 3,804 10.12 -3.15
Labour Anne Pankhurst 2,856 7.71 -3.43 8,504 22.62 -7.61
Kiwi Larry Baldock 1,893 5.11 897 2.39
Green Karen Summerhays 1,461 3.94 +1.58 1,721 4.58 +1.07
ACT Ron Scott 217 0.59 +0.42 1,086 2.89 +1.99
Independent Gray Eatwell 111 0.30
United Future John D. Willocks 76 0.21 -3.46 257 0.68 -3.79
Democrats Katherine Ransom 31 0.08 -0.00 27 0.07 +0.01
Independent Terry Leaming 30 0.08
RONZ David Macartney 20 0.05 26 0.07 +0.06
Māori   215 0.57 +0.23
Bill and Ben   179 0.48
Progressive   178 0.47 -0.30
Legalise Cannabis   140 0.37 +0.19
Family Party   81 0.22
Libertarianz   21 0.06 -0.00
Alliance   15 0.04 +0.02
Workers Party   14 0.04
Pacific   9 0.02
RAM   2 0.01
Informal votes 229 147
Total Valid votes 37,055 37,594
National hold Majority 11,742 31.69 +29.67

2005 election[edit]

General election 2005: Tauranga[18]

Notes: Green background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member.
A Green tickY or Red XN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

Party Candidate Votes % ±% Party Votes % ±%
National Bob Clarkson 15,020 41.62 +25.30 16,559 45.28
NZ First Red XN Winston Peters 14,290 39.59 -13.08 4,851 13.26
Labour Sally Barrett 4,020 11.14 -9.70 11,055 30.23
United Future Larry Baldock 1,323 3.67 1,636 4.47
Green Noel Petersen 853 2.36 1,283 3.51
Destiny Neils Jensen 272 0.75 295 0.81
Progressive Karandeep Singh Lall 164 0.45 282 0.77
ACT Francis Denz 61 0.17 329 0.90
Libertarianz Russell Watkins 57 0.16 22 0.06
Democrats Katherine Ransom 31 0.09 27 0.07
Māori   124 0.34
Legalise Cannabis   65 0.18
Christian Heritage   22 0.06
Alliance   7 0.02
One NZ   7 0.02
99 MP   4 0.01
Direct Democracy   3 0.01
RONZ   3 0.01
Family Rights   2 0.01
Informal votes 229 152
Total Valid votes 36,091 36,573
National gain from NZ First Majority 730 2.02 +38.37

1993 election[edit]

General election, 1993: Tauranga[22]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
NZ First Winston Peters 12,638 55.33 -35.39
National John Cronin 4,714 20.64
Labour C Lee 2,839 12.43
Alliance Gary Barham 2,064 9.04 +7.57
Christian Heritage B Smith 331 1.45
McGillicuddy Serious G M Pittams 198 0.87 -1.28
Natural Law Jacque Hughes 59 0.26
Majority 7,924 34.69 -53.88
Informal votes 412 1.77 -1.66
Turnout 23,255 85.87 +36.79
Registered electors 27,082

1993 by-election[edit]

Tauranga by-election, 1993[23]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Independent Winston Peters 11,458 90.71
McGillicuddy Serious G M Pittams 271 2.15
Independent Peter Wakeman 190 1.50
HFA G J Barham 185 1.46
SM P R Watson 184 1.46
Independent I M Baikie 109 0.86
Natural Law L Lee 101 0.80
HEMP A G Bedford 55 0.44
Blokes' Liberation Front R S Tengblad 29 0.23
Aotearoa Partnership R A Campbell 25 0.20
Christ's Ambassadors Union Victor Bryers 24 0.19
Majority 11,187 88.57
Informal votes 449 3.43
Turnout 13,080 49.08
Registered electors 26,651

1931 election[edit]

General election, 1931: Tauranga[24]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Reform Charles MacMillan 3,147 42.30 -0.64
Independent Bill Sullivan[nb 1] 2,489 33.46
Country Party Frank Colbeck[nb 2] 1,803 24.24 +1.26
Majority 658 8.85 -0.02
Informal votes 40 0.53 -0.78
Turnout 7,479 78.73 -7.05
Registered electors 9,499

Table footnotes:

  1. ^ Bill Sullivan was a member of the United Party, but Charles MacMillan was the official candidate of the United/Reform Coalition, hence Sullivan stood as an Independent
  2. ^ For biographical details of Frank Colbeck, please refer to his father's article

1928 election[edit]

General election, 1928: Tauranga[25]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Reform Charles MacMillan 3,285 42.94
Labour D. C. Chalmers 2,607 34.08
Country Party Frank Colbeck[mb 1] 1,758 22.98
Majority 678 8.86
Informal votes 102 1.32
Turnout 7,752 85.78
Registered electors 9,037

Table footnotes:

  1. ^ For biographical details of Frank Colbeck, please refer to his father's article

1919 election[edit]

General election, 1919: Tauranga[26]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Reform William Herries 3,946 65.42
Liberal Benjamin Robbins[27] 2,086 34.58
Majority 1,860 30.84
Informal votes 118 1.92
Turnout 6,150 68.19
Registered electors 9,019

1881 election[edit]

General election, 1881: Tauranga[3][6]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Independent George Morris 381 36.18
Independent George Vesey Stewart 371 35.23
Independent William Kelly 301 28.58
Majority 10 0.95
Turnout 1,053 71.34
Registered electors 1,476

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ McRobie 1989, pp. 43–48.
  2. ^ a b c Scholefield 1950, p. 164.
  3. ^ a b "Nomination of Candidates for the Tauranga Electorate". Bay of Plenty Times X (1152). 30 November 1881. p. 2. Retrieved 28 November 2013. 
  4. ^ "The Bay of Plenty Times". Bay of Plenty Times X (1158). 7 December 1881. p. 2. Retrieved 30 November 2013. 
  5. ^ "The Bay of Plenty Times". Bay of Plenty Times X (1161). 10 December 1881. p. 2. Retrieved 30 November 2013. 
  6. ^ a b "Declaration of the Poll for the Tauranga Electorate". Bay of Plenty Times X (1164). 14 December 1881. p. 2. Retrieved 30 November 2013. 
  7. ^ Rorke, Jinty. "George Vesey Stewart". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved December 2011. 
  8. ^ Scholefield 1950, pp. 81, 127.
  9. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 138.
  10. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 109.
  11. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 118.
  12. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 113.
  13. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 124.
  14. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 98.
  15. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 103.
  16. ^ "Rt Hon Winston Peters". New Zealand Parliament. Retrieved 28 February 2012. 
  17. ^ Levy, Danya (28 November 2011). "Winston Peters aims to lead the opposition". The Dominion Post. Retrieved 28 February 2012. 
  18. ^ a b "Official Count Results -- Tauranga". Chief Electoral Office. Retrieved 28 February 2012. 
  19. ^ a b "Official Count Results -- Tauranga". Chief Electoral Office. Retrieved 28 February 2012. 
  20. ^ a b "Official Count Results -- Tauranga". Chief Electoral Office. Retrieved 28 February 2012. 
  21. ^ "Enrolment statistics". Electoral Commission. 26 November 2011. Retrieved 27 November 2011. 
  22. ^ Election results 1993, p. 113.
  23. ^ Election results 1993, pp. 175f.
  24. ^ The General Election, 1931. Government Printer. 1932. p. 4. Retrieved 2 November 2014. 
  25. ^ The General Election, 1928. Government Printer. 1929. p. 5. Retrieved 29 November 2014. 
  26. ^ Hislop, J. (1921). The General Election, 1919. National Library. p. 3. Retrieved 6 December 2014. 
  27. ^ "Liberal Selection for Tauranga". Wairarapa Daily Times 45 (13977). 11 November 1919. p. 5. Retrieved 7 December 2014. 

References[edit]

  • Part 1: Votes recorded at each polling place (Technical report). Chief Electoral Office. 1993. 
  • McRobie, Alan (1989). Electoral Atlas of New Zealand. Wellington: GP Books. ISBN 0-477-01384-8. 
  • Scholefield, Guy (1950) [First published in 1913]. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1949 (3rd ed.). Wellington: Govt. Printer. 
  • Wilson, James Oakley (1985) [First published in 1913]. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1984 (4th ed.). Wellington: V.R. Ward, Govt. Printer. OCLC 154283103. 

External links[edit]