Tausend und eine Nacht (Thousand and One Nights), Op. 346 is a waltz composed by Johann Strauss II in 1871. The waltz's melodies were drawn from his first-ever operettaIndigo und die vierzig Räuber (Indigo and the Forty Thieves). It was his first attempt at ensuring that the more memorable melodies from the stage works would survive obscurity by finding new life as a new orchestral work, a practice which he would faithfully retain in future stage works. Such a move would also benefit sheet music publishers who can sell the piano editions of the new works to the public who can readily identify individual music pieces.
Nonetheless, the charming waltz was to incorporate the more popular numbers from the operetta itself, with the melody Ja, so singt man comprising the entire infectious first waltz section. The graceful second section was contributed from the Act 2 Bacchanal Lasst frei nun erschallen das Lied aus der Brust.
The waltz's dreamy introduction is played by a sonorous clarinet evoking a distinctive Arabian feel. The first waltz section is robust and energetic, with a Trio section of comparatively less-rigorous section. The famous second waltz section is a swirling waltz passage in C major, with a high-spirited fashion. The third waltz section is considerably gentler, with a fierce but exciting Coda or tail-piece. The first waltz theme makes a hesitant entry again, accelerating into its breathless and brilliant conclusion, with repeated chords, with a strong drumroll and brass flourish.