Tawang district

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This article is about the district. For its eponymous headquarters, see Tawang Town.
Tawang district
District of Arunachal Pradesh
Location of Tawang district in Arunachal Pradesh
Location of Tawang district in Arunachal Pradesh
Country India
State Arunachal Pradesh
Headquarters Tawang Town
Area
 • Total 2,085 km2 (805 sq mi)
Population (2011)
 • Total 49,950[1]
Demographics
 • Literacy 60.6%[1]
 • Sex ratio 701[1]
Website Official website

Tawang district (Pron:/tɑ:ˈwæŋ or təˈwæŋ/) is one of the 16 administrative districts of Arunachal Pradesh in northeastern India. The area is historically Tibetan territory and is claimed by both the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China as a part of South Tibet.[2][3] It is the eighth least populous district in the country (out of 640).[1]

History[edit]

Tawang is inhabited by the Monpa people. From 500 BC to 600 AD a kingdom known as Lhomon or Monyul ruled the area.[4] The Monyul kingdom was later absorbed into the control of neighbouring Bhutan and Tibet.

Tawang Monastery was founded by the Merak Lama Lodre Gyatso in 1681 in accordance with the wishes of the 5th Dalai Lama, Ngawang Lobsang Gyatso, and has an interesting legend surrounding its name, which means "Chosen by Horse". The sixth Dalai Lama, Tsangyang Gyatso, was born in Tawang.

Tawang was historically part of Tibet. The 1914 Simla Accord defined the McMahon Line as the new boundary between British India and Tibet. By this treaty Tibet relinquished several hundred square miles of its territory, including Tawang, to the British, but it was not recognised by China.[5] However, the British did not take possession of Tawang and Tibet continued to administer and collect taxes in Tawang. When the British botanist Frank Kingdon-Ward crossed the Sela Pass and entered Tawang in 1935 without permission from Tibet, he was briefly arrested. This drew the attention of the British, who reexamined the Indo-Tibetan border and rediscovered that Tibet had ceded Tawang to British India. Tibet did not repudiate the Simla Accord and the McMahon Line but refused to surrender Tawang, partly because of the importance attached to the Tawang Monastery. In 1938 the British made a cautious move to assert sovereignty over Tawang by sending a small military column under Capt. G.S. Lightfoot to Tawang.[6]

Lightfoot's brief visit elicited a strong diplomatic protest from Tibet but did not cause any territorial change. After the outbreak of the war with Japan in 1941 the government of Assam undertook a number of 'forward policy' measures to tighten their hold on the North East Frontier Agency (NEFA) area, which later became Arunachal Pradesh. In 1944 administrative control was extended over the area of the Tawang tract lying South of the Sela Pass when J.P. Mills set up an Assam Rifles post at Dirang Dzong and sent the Tibetan tax-collectors packing. Tibetan protests were brushed aside. However, no steps were taken to evict the Tibetan from the area North of the pass which contained Tawang town.[7]

The situation continued after India's independence but underwent a decisive change in 1950 when Tibet lost its de facto independence and was incorporated into the newly established People's Republic of China. In February 1951, Major Ralengnao 'Bob' Khathing led an Assam Rifles column to Tawang town and took control of the remainder of the Tawang tract from the Tibetans, removing the Tibetan administration.[8][9]

During the Sino-Indian war of 1962, Tawang fell briefly under Chinese control, but China voluntarily withdrew its troops at the end of the war. Tawang again came under Indian administration, but China has not relinquished its claims on most of Arunachal Pradesh including Tawang.[10]

Tawang district was formed in 1989 when it was split from West Kameng district.[11]

Visit by Dalai Lama[edit]

When the current Dalai Lama (14th Dalai Lama) fled from Tibet in 1959 to escape from the Chinese army, he crossed into India on 30 March 1959 and spent some days resting at Tawang Monastery before reaching Tezpur in Assam on 18 April.[12] As recently as 2003, the Dalai Lama said that Arunachal Pradesh was "actually part of Tibet". He reversed his position in 2008, acknowledging the legitimacy of the McMahon Line and the Indian claim to the region.[13]

The Dalai Lama visited Tawang district on 8 November 2009. About 30,000 persons, including those from neighbouring Nepal and Bhutan, attended his religious discourse.[14]

Geography[edit]

Tawang district occupies an area of 2,172 square kilometres (839 sq mi),[15] comparatively equivalent to Scotland's Lewis and Harris.[16] The district is roughly located around latitude 27° 45’ N and longitude 90° 15’ E at the northwest extremity of South Tibet. Elevations range between 6,000 to 22,000 feet (6,700 m), and inhabitants are found at lower altitude, where they enjoy a cool temperate climate.

The district was carved out of the West Kameng district, which adjoins it to the south and east. Bhutan borders Tawang to the west whereas Tibet is to the north of the district. The district occupies an area of 2,085 square kilometres and has a population of 38,924 (as of 2001), almost 75% of which are considered "tribal", i.e. belonging to the native Monpa, Bhotia, Adi, etc.[17] The sensitivity of the border area brings Tawang a heavy military presence. In winter, Tawang frequently experiences heavy snowfall.[18]

Tawang Town with monastery in background.

Administrative divisions[edit]

The district is divided into 3 sub-divisions: Tawang, Lumla and Jang. Tawang sub-division is divided into 2 administrative circles: Tawang and Kitpi. Lumla sub-division is divided into 4 administrative circles: Bongkhar, Dudunghar, Lumla and Zemithang. Jang sub-division is divided into 4 administrative circles: Jang, Mukto, Thingbu and Lhou.

There are 3 Arunachal Pradesh Legislative Assembly constituencies located in this district: Lumla, Tawang and Mukto. All of these are part of Arunachal West Lok Sabha constituency.[19]

Demographics[edit]

According to the 2011 census Tawang district has a population of 49,950,[1] roughly equal to the nation of Saint Kitts and Nevis.[20] This gives it a ranking of 633rd in India (out of a total of 640).[1] The district has a population density of 23 inhabitants per square kilometre (60/sq mi) .[1] Its population growth rate over the decade 2001–2011 was 28.33%.[1] Tawang has a sex ratio of 701 females for every 1000 males,[1] and a literacy rate of 60.61%.[1]

A sizeable population of 20,000 live in Tawang town. The dominant ethnic group are the Monpa, who inhabit all of the 163 villages. The Tibetan are also found in small scattered numbers throughout Tawang. The Takpa, a small tribal group, are found in small, scattered numbers in the West and the North.[21][22][23]

Most of the people, which includes the Monpa, Takpa and the Tibetans, are Tibetan Buddhist by religion. Pre-Buddhist Bön and Shamanist influence is also evident. Festivals that include Losar, Choskar, and Torgya are held annually. The Dungyur is also celebrated in every three years of the Torgya. Both the Dungyur and Torgya festivals are celebrated at the Tawang Monastery with traditional gaiety and enthusiasm.

Transport[edit]

The 2,000-kilometre-long (1,200 mi) proposed Mago-Thingbu to Vijaynagar Arunachal Pradesh Frontier Highway along the McMahon Line,[24][25][26][27] (will intersect with the proposed East-West Industrial Corridor Highway) and will pass through here, alignment map of which can be seen here and here.[28]


Economy[edit]

Most of the tribes depend on agriculture for a living. Owing to Tawang's cold climate, farmers breed yak and sheep, although in lower altitudes crops are also planted.

Tourism[edit]

Tawang is a popular tourist destination thanks to the well-preserved Tawang Monastery. The Sela Pass rises steeply and is covered with snow for most of the year. Jang waterfall is a big tourist attraction.

Tawang district has a handicrafts centre that promotes the small-scale industries for local handicrafts.

Visitors to Tawang district require a special Inner Line Permit from the government which are available in Kolkata, Guwahati, Tezpur, and New Delhi. Most of the travel from the plains is on a steep hill road journey, crossing Sela Pass at 4,176 metres (13,701 ft). Tourists can travel to Tawang from Tezpur, Assam by road. Tezpur has direct flights from Kolkata. Guwahati, Assam, is 16 hours by road. In June 2008, a daily helicopter service from Guwahati was started by the Arunachal Pradesh government.

Road travel to Tawang from Tezpur, Assam, is by buses, private taxis and shared taxis. It is an arduous journey: most of the road is loose tarmac and gravel giving way to mud in many places. However, it is a scenic journey of nearly 12 hours, crossing Bomdila Pass 2,438 metres (8,000 feet), peaking at Sela Pass 4,176 metres (13,700 feet), Jaswant Garh and, finally, Tawang. Government buses often break down (usually on the way up) and passengers end up hitchhiking in private cars and taxis. En route, local food is available, especially meat and vegetarian momos and cream buns.

Tawang also hosted the 2nd International Tourism Mart in October 2013.[29]

Culture[edit]

Tawang Monastery[edit]

Main article: Tawang Monastery

The Tawang Monastery was founded by the Mera Lama Lodre Gyatso in accordance to the wishes of the 5th Dalai Lama, Nagwang Lobsang Gyatso. The monastery belongs to the Gelugpa sect and is the largest Buddhist monastery in India. It is associated with Drepung Monastery in Lhasa.[30] The name Tawang means Chosen Horse. It is also known by another Tibetan name, Galden Namgey Lhatse, which means a true name within a celestial paradise in a clear night.[citation needed]

Boys playing in last melting snow at Sela Top.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "District Census 2011". Census2011.co.in. 
  2. ^ Maxwell, Neville (1970). India's China War. New York: Pantheon. p. 65. ISBN 9780224618878. 
  3. ^ J Michael Cole (November 27, 2012). "China’s New Passport Sparks Controversy". The Diplomat. Retrieved May 25, 2013. 
  4. ^ Andrea Matles Savada (1993). Nepal and Bhutan: Country Studies. Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. p. 21. ISBN 0-8444-0777-1. 
  5. ^ Shakya (1999), p. 279.
  6. ^ A History of Modern Tibet, 1913–1951, by M.C.Goldstein (University of California Press,1989), pp. 299–307.
  7. ^ India's China War by Neville Maxwell (Anchor Books, 1972), pp.50–51.
  8. ^ India's China War by Neville Maxwell (Anchor Books, 1972),page 66
  9. ^ http://assamrifles.gov.in/news_view.aspx?id=1300
  10. ^ India's China War by Neville Maxwell (Anchor Books, 1972),pp.384–502
  11. ^ Law, Gwillim (25 September 2011). "Districts of India". Statoids. Retrieved 2011-10-11. 
  12. ^ Richardson (1984), p. 210
  13. ^ "Tawang is part of India: Dalai Lama". TNN. 4 June 2008. Retrieved 20 August 2012. 
  14. ^ Thousands flock to see Dalai Lama in Indian state.
  15. ^ Srivastava, Dayawanti et al. (ed.) (2010). "States and Union Territories: Arunachal Pradesh: Government". India 2010: A Reference Annual (54th ed.). New Delhi, India: Additional Director General, Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting (India), Government of India. p. 1113. ISBN 978-81-230-1617-7. 
  16. ^ "Island Directory Tables: Islands by Land Area". United Nations Environment Program. 18 February 1998. Retrieved 2011-10-11. "Lewis and Harris 2,179km2" 
  17. ^ http://www.censusindia.gov.in/Dist_File/datasheet-1201.pdf
  18. ^ Snowfall forces Advani to call off visit to Tawang
  19. ^ "Assembly Constituencies allocation w.r.t District and Parliamentary Constituencies". Chief Electoral Officer, Arunachal Pradesh website. Retrieved 21 March 2011. 
  20. ^ US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison:Population". Retrieved 2011-10-01. "Saint Kitts and Nevis 50,314 July 2011 est." 
  21. ^ About Tawang
  22. ^ Injustice in India's east
  23. ^ PHED Map
  24. ^ "Top officials to meet to expedite road building along China border". Dipak Kumar Dash. timesofindia.indiatimes.com. Retrieved 27 October 2014. 
  25. ^ "Narendra Modi government to provide funds for restoration of damaged highways". http://www.dnaindia.com. Retrieved 27 October 2014. 
  26. ^ "Indian Government Plans Highway Along Disputed China Border". Ankit Panda. thediplomat.com. Retrieved 27 October 2014. 
  27. ^ "Govt planning road along McMohan line in Arunachal Pradesh: Kiren Rijiju". Live Mint. Retrieved 2014-10-26. 
  28. ^ "China warns India against paving road in Arunachal". Ajay Banerjee. tribuneindia.com. Retrieved 2014-10-26. 
  29. ^ "International Tourism Mart begins today at Tawang in Arunachal Pradesh". Retrieved 18 October 2013. 
  30. ^ Footprint Tibet Handbook with Bhutan, p. 200. Gyume Dorje. (1999) Footprint Handbooks, Bath, England. ISBN 0-8442-2190-2.

External links[edit]