Tawau

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Tawau
(Formerly, Tawao)
斗湖
Tawau town centre.
Tawau town centre.
Official seal of Tawau(Formerly, Tawao)斗湖
Seal
Location of Tawau in Sabah
Location of Tawau in Sabah
Tawau(Formerly, Tawao)斗湖 is located in Malaysia
Tawau(Formerly, Tawao)斗湖
Tawau
(Formerly, Tawao)
斗湖
Tawau is located in Malaysia
Coordinates: 4°15′30″N 117°53′40″E / 4.25833°N 117.89444°E / 4.25833; 117.89444Coordinates: 4°15′30″N 117°53′40″E / 4.25833°N 117.89444°E / 4.25833; 117.89444
Country  Malaysia
State  Sabah
Division Tawau
Founded 1893
Settled by BNBC 1898
Government
 • Council President Ismail Mayakob
Area
 • Total 6,125 km2 (2,365 sq mi)
Population (2010)
 • Total 397,673
 • Density 65/km2 (170/sq mi)
Time zone MST (UTC+8)
 • Summer (DST) Not observed (UTC)
Website www.mpt.sabah.gov.my

Tawau (Malaysian pronunciation: [ˈta wau], Chinese: 斗湖; pinyin: Dǒu Hú) formerly known as Tawao, is the third-largest town in Sabah after the Kota Kinabalu City and Sandakan town, on the south-eastern coast of Borneo in Malaysia. It is located on the east coast of the island in the administrative centre of Tawau Division which surround by the Sulu Sea in the east, Celebes Sea to the south at the Cowie Bay[note 1] and shares a border with East Kalimantan (now North Kalimantan). The town has an estimated population of 113,809,[1] while the whole municipalities area has a total population of 397,673.[1][note 2]

History[edit]

Although the name of Tawao already on a nautical chart from 1857,[2] yet there is prior to 1879 with no clear evidence for a settlement. Even the Dutch after the founding of the East India Company had establish a trading post in Borneo, no significant activities of the Dutch on the east coast were first recorded.[3] But it changed in 1846, when Netherlands had a treaty with the Sultan of Bulungan, who assured them to control in this area.[3] When Dutch has began to operates in 1867, the Sultan married his son to the daughter of the Sultan of Tarakan, which the Dutch sphere of influence finally reached the region around Tawau. The north are the Dutch area but now overlapped with an area claimed for the Sultan of Sulu.[3]

A conflict with the British after that was inevitable, as in 1878 the Sultan of Sulu put the southern boundary of his land sold to the Baron von Overbeck until the Sibuco River.[4] To settle the border dispute, the British North Borneo Chartered Company negotiated in the 1880s with the Dutch definition of a boundary between their conferred by the Sultan of Sulu area and the area that the Dutch claimed on the basis of agreement with the Sultan of Bulungan.[3] On 20 January 1891, a final agreement was reached on a line along 4° 10' north latitude - on the central division of the Sebatik Island.[3][note 3]

In the early 1890s, only about 200 people lived in the settlement with most of them are immigrants from Bulungan in Kalimantan and some from Tawi-Tawi who had fled from the Dutch and Spanish rule.[5] The settlement was then called "Tawao" and become "Tawau". Majority who flee from the Dutch colonisation are still negotiating in trade with the Dutch.[5] In 1893, a British vessel S.S. Normanhurst sailed into Tawau for the first time with a full cargo of trade items and in 1898, the British build a settlement which later grew rapidly when the British North Borneo Company sponsored the migration of Chinese to Tawau.[6][7] On 16 December 1941, the Japanese invasion of Borneo began. After the first landing in Miri, the Japanese moved here along the coastline of Borneo from the oil fields of Kuching they were moving towards Jesselton, while in Tawau life continued as normal. On 24 January 1942, the Japanese invaders were sighted off Batu Tinagat. The district officer Cole Adams and his assistant expecting the attacker at the shipyard and were arrested on the spot.[note 4]

An aerial view of Tawau town on 1947.

The Allies began to counterattack the Japanese in mid-1944 with the bombing of Tawau. From 13 April 1945, six massive air strikes were flown to the city, which at first the target were concentrated at the port facilities. The last and most massive of the attacks were put on 1 May 1945 with nineteen B-24 bombers bombing Tawau until it completely razed to the ground.[8] After an unconditional surrender of the 37th Japanese Army under Lieutenant General Masao Baba in mid-September, 1,100 Australian soldiers in Sandakan under the command of Lt. Col. JA England marched on 17 October 1945 in Tawau, a Japanese stationed in Tawau with 2,900 soldiers of the 370th battalion under the Major Sugasaki Moriyuki were become prisoners of war with the Jesselton transferred.[9][10]

At the end of the war, the city was largely destroyed by bombing and fire. The only undestroyed remnant of the pre-war period is the bell tower of Tawau. Tawau quickly recovered from the devastation of the bombing. Although almost all the shops were destroyed in the city, report by The British North Borneo Annual Report in 1947 wrote that "the pre-war economy was largely made towards the end of 1947". Already in the first six months after the end of war, 170 shops and business houses were rebuilt by the British, and from 1 July 1947, subsidies for the purchase of rice and flour were hired.[11]

Indonesian Confrontation[edit]

The Tawau Konfrontasi Memorial.

Due to the exposed location near the border with Indonesia, Tawau also become the main point of the conflict. As preparation, Gurkhas were stationed in the city with other units such as the "British No. 2 Special Boat Section" under Captain DW Mitchell.[12][13] Australian Class Destroyer escort were also stationed in the Cowie Bay with a squadron of combat aircraft type F-86 Sabre flew daily from Labuan and coming over Tawau.

In October 1963, Indonesia moved their first battalion of the Corps Komando Operasi (KKO) from Surabaya to Sebatik and opened several training camps near the border in eastern Kalimantan (now North Kalimantan).[12][14] Between 1 October until 16 December 1963, there were at least seven shootings along the border, which results three Indonesians were killed. On 7 December, an Indonesian fighter plane flew over Tawau bays and bombed Tawau twice.

In Mid-December 1963, the Indonesian has sent a commando unit consisting of 128 volunteers and 35 regular soldiers to this area.[13] The aim of the operation was at first want to take Kalabakan and then invade Tawau and Sandakan.[13] On 29 December, the unit faced in a camp to a units from the 3rd Royal Malay Regiment.[13] They managed to throw several grenades into the sleeping quarters on these totally unprepared soldiers.[13] This attack results eight soldiers killed and another 19 wounded.[12] Armed police did eventually push away the attackers after a two-hour battle to the north.[12] At the end of January 1965, was imposed on Tawau a night time curfew to prevent the attackers made contact with about 16,000 Indonesians living in Tawau and at the end of February, 96 of the 128 men from the Indonesian sides were killed or captured, 20 of them which retreat to Indonesia were successful while 12 were still on the run.[12]

The next major attacks on Tawau remained but the situation remains tense in Tawau in 1964 when a group of eight Indonesians were detained while trying to poison the water supply of the city and on 12 May 1964 there was a bomb attempt to the Kong Fah cinema.[15][16] While in August 1965, an unknown assailants made an attempt to blow up a high-tension electricity pylon and in September, a logging truck was blown up by a land mine. On 28 June 1965, an attempted of regular invasion by the Indonesian troops to eastern Sebatik was already been repulsed with a heavy bombing by an Australian destroyer, HMAS Yarra (DE 45).[17][18] After the end of Konfrontasi on 12 August 1966, it took until December of that year, to be fully stopped in Tawau.[19]

Administration[edit]

Tawau Municipal Council building.

There are only one Members of Parliament (MPs) representing the one parliamentary constituencies in the town: Tawau (P.190).

Local authority[edit]

The town is administrated by the Tawau Municipal Council (Majlis Perbandaran Tawau). The current President of Tawau Municipal Council is Datuk Ismail Mayakob.[20] The area under the jurisdiction of the Tawau District covers the town area (2,510 hectares), half-town area (3,075 hectares), rural areas (568,515 hectares) and sea areas (38,406 hectares).[21]

Geography[edit]

Tawau is located at the south-east coast of Sabah surround by the Sulu Sea in the east, Celebes Sea to the south and shares a border with East Kalimantan (now North Kalimantan).[21][22][23] The town is located approximately 1,904 kilometres from the Malaysia's capital, Kuala Lumpur while only 540 kilometres from the capital of Sabah.[24] The main town area can be divided into three sections, such as Sabindo, Fajar and Tawau Lama (Old Tawau).[25] Sabindo is a plaza, Fajar is a commercial area while Tawau Lama is the original part of Tawau. 70% of Tawau area are high hills and mountainous.[26]

Climate[edit]

Tawau has a tropical rainforest climate under the Köppen climate classification. The climate is relatively hot and wet with average shade temperature about 26°C, with 29°C at noon and falling to around 23°C at night. The town sees precipitation throughout the year, with a tendency for November, December and January to be the wettest months, and February and March become the driest months. Tawau mean rainfall varies from 1800 mm to 2500 mm.[27][28]

Climate data for Tawau (2011)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 32
(89)
32
(89)
32
(89)
32
(90)
32
(89)
31
(88)
32
(89)
31
(88)
32
(89)
32
(90)
32
(89)
32
(89)
31.8
(89)
Average low °C (°F) 22
(71)
22
(71)
22
(71)
22
(72)
22
(71)
22
(71)
22
(71)
22
(71)
22
(71)
22
(71)
22
(71)
22
(71)
22
(71.1)
Precipitation mm (inches) 122
(4.8)
97
(3.8)
99
(3.9)
130
(5)
180
(7)
188
(7.4)
196
(7.7)
193
(7.6)
150
(6)
147
(5.8)
170
(6.7)
157
(6.2)
1,829
(71.9)
Source: Weatherbase[29]

Demography[edit]

Ethnicity and religion[edit]

Al-Kauthar Mosque, the largest mosque in Sabah.[30]

The Malaysian Census 2010 Report indicates that the whole town municipalities area has a total population of 397,673.[1][note 2] The town's population today is a mixture of many different races and ethnicities. Non-Malaysian citizens form the majority of the town population with 164,729 people followed by other Bumiputras (134,456), Chinese (40,061), Bajau (30,558), Malays (11,683), Kadazandusun (6,436), Murut (2,764), Indian (833) and others (6,153).[1]

The non-Malaysian citizens are mostly coming from Indonesia.[31] While the Chinese like other places in Sabah, are mostly Hakkas who has arrived since the British period and has their original settlements around Apas Road on which during the time the area was an agricultural field.[32][33] The Bajau and Malays are majority Muslims, Kadazandusuns and Muruts are mainly practice Christianity with some of them had become Muslim while the Chinese are mainly Buddhists and some Christians. Other small number of Hindus, Sikhs, Animists, and secularists also exist around the town.

The St. Patrick Church, the only Anglican church in Tawau.

The large group of non-citizens are majority Muslims and there is also a numbers of Christian Indonesian mainly from the Florenese and Timorese ethnics who has arrived since early as 1950s.[34][35] Majority of the non-citizen work and live at the plantation sectors with some of the migrant workers have been naturalised as a Malaysian citizens, however there are still many who living without proper documentation as illegal immigrants in the town with their own illegal settlement.[31][34]

Languages[edit]

Like the national language, the people of Tawau are mainly speak Malay, with a distinct Sabahan creole.[36] The Malay language here are different from the Malay language in the west coast which resembles Brunei Malay.[37] In Tawau, the language had been influenced by the Indonesian language which are brought by the Buginese, Florenese and Timorese.[31] As Tawau also been dominated by the Hakka Chinese, Hakka language also been widely spoken and for the east coast Bajau, their language has a similarities with the Sama language in the Philippines and also borrowed many words from the Suluk language which are different from the west coast Bajau who had been influence by the Malayic languages of Brunei Malay.[38][39]

Economy[edit]

Agriculture as the main economic source for Tawau.

Currently, there are 40 timber-processing plants together with a number of sawmills and the Tawau Port has become the main export and import gateway for timber especially from North Kalimantan.[40][41] In 1993, a barter trade was formalised between East Kalimantan (now North Kalimantan) and Sabah with the creation of Tawau Barter Trade Association (BATS). The association handled the cash-based trade of raw materials from Indonesia, but in recent years has put a strong focus on timber industry.[40] Other than timber, the exports since the British period have traditionally been spices, cocoa and tobacco.[42] Birds' nests also harvested at Baturong, Sengarung, Tepadung and Madai Caves by the Ida'an community as part of the Tawau economy sources.[43][44] For the cocoa industry, Tawau is one of the top cocoa producers in Malaysia and even in the world together with Ivory Coast, Ghana and Indonesia.[45] The town also retained its position as a cocoa capital for both in Sabah and Malaysia.[46] The cocoa is mostly concentrated in the interior north of the town while palm oil are most concentrated along the roads to Merotai up to Brantian and along the roads to Semporna and Kunak.[26] Both cocoa and the palm oil are part of the agriculture sector and has become the main income generator for the town.[47][48]

Like in Sandakan, people in Tawau have always relied on the sea for their sustenance. Every day, hundreds of deep sea trawlers and tuckboats can be seen at the Cowie Bay. In the sea also where the barter trade economy been used.[30] The Tawau marine zone are one of Sabah four marine zones, with the other been in Sandakan, Kudat and the west coast.[49] A great variety of high-grade fishes and all kinds of crustaceans were found in abundance in the sea and waterways around Tawau.[6] Prawn farming has become largest sea economic source for the district. The oldest and largest prawn farm were located on this area together with six frozen shrimp processing plants.[50][51]

Transportation[edit]

Land[edit]

A view of Tawau town road.

All the internal roads linking different parts of the town are generally state roads constructed and maintained by the state's Public Works Department. All road in Tawau were undergoing maintenance and major upgrade including the increasing of more parking lots.[52] Most major internal roads are dual-carriageways. The only highway routes from Tawau are:[53]

Public transportation[edit]

Regular bus services can be found operating in the town along with minivans and taxis.

Air[edit]

The new Tawau Airport.

Tawau Airport (TA) (ICAO Code : WBKW) provides flights linking the town to other domestic destinations. Local destinations for the airport including Kota Kinabalu, Kuching, Kuala Lumpur and many others. It is also one of the destinations for MASWings, which serves flights to other smaller towns or rural areas in East Malaysia. The only international flight by MASWings are to Juwata International Airport in Tarakan, Indonesia.

Education[edit]

There are many primary and secondary schools in Tawau such as St. Patrick Anglican Academy (S.P.A.A), SM St. Patrick, SM Holy Trinity, SMK Kuhara, SMK Abaka and SMK Tawau. There are also two private high schools - Sabah Chinese High School (Sekolah Tinggi Cina Sabah) and Vision Secondary School (Sekolah Menengah Visi). Technical and Vocational school can also be found at Tawau. The only Technical School in Tawau is SM Teknik Tawau, that are situated at the Muhibbah. Tawau also has one of the only two A-Level education centres in the state of Sabah - the Institute of Science and Management (ISM). There are also teacher training colleges such as Institut Perguruan Tawau,Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) Sabah Tawau Branch, Open University Malaysia, PPT Universiti Terbuka Malaysia,Tawau, Kolej Komuniti Tawau, Maktab Rendah Sains MARA Tawau and Pusat Giat Mara Tawau.

Main sights[edit]

There are a few significant development projects in Tawau. These include the Tawau Sports Complex, Tawau Free Trade Zone, Kuhara Point and Bandar Sri Indah. Bandar Sri Indah is known as the largest satellite township development project in Sabah. It is constructed on 1,368 acres (5.54 km2) of reclaimed land, which is three times larger than Tawau town center and located at km 16 of Tawau Airport Highway.

Tawau Hills National Park[edit]

Tawau Hills National Park has picnic areas, a vast camping site, and cabins, mainly visited by local residents during weekends. Located 24 kilometres (15 miles) from Tawau town, the park is accessible by road transport. The Tawau River flows across the park and tumbles over several waterfalls. The Table Waterfall has created a natural flowing pond for swimmers.

Bukit Gemok[edit]

Bukit Gemok (The Fat Hill) is about 11 km (7 mi) from Tawau town. It is about 428 meter above sea level and is part of the Bukit Gemok Forest Reserve covering 4.45 square kilometres (1.72 sq mi). In 1984, it was declared a forest reserve.

Neighbouring islands[edit]

Tawau Harbour are also used as a transit point to many neighbouring islands, such as to Sipadan, Mabul, Kapalai, Mataking and many other islands. It also been used to go to Indonesia islands such as south Sebatik, Tarakan and Nunukan.

Wildlife[edit]

Proboscis monkeys are the rarest primates on earth as they are only found on the island of Borneo. These monkeys live in mangrove swamps and riverside forests along the Tawau River. The females are about 60 cm (2 ft 0 in) tall and the males are about 70 cm (2 ft 4 in) tall. They have reddish fur and are tree-dwellers, who inhabit areas close to water and are excellent swimmers. The monkeys are vegetarian and live on mangrove shoots and fruits. They travel in small groups.

Notable people[edit]

International relations[edit]

Twin town[edit]

Tawau currently has two twin towns:

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "Total population by ethnic group, Local Authority area and state, Malaysia, 2010". Department of Statistics Malaysia. Retrieved 14 September 2013. 
  2. ^ British Museum, Sec. 13.2576; Facsimile at Goodlet, Page 6
  3. ^ a b c d e R. Haller-Trost (1 January 1995). The Territorial Dispute Between Indonesia and Malaysia Over Pulau Sipadan and Pulau Ligitan in the Celebes Sea: A Study in International Law. IBRU. pp. 6–8–9. ISBN 978-1-897643-20-4. Retrieved 6 August 2013. 
  4. ^ Summaries of Judgments, Advisory Opinions and Orders of the International Court of Justice: 1997-2002. United Nations Publications. 2003. pp. 266–. ISBN 978-92-1-133541-5. Retrieved 6 August 2013. 
  5. ^ a b "History of Tawau". e-tawau. 26 July 2008. Retrieved 9 April 2014. 
  6. ^ a b Nicholas Chung (2005). Under the Borneo Sun: A Tawau Story. Natural History Publications (Borneo). ISBN 978-983-812-108-8. 
  7. ^ "History of Tawau Settlement" (in Malay). Tawau Municipal Council. Archived from the original on 7 April 2014. Retrieved 7 April 2014. 
  8. ^ Kit C. Carter; Robert Mueller (1975). The Army Air Forces in World War II: combat chronology, 1941-1945. Arno Press. Retrieved 7 August 2013. 
  9. ^ Gavin Long: Australia in the War: The Final Campaigns (Army), Australian War Museum, Canberra, Page 495, 564
  10. ^ Bob Reece: Masa Jepun, Sarawak Literary Society, 1998
  11. ^ Goodlet, Page 129
  12. ^ a b c d e Will Fowler (2006). Britain's Secret War: The Indonesian Confrontation, 1962-66. Osprey Publishing. pp. 12–. ISBN 978-1-84603-048-2. Retrieved 6 August 2013. 
  13. ^ a b c d e J. P. Cross (1 January 1986). In Gurkha Company: The British Army Gurkhas, 1948 to the Present. Arms and Armour Press. ISBN 978-0-85368-865-5. Retrieved 6 August 2013. 
  14. ^ Malaysia. Dept. of Information; Malaysia. Kementerian Penerangan (1964*). Indonesian involvement in eastern Malaysia. Dept. of Information. Retrieved 6 August 2013. 
  15. ^ SAIS Review. School of Advanced International Studies of the Johns Hopkins University. 1966. Retrieved 6 August 2013. 
  16. ^ "The Straits Times, 24 June 1964, Page 11 ($2,000 for helping to catch sabotage gang)". National Library Singapore. Retrieved 6 August 2013. 
  17. ^ Neil C. Smith (1999). Nothing Short of War: With the Australian Army in Borneo 1962-66. Mostly Unsung Military History Research and Publications. ISBN 978-1-876179-07-6. Retrieved 6 August 2013. 
  18. ^ Rongxing Guo (1 January 2006). Territorial Disputes and Resource Management: A Global Handbook. Nova Publishers. pp. 217–. ISBN 978-1-60021-445-5. Retrieved 6 August 2013. 
  19. ^ Goodlet, Page 167–172
  20. ^ "List of Chairman, Council Members and President". Tawau Municipal Council. Retrieved 8 April 2014. 
  21. ^ a b "Tawau Position". Tawau Municipal Council. Archived from the original on 8 April 2014. Retrieved 8 April 2014. 
  22. ^ "Tawau Strategic Plan (2009-2015)" (PDF). Tawau Municipal Council. p. 5. Retrieved 8 April 2014. 
  23. ^ Wendy Hutton (November 2000). Adventure Guides: East Malaysia. Tuttle Publishing. pp. 77–. ISBN 978-962-593-180-7. Retrieved 8 August 2013. 
  24. ^ "Tawau to Kota Kinabalu Distance". Google Maps. Retrieved 9 April 2014. 
  25. ^ Lonely Planet; Daniel Robinson; Adam Karlin; Paul Stiles (1 May 2013). Lonely Planet Borneo. Lonely Planet. pp. 188–. ISBN 978-1-74321-651-4. Retrieved 8 August 2013. 
  26. ^ a b "Rapid Survey of Development Opportunities & Constraints (Doc) for Tawau District". Town and Regional Planning Department, Sabah. 30 March 1999. Retrieved 15 April 2014. 
  27. ^ P. Thomas; F. K. C. Lo; A. J. Hepburn (1976). The land capability classification of Sabah. Land Resources Division, Ministry of Overseas Development. 
  28. ^ P. Thomas; F. K. C. Lo; A. J. Hepburn (1976). "The land capability classification of Sabah (Volume 1) – The Tawau Residency (Climate)" (PDF). Land Resources Division, Ministry of Overseas Development. p. 10/29. Retrieved 9 April 2014. 
  29. ^ "Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Tawau, Malaysia". Weatherbase. 2011. 
  30. ^ a b Tamara Thiessen (2012). Borneo: Sabah - Brunei - Sarawak. Bradt Travel Guides. pp. 226 & 230. ISBN 978-1-84162-390-0. 
  31. ^ a b c Kamal Sadiq (2 December 2008). Paper Citizens: How Illegal Immigrants Acquire Citizenship in Developing Countries. Oxford University Press. pp. 48–. ISBN 978-0-19-970780-5. 
  32. ^ Danny Wong Tze-Ken (1999). "Chinese Migration to Sabah Before the Second World War". Archipel. p. 143. Retrieved 9 April 2014. 
  33. ^ Handbook of the State of British North Borneo: With a Supplement of Statistical and Other Useful Information. British North Borneo (Chartered) Company. 1934. 
  34. ^ a b Alexander Horstmann; Reed L. Wadley (15 May 2006). Centering The Margin: Agency and Narrative in Southeast Asian Borderlands. Berghahn Books. pp. 143–. ISBN 978-0-85745-439-3. 
  35. ^ Geoffrey C. Gunn (18 December 2010). Historical Dictionary of East Timor. Scarecrow Press. pp. 71–. ISBN 978-0-8108-7518-0. 
  36. ^ "PEOPLE OF SABAH". Discovery Tours Sabah. Archived from the original on 28 March 2014. Retrieved 10 April 2014. 
  37. ^ Stephen Adolphe Wurm; Peter Mühlhäusler; Darrell T. Tyron (1996). Atlas of Languages of Intercultural Communication in the Pacific, Asia, and the Americas. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 1615–. ISBN 978-3-11-013417-9. 
  38. ^ Mark T. Miller (2007). A Grammar of West Coast Bajau. ProQuest. pp. 5–. ISBN 978-0-549-14521-9. 
  39. ^ Julie K. King; John Wayne King (1984). Languages of Sabah: Survey Report. Department of Linguistics, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University. ISBN 978-0-85883-297-8. 
  40. ^ a b Krystof Obidzinski (2006). Timber Smuggling in Indonesia: Critical Or Overstated Problem? : Forest Governance Lessons from Kalimantan. CIFOR. pp. 16 & 28. ISBN 978-979-24-4670-8. 
  41. ^ Yvonne Byron (1995). In Place of the Forest; Environmental and Socio-Economic Transformation in Borneo and the Eastern Malay Peninsula. United Nations University Press. pp. 219–. ISBN 978-92-808-0893-3. 
  42. ^ Herman Scholz (2 August 2009). "Tawau Heaven for divers". New Sabah Times. Retrieved 11 April 2014. 
  43. ^ Madeline Berma, Junaenah Sulehan, Faridah Shahadan (1–3 December 2010). "“White Gold”: The Role of Edible Birds’ Nest in the Livelihood Strategy of the Idahan Communities in Malaysia" (PDF). National University of Malaysia. Massey University. Retrieved 11 April 2014. 
  44. ^ Liz Price (27 September 2009). "Local tribesfolk nestling among the Madai Caves". The Brunei Times. Archived from the original on 11 April 2014. Retrieved 11 April 2014. 
  45. ^ K. Assis, A. Amran, Y. Remali and H. Affendy (2010). "A Comparison of Univariate Time Series Methods for Forecasting Cocoa Bean Prices" (PDF). Universiti Malaysia Sabah. World Cocoa Foundation. ISSN 1994-7933. Retrieved 11 April 2014. 
  46. ^ Fredrik Gustafsson (2002). "Cocoa Satellites (A study of the cocoa smallholder sector in Sabah, Malaysia)" (PDF). Lund University. pp. 20/22. Retrieved 11 April 2014. 
  47. ^ Mohd. Yaakub Hj. Johari; Bilson Kurus; Janiah Zaini (1997). BIMP-EAGA integration: issues and challenges. Institute for Development Studies (Sabah). ISBN 978-967-9910-47-6. 
  48. ^ Jailani Hassan (28 May 2013). "Agro sector remains main income earner for Tawau". The Borneo Insider. Archived from the original on 11 April 2014. Retrieved 11 April 2014. 
  49. ^ Hamid Awong (May 2008). Hamid Awong Fisheries Model (HAFM): A Case Study Stock Assesments of Demersal Fishes of Priacanthus Tayenus (Richardson 1846) in Darvel Bay, Sabah, Malaysia. Lulu.com. pp. 4–. ISBN 978-0-615-21321-7. 
  50. ^ Wim Giesen; FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific (January 2006). Mangrove guidebook for Southeast Asia. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific. ISBN 978-974-7946-85-7. 
  51. ^ Hajjah Norasma Dacho, Rayner Datuk Stuel Galid and Alvin Wong Tsun Vui. "MARKETING AND EXPORT OF MARINE-BASED FOOD PRODUCTS" (PDF). Department of Fisheries, Sabah. pp. 15–16. Retrieved 13 April 2014. 
  52. ^ "Better roads, more parking lots for Tawau". The Borneo Post. 21 July 2012. Retrieved 16 April 2014. 
  53. ^ "INFRASTRUCTURE & SUPERSTRUCTURE (Road)". Borneo Trade (Source from Public Works Department, Sabah). Archived from the original on 29 March 2014. Retrieved 15 April 2014. 
  54. ^ "Tawau to have sister-city partnership with Zhangping City". The Borneo Post. 3 June 2013. Archived from the original on 7 April 2014. Retrieved 6 August 2013. 
  55. ^ Bachtiar Adnan Kusuma (January 2001). Otonomi daerah: peluang investasi di kawasan Timur Indonesia. Yapensi Multi Media. ISBN 978-979-95819-0-7. 

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Cowie Bay in the early 19th century are known as Kalabakong Bay. Sometimes it is also called as Sibuco Bay.
  2. ^ a b In addition to the official figures of the 2010 Census, there are a large number of illegal immigrants from Indonesia and the Philippines for decades. The measures implemented in previous years, for example, in 1981 retroactive legalization aggravated the problem probably because they put an unwanted signal to the influx of other illegal. (Goodlet, page 248 and page 299)
  3. ^ The final contractual commit this limit was indeed confirmed in 1912 by the joint boundary commission, and on 17 February 1913 by Dutch and British negotiators.
  4. ^ Cole Adams spent 44 months in Japanese POW camps - first on the Berhala Island in Sandakan, later in Batu Lintang camp near Kuching - and died on the day of his liberation by the 9th Division of the Australian armed forces in September 1945.

External links[edit]