Taxonomy of the Euphorbiaceae

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Here is a full taxonomy of the family Euphorbiaceae, according to the most recent molecular research[citation needed]. This complex family previously comprising 5 subfamilies:[citation needed] the Acalyphoideae, the Crotonoideae, the Euphorbioideae, the Phyllanthoideae and the Oldfieldioideae. The 3 first ones are uni-ovulate families while the 2 last one are bi-ovulate.

Now the Euphorbiaceae has been split into 5 families: The 3 uni-ovulate subfamilies have become the Euphorbiaceae in the strict sense, with the tribe Galearieae in the Acalyphoideae forming the most of the family Pandaceae.[1] Part of the bi-ovulate subfamily Phyllanthoideae has become the family Phyllanthaceae,[1] with the tribe Drypeteae as family Putranjivaceae[1] and the tribe Centroplaceae part of the Pandaceae.[citation needed] The other bi-ovulate subfamily Oldfieldioideae has become the Picrodendraceae.[1]

Subfamily Acalyphoideae[edit]

Tribe Acalypheae[edit]

There are 12 subtribes and 32 genera:

Subtribe Acalyphinae
Acalypha (also Acalyphes, Acalyphopsis, Calyptrospatha, Caturus, Corythea, Cupameni, Galurus, Gymnalypha, Linostachys, Mercuriastrum, Odonteilema, Paracelsea, Ricinocarpus, Schizogyne, Usteria)
Subtribe Adrianinae
Adriana (also Meialisa, Trachycaryon)
Subtribe Claoxylinae
Claoxylon (also Erythrochilus, Erythrochylus)
Claoxylopsis
Discoclaoxylon
Erythrococca (also Athroandra, Autrandra, Chloropatane, Deflersia, Poggeophyton, Rivinoides)
Micrococca
Subtribe Cleidiinae
Cleidion (also Lasiostyles, Psilostachys, Redia, Tetraglossa)
Sampantaea
Wetria (also Pseudotrewia)
Subtribe Dysopsidinae
Dysopsis (also Mirabellia, Molina)
Subtribe Lasiococcinae
Clonostylis
Homonoia (also called Haematospermum, Lumanaja])
Lasiococca
Spathiostemon (also Polydragma)
Subtribe Lobaniliinae
Lobanilia
Subtribe Macaranginae
Macaranga (also Adenoceras, Mappa, Mecostylis, Pachystemon, Panopia, Phocea, Tanarius)
Subtribe Mareyinae
Mareya
Mareyopsis
Subtribe Mercurialinae
Mercurialis (also Cynocrambe, Discoplis, Synema)
Leidesia
Seidelia
Subtribe Ricininae
Ricinus - castor bean
Subtribe Rottlerinae
Avellanita
Coccoceras
Cordemoya (also Boutonia)
Deuteromallotus
Mallotus (also Aconceveibum, Axenfeldia, Coelodiscus, Diplochlamys, Echinocroton, Echinus, Hancea, Lasipana, Plagianthera, Rottlera,Stylanthus)
Neotrewia
Octospermum
Rockinghamia
Trewia (also Canschi, Trevia)

Tribe Adelieae[edit]

There are 5 genera:

Adelia (also Ricinella)
Crotonogynopsis
Enriquebeltrania (also Beltrania)
Lasiocroton
Leucocroton

Tribe Agrostistachydeae[edit]

There are 4 genera:

Agrostistachys (also Heterocalyx, Sarcoclinium)
Chondrostylis (also Kunstlerodendron)
Cyttaranthus
Pseudagrostistachys

Tribe Alchorneae[edit]

There are 2 subtribes and 7 genera:

Subtribe Alchorneinae
Alchornea (also Bleekeria, Cladodes, Hermesia, Lepidoturus, Schousboea, Stipellaria)
Aparisthmium
Bocquillonia (also Ramelia)
Orfilea (also Diderotia, Laurembergia)
Subtribe Conceveibinae
Conceveiba (also Conceveibastrum, Conceveibum, Veconcibea)
Gavarretia
Polyandra

Tribe Ampereae[edit]

There are 2 genera:

Amperea (also Leptomeria)
Monotaxis (also Hippocrepandra, Reissipa)

Tribe Bernardieae[edit]

There are 6 genera:

Adenophaedra
Amyrea
Bernardia (also Alevia, Bernarda, Bernhardia, Bivonia, Passaea, Phaedra, Polyboea, Traganthus, Tyria)
Discocleidion
Necepsia (also Neopalissya, Palissya)
Paranecepsia

Tribe Caryodendreae[edit]

There are 3 genera:

Alchorneopsis
Caryodendron (also Centrodiscus)
Discoglypremna

Tribe Chaetocarpeae[edit]

This tribe has 2 genera:

Chaetocarpus (also Gaedawakka, Mettenia, Neochevaliera, Regnaldia)
Trigonopleura (also Peniculifera)

Tribe Cheiloseae[edit]

There are 2 genera:

Cheilosa
Neoscortechinia (also Alcineanthus, Scortechinia)

Tribe Chrozophoreae[edit]

This tribe has 4 subtribes and 12 genera:

Subtribe Chrozophorinae
Chrozophora (also Crossophora, Crozophora, Ricinoides, Tournesol, Tournesolia)
Subtribe Ditaxinae
Argythamnia (also Argithamnia, Argothamnia, Argyrothamnia, Argytamnia, Odotalon, Serophyton)
Caperonia (also Acanthopyxis, Androphoranthus, Cavanilla, Lepidococea, Meterana)
Chiropetalum (also Aonikena, Desfontaena, Desfontaina, Desfontainea)
Ditaxis (also Aphora, Paxiuscula, Stenonia)
Philyra (also Phyllera)
Subtribe Doryxylinae
Doryxylon (also Mercadoa, Sumbavia)
Melanolepis
Sumbaviopsis (also Adisa, Adisca)
Thyrsanthera
Subtribe Speranskiinae
Speranskia
Annual Mercury (Mercurialis annua)

Tribe Clutieae[edit]

Clutia (also Altora, Cluytia, Clytia)

Tribe Dicoelieae[edit]

This tribe has one genus:

Dicoelia

Tribe Epiprineae[edit]

There are 2 subtribes and 9 genera:

Subtribe Epiprininae
Adenochlaena (also Niedenzua, Centrostylis)
Cephalocroton
Cephalocrotonopsis
Cladogynos (also Adenogynum, Baprea, Chloradenia)
Cleidiocarpon (also Sinopimelodendron)
Epiprinus
Koilodepas (also Caelodepas, Calpigyne, Coelodepas, Nephrostylus)
Symphyllia
Subtribe Cephalomappinae
Cephalomappa
Muricococcum

Tribe Erismantheae[edit]

There are 3 genera:

Erismanthus
Moultonianthus
Syndyophyllum

Tribe Omphaleae[edit]

This tribe only has 1 genus:

Omphalea (also Duchola, Hebecocca, Hecatea, Neomphalea, Omphalandria, Ronnowia)

Tribe Pereae[edit]

There is only 1 genus:

Pera

Tribe Plukenetieae[edit]

There are 3 subtribes and 13 genera:

Subtribe Dalechampiinae
Dalechampia (also Cremophyllum, Dalechampsia, Megalostylis, Rhopalostylis)
Subtribe Plukenetiinae
Angostylis (also Angostyles)
Astrococcus
Plukenetia (also Accia, Angostylidium, Apopandra, Botryanthe, Ceratococcus, Elaeophora, Eleutherostigma, Fragariopsis, Hedraiostylus, Pseudotragia, Pterococcus, Sajorium, Tetracarpidium or Vigia)
Haematostemon
Romanoa (also Anabaena, Anabaenella)
Subtribe Tragiinae
Acidoton (also Durandeeldia, Gitara)
Cnesmone (also Cenesmon, Cnesmosa)
Megistostigma (also Clavistylus)
Pachystylidium
Platygyna (also Acanthocaulon)
Sphaerostylis
Tragia (also Agirta, Allosandra, Bia, Ctenomeria, Lassia, Leptobotrys, Leptorhachis, Leucandra, Schorigeram, Zuckertia)

Tribe Pogonophoreae[edit]

This tribe only has 1 genus:

Pogonophora (also Poraresia)

Tribe Pycnocomeae[edit]

There are 2 subtribes and 7 genera:

Subtribe Blumeodendrinae
Blumeodendron
Botryophora (also Botryospora, Botryphora)
Podadenia
Ptychopyxis (also Clarorivinia)
Subtribe Pycnocominae
Argomuellera (also Neopycnocoma, Wetriaria)
Droceloncia
Pycnocoma (also Comopyena)

Tribe Sphyranthereae[edit]

There is only 1 genus:

Sphyranthera

Subfamily Crotonoideae[edit]

Tribe Adenoclineae[edit]

There are 2 subtribes and 6 genera:

Subtribe Adenoclininae
Adenocline (also Adenoclina, Diplostylis, Paradenocline)
Ditta
Glycydendron
Klaineanthus

Tetrorchidium (also Hasskarlia, Tetrorchidiopsis)

Subtribe Endosperminae
Endospermum (also Capellenia)

Tribe Aleuritideae[edit]

This tribe has 6 subtribes and 16 genera:

Subtribe Aleuritinae
Aleurites (also Camirium)
Reutealis
Vernicia (also Ambinux, Dryandra, Elaeococca)
Subtribe Benoistiinae
Benoistia
Subtribe Crotonogyninae
Crotonogyne (also Neomanniophyton)
Cyrtogonone
Manniophyton
Subtribe Garciinae
Garcia (also called Carcia)
Subtribe Grosserinae
Anomalocalyx
Cavacoa
Grossera
Neoholstia (also Holstia)
Sandwithia
Tannodia (also Domohinea)
Tapoides
Subtribe Neoboutoniinae
Neoboutonia

Tribe Codiaeae[edit]

There are 15 genera:

Acidocroton
Baliospermum
Baloghia (also Steigeria)
Blachia (also Deonia)
Codiaeum (also Crozophyla, Junghuhnia, Phyllaurea, Synaspisma)
Colobocarpos
Dimorphocalyx
Dodecastigma
Fontainea
Hylandia
Ophellantha
Ostodes
Pantadenia
Sagotia
Strophioblachia

Tribe Crotoneae[edit]

There are 5 genera:

Brasiliocroton
Croton (also Agelandra, Aldinia, Angelandra, Anisepta, Anisophyllum, Argyra, Argyrodendron, Astraea, Astrogyne, Aubertia, Banalia, Barhamia, Brachystachys, Calypteriopetalon, Cascarilla, Centrandra, Cieca, Cleodora, Codonocalyx, Comatocroton, Crotonanthus, Crotonopsis, Cyclostigma, Decarinium, Drepadenium, Eluteria, Engelmannia, Eremocarpus, Eutrophia, Friesia, Furcaria, Geiseleria, Gynamblosis, Halecus, Hendecandas, Heptallon, Heterochlamys, Heterocroton, Julocroton, Klotzschiphytum, Kurkas, Lasiogyne, Leptemon, Leucadenia, Luntia, Macrocroton, Medea, Merleta, Monguia, Myriogomphus, Ocalia, Oxydectes, Palanostigma, Penteca, Pilinophyton, Piscaria, Pleopadium, Podostachys, Saipania, Schradera, Semilta, Tiglium, Timandra, Tridesmis, Triplandra, Vandera)
Mildbraedia (also Neojatropha, Plesiatropha)
Moacroton (also Cubacroton)
Paracroton (also Desmostemon, Fahrenheitia)

Tribe Elateriospermeae[edit]

This tribe only has 1 genus:

Elateriospermum (also Elaterioides, Elaterispermum)

Tribe Gelonieae[edit]

This tribe has 2 genera:

Cladogelonium
Suregada (also Ceratophorus, Erythrocarpus, Gelonium, Owataria)

Tribe Jatropheae[edit]

There are 8 genera:

Annesijoa
Deutzianthus
Jatropha (also Adenorhopium, Adenoropium, Castiglionia, Collenucia, Curcas, Jatropa, Loureira, Mesandrinia, Mozinna, Zimapania)
Joannesia (also Anda, Andicus)
Leeuwenbergia
Loerzingia
Oligoceras
Vaupesia

Tribe Manihoteae[edit]

This tribe has 2 genera:

Cnidoscolus (also Bivonea, Jussieuia, Mandioca, Victorinia)
Manihot (also Hotnima, Janipha, Manihotoides)

Tribe Micrandreae[edit]

There are 2 subtribes and 4 genera:

Subtribe Heveinae
Hevea (also Caoutchoua, Micrandra, Siphonanthus, Siphonia)
Subtribe Micrandrinae
Cunuria
Micrandra (also Clusiophyllum, Pogonophyllum)
Micrandropsis

Tribe Ricinocarpeae[edit]

There are 2 subtribes and 7 genera:

Subtribe Bertyinae
Bertya (also Lambertya)
Borneodendron
Cocconerion
Myricanthe
Subtribe Ricinocarpinae
Alphandia
Beyeria (also Beyeriopsis, Calyptrostigma, Clavipodium)
Ricinocarpus (also Echinosphaera, Ricinocarpus, Roeperia)

Tribe Ricinodendreae[edit]

There are 2 genera:

Ricinodendron
Schinziophyton

Tribe Trigonostemoneae[edit]

There is only 1 genus:

Trigonostemon (also Actephilopsis, Athroisma, Enchidium, Kurziodendron, Neotrigonostemon, Nepenthandra, Poilaniella, Prosartema, Silvaea, Telogyne, Tritaxis, Tylosepalum)

Subfamily Euphorbioideae[edit]

Tribe Euphorbieae[edit]

This tribe has 3 subtribes and 6 genera:

Subtribe Anthosteminae
Anthostema
Dichostemma
Subtribe Euphorbiinae
Cubanthus (to be transferred to Euphorbia)
Euphorbia (also Ademo, Adenopetalum, Adenorima, Agaloma, Aklema, Alectoroctonum, Allobia, Anisophyllum, Anthacantha, Aplarina, Arthrothamnus, Bojeria, Ceraselma, Chamaesyce, Characias, Chylogala, Crepidaria, Ctenadena, Cyathophora, Cystidospermum, Dactylanthes, Dematra, Desmonema, Diadenaria, Dichrophyllum, Dichylium, Diplocyathium, Ditritra, Elaeophorbia, Endadenium, Endoisila, Epurga, Esula, Euforbia, Eumecanthus, Euphorbiastrum, Euphorbiodendron, Euphorbiopsis, Euphorbium, Galarhoeus, Hexadenia, Kanopikon, Kobiosis, Lacanthis, Lathyris, Lepadena, Leptopus, Lophobios, Lortia, Lyciopsis, Medusea, Monadenium, Nisomenes, Ossifraga, Peccana, Pedilanthus, Petalandra, Pleuradena, Poinsettia, Pythius, Sclerocyathium, Stenadenium, Sterigmanthe, Synadenium, Tithymaloides, Tithymalopsis, Tithymalus, Torfasadis, Treisia, Tricherostigma, Trichosterigma, Tumalis, Vallaris, Ventenatia, Xamesike, Zalitea, Zygophyllidium)
Subtribe Neoguillauminiinae
Calycopeplus
Neoguillauminia

Tribe Hippomaneae[edit]

This tribe has 2 subtribes and 33 genera:

Subtribe Carumbiinae
Omalanthus (also Carumbium, Dibrachion, Dibrachium, Duania, Wartmannia)
Subtribe Hippomaninae
Actinostemon (also Dactylostemon)
Adenopeltis
Anomostachys
Balakata
Bonania (also Hypocoton)
Colliguaja
Conosapium
Dalembertia (also Alcoceria)
Dendrocousinsia
Dendrothrix
Ditrysinia
Duvigneaudia
Excoecaria (also Commia, Glyphostylus)
Falconeria
Grimmeodendron
Gymnanthes (also Adenogyne, Ateramnus)
Hippomane (also Mancanilla, Mancinella)
Mabea
Maprounea (also Aegopicron, Aegopricon, Aegopricum)
Neoshirakia (also Shirakia)
Pleradenophora
Pseudosenefeldera
Rhodothyrsus
Sapium (also Carumbium, Gymnobothrys, Sapiopsis, Seborium, Shirakiopsis, Stillingfleetia, Taeniosapium) - Chinese tallow
Sclerocroton
Sebastiania (also Clonostachys, Cnemidostachys, Elachocroton, Gussonia, Microstachys, Sarothrostachys, Tragiopsis)
Senefeldera
Senefelderopsis
Spegazziniophytum
Spirostachys
Stillingia (also Gymnostillingia)
Triadica

Tribe Hureae[edit]

There are 4 genera:

Algernonia
Hura
Ophthalmoblapton
Tetraplandra (also Dendrobryon)

Tribe Pachystromateae[edit]

There is one genus:

Pachystroma (also Acantholoma)

Tribe Stomatocalyceae[edit]

There are 2 subtribes and 4 genera:

Subtribe Hamilcoinae
Hamilcoa
Nealchornea
Subtribe Stomatocalycinae
Pimelodendron (also Stomatocalyx)
Plagiostyles

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Wurdack, K. J.; Hoffmann, P.; Chase, M. W. (2005), "Molecular phylogenetic analysis of uniovulate Euphorbiaceae (Euphorbiaceae sensu stricto) using plastid RBCL and TRNL-F DNA sequences", American Journal of Botany 92: 1397, doi:10.3732/ajb.92.8.1397, PMID 21646159 

External links[edit]