Constitution Party (United States)

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The Constitution Party
Chairman Frank Fluckiger
Founded 1992 (1992) as U.S. Taxpayers' Party, 1999 (1999) as Constitution Party
Headquarters 23 North Lime St., Lancaster, PA 17602
Ideology Christian nationalism
Conservatism
Paleoconservatism
Christian right
Political position Right-wing
Colors Red, White, and Blue
Seats in the Senate
0 / 100
Seats in the House
0 / 435
Governorships
0 / 50
State Upper House Seats
0 / 1,972
State Lower House Seats
0 / 5,411
Other elected offices 7 (2014)[citation needed]
Website
http://constitutionparty.com/
Politics of United States
Political parties
Elections

The Constitution Party is a right-wing political party in the United States.[1][2][3][4][5][6] The party asserts that the United States is a Christian nation founded on the Bible and that jurisprudence should be restored to what the party claims is its "Biblical foundations".[7] This has led to its being described by critics as a theocratic party, as was its predecessor.[8][9][10][11] The Constitution Party advocates a platform which reflects the Party's understanding of the principles set forth in the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution of the United States, the Bible, and the Bill of Rights.

The party was founded as the "U.S. Taxpayers' Party" by Howard Philips in 1991.[12] Phillips was the party's candidate in the 1992, 1996 and 2000 presidential elections. The party's official name was changed to The Constitution Party in 1999; however, some state affiliate parties are known under different names. The party's platform is predicated on the party's understanding of the original intent of the nation's founding documents.[13] The party absorbed the American Independent Party, originally founded for George Wallace's 1968 presidential campaign. The Constitution Party receives substantial support from Christian Right organizations and claims to be the "philosophical home" of the Tea Party.[14] The Constitution Party candidate, former congressman Tom Tancredo, came in second place in the 2010 Colorado gubernatorial election with 36.43% of the vote, ahead of Republican Dan Maes with 11.13%, and in 2006 Rick Jore of the then recently disaffiliated Constitution Party of Montana was elected to the Montana House of Representatives with 56.2% of the vote over Democrat Jeanne Windham.

Historic "Constitution Parties" in the United States[edit]

A number of conservative parties calling themselves the "Constitution Party" have existed in the United States. In 1952-1953, Upton Close, Robert R. McCormick and other supporters of Joseph McCarthy discussed the formation of a party—sometimes referenced as the "Constitution Party"; sometimes the "American Party"—apparently in support of Senator McCarthy's ambitions to reach the White House.

White supremacist, Christian Identity theorist, and Posse Comitatus founder, William Potter Gale, was California's "state chairman of the Constitution Party" in 1957.[15] and their candidate for Governor of California in 1958.[16]

Another early iteration of the party, the Constitution Party of Wisconsin, was an affiliate of the "American Independent Party" (AIP), which ran candidates in the 1980, 1982, and 1984 elections; and appointed James Wickstrom as a representative to the National Committee of the AIP. The current Wisconsin Constitution Party chapter does not comment on any connection (or lack thereof) between the two organizations.

Affiliated organizations[edit]

The following table contains select details of the current Constitution Party state affiliate parties, chapters, and organizations.

Table: Affiliates of the U.S. Constitution Party
All affiliates state in their platforms support for strict adherence to the Declaration of Independence, and the U.S. Constitution. Many also specifically add their home state constitutions to the mix.
State Affiliate Name Headquarter City Chapter Chairperson Year Chapter founded Comments
Alabama Constitution Party of Alabama (CPAL)[17] Joshua Cassity
Alaska Alaska Constitution Party J.R. Myers The Alaskan Independence Party has been listed as an affiliate in the past, but as of January 2013 is no longer.
Arizona Constitution Party of Arizona[18] Glendale Bob Haran 1992 Strongly advocates for the Right to Life, the second amendment, immigration control and enforcement, lower taxes, and the repeal of NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement).
Arkansas Constitution Party of Arkansas (CPAR)[19] Fayetteville
California American Independent Party Marysville Disputed April 1967 From 1992 until 2008, the party was the California Constitution Party affiliate; it is now split.
Colorado American Constitution Party[20] The American Constitution Party's 10%-plus vote-share in the 2010 gubernatorial election elevated the party from "minor" to "major" status. (Any party that earns 10% or more of the votes cast for governor is a defined under statute as a "major party.")[21]
Connecticut Constitution Party of Connecticut Plantsville Rick Moreau 1976 Pre-dates the founding of Constitution Party (founded in the mid-1970s). Previously known as the Concerned Citizens Party which disbanded in April 2013.
Delaware Constitution Party of Delaware (CPDE) Bear Pell Sherman
Florida Constitution Party of Florida Hollywood Bill Wayland
Georgia Constitution Party of Georgia[22] Woodstock Candice Wallace
Idaho Constitution Party of Idaho[23] Coeur d'Alene Ray Writz 1999 It is one of two minor political parties (along with the Libertarian Party of Idaho) which has ballot access in Idaho.[24]
Illinois Illinois Constitution Party (CPIL)[25] Metropolis Randy Stufflebeam[26] The party's first popularly elected official is Phil Collins, elected Trustee of Libertyville Township in Lake County, Illinois on April 9, 2013.[27]
Indiana Constitution Party of Indiana (CPIN)[28] Evansville Steven Walker
Iowa Constitution Party of Iowa[29] Eldon
Kansas Constitution Party of Kansas Wichita
Kentucky Constitution Party of Kentucky[30] Lexington Mike Ward
Louisiana Constitution Party of Louisiana Lafayette Ronnie Broughton
Maryland Marylanders for Constitutional Governance[31] Rockville before 1996 In 2008, the party was recognized by the Maryland State Board of Elections as an official party.[32] Candidates had ballot access in every presidential election from 1996 to 2008.
Massachusetts Constitution Party of Massachusetts[33] Framingham Scott Liftman
Michigan U.S. Taxpayers Party of Michigan[34] 1992 Kept the "Taxpayers Party" name in order to retain ballot status in the state. The party is one of six 'ballot-qualified' parties in Michigan.[35] The ballot line on which the party ran in its initial election (1992) was that of the "Tisch Independent Citizens' Party."

In 2010 several officers, including board members and the Communications Officer, left the party over the Gubernatorial Candidate Scandal. The party's candidate for governor did not deny visiting a nudist colony. Reports were that she took part in an attempt to set the world record for "Skinny Dip Across North America."

Minnesota The Constitution Party of Minnesota[36] The national party's paleoconservative affiliate in Minnesota[37]
Mississippi Constitution Party of Mississippi[38] Guntown, Vince Thornton
Missouri Constitution Party of Missouri[39] Buffalo
Montana Constitution Party of Montana[40] Lisa Wamsley[41] Founded as an arm of the American Heritage Party; changed its name in 2000.[42] Affiliated to national Constitution Party 1995–July 2006; and May 14, 2011–present.[43] Rick Jore became the first party member to get elected to the state legislature in 2006, and was later appointed chairman of the House Education Committee [2].
Nebraska Nebraska Party[44] Omaha Had changed its name to "The Nebraska Independent Party," and then back to "Nebraska Party."[45] The party had candidates for state-wide offices placed on ballots from 2002, 2004, 2006, and 2008.
Nevada Independent American Party of Nevada[46] Elko John Wagner[47] 1967 Is one of four Constitution state parties that has not changed its name to "Constitution Party" since the national party adopted that name. It is not to be confused with the national party of the same name.[48] The Nevada IAP's name predates the national Constitution Party by decades.
South Carolina Constitution Party of South Carolina Ted Adams Has achieved ballot access for its presidential candidate in every presidential election from 1992 to 2012.
South Dakota Constitution Party of South Dakota Brandon
Tennessee Constitution Party of Tennessee[49] Germantown Zachary Poskevich
Texas Constitution Party of Texas[50] Bob Eoff 1996 Started under the auspices of the U.S. Taxpayer's Party—the precursor to the Constitution Party; under which it achieved its only ballot line, in 1996
Utah Constitution Party of Utah[51] Layton Bryce Hamilton One of only three political parties guaranteed ballot access in Utah for the 2008 elections[52]
Washington Constitution Party of Washington Spokane Valley Robert W. Peck before 1996 The original name of this branch was the "Washington U.S. Taxpayer’s Party;" with the name changed to the "American Heritage Party" in 1998; and to its current name in 2000.[53]
West Virginia Constitution Party of West Virginia[3] Martinsburg October 2000[54] The party was officially organized on June 12, 2004, at its first formal meeting in Morgantown.[55] West Virginia election law currently requires that a candidate for governor win at least 1% of the entire gubernatorial vote to secure his or her nominating party's future ballot access.[56] Until such a time as that occurs, the affiliation of voters is not even formally recognized as a political party.
Wisconsin Constitution Party of Wisconsin 1991 Founded as a unit of the U.S. Taxpayers Party.[57]
Wyoming Constitution Party of Wyoming[58] Hartville Jennifer Young 2010

Recent changes in affiliation[edit]

As of January 2013, Oregon has re-affiliated with the national party. The Constitution Party of Montana re-affiliated with the national party in 2011.[citation needed] According to the party website, as of November 2012, the Alaskan Independence Party is also no longer an affiliate.

The Nebraska Party[edit]

The Nebraska state affiliate of the Constitution Party[59] is called the "Nebraska Party." The party has had candidates for state-wide offices placed on ballots from 2002 to 2008.

The stated mission of the Nebraska Party is: "...to restore economic prosperity to all Nebraskans, to restore the Christian Principles of our Forefathers, and to get the Government back in the hands of the people. The Nebraska Party is founded on the principles of the Democrat-Republican Party, which was established in the early 1800s by Thomas Jefferson. The Democrat-Republican Party, now the Nebraska Party, represents the people, the working people (labor), family farmers, small business and, of course, our senior citizens".

North Carolina[edit]

The Constitution Party branches in North Carolina and several other states adhere to what they proclaim as the "Seven Essential Core Values." These core values are defined as: the Sanctity of Life, Religious Freedom, Traditional Family, Private Property Rights, Pro-Second Amendment, National Sovereignty, and Anti-Socialism.[60] The Party claims to be the state's only truly 100% Pro-Life political party.[60]

West Virginia affiliate's fight[edit]

The party states that it has been mis-characterized by groups such as the SPLC,[61] ADL, and MIAC.[62]

Background[edit]

The origins of the current state party can be traced to October 2000, when founding member Brenda Donnellan and activists from Wood County served as plaintiffs in Phillips v Hechler, civ 6:00-894.[54] This litigation resulted in a November 3, 2000, ruling against then Secretary of State Ken Hechler, forcing him to allow Constitution Party presidential nominee, Howard Phillips, to run as a declared write-in (WI) candidate without paying a filing fee.[63]

The 1964 Constitution Party presidential nominee, Joseph B. Lightburn, was a neighbor of Donnellan's in Jane Lew, where he owned a local general store. Lightburn served as National Committeeman for the Constitution Party of West Virginia,[64] but the original party had long been defunct. There was no connection between the two.

Voter registration issues

Because the party has not yet attained ballot qualification status, voters registering into it must check the "Other Party" box on the West Virginia voter registration form[65] and write the word "Constitution" on the line. Voter registration status can be checked on at the Secretary of State's website.[66]

Typical CPWVa voter registration instructions

Because the Constitution Party is not a major party in the state, its voters are permitted to vote in the primary but must take the initiative to ask for either a Republican or Democrat party ballot in lieu of the standard non-partisan ballot.[67]

State dis-affiliations[edit]

In early 2006, Christopher H. Hansen, the gubernatorial candidate of Independent American Party of Nevada (the former Constitution Party state affiliate in Nevada), and candidates in Colorado and Idaho, publicly expressed support for allowing abortions in the cases of rape, incest, and for those performed to save the life of the mother, which were contrary to the official Nevada platform.[citation needed] At the party's April 2008 national convention in Tampa, Florida, the assembly voted not to disaffiliate Nevada, citing that affiliate's official position on the issue and the national party's policy against dictating the internal affairs (such as electing leaders) of any affiliate. They also made it more difficult to introduce a disaffiliation resolution. The Oregon and Montana affiliates voluntarily disaffiliated from the party later that year. The Constitution Party of Nevada was created on October 15, 2013, in response to the controversies.[citation needed]

Mergers and re-alignments discussed[edit]

Reports that the Constitution Party discussed a re-alignment, or merger with[68] several third parties, such as the Reform Party, Independent American Party, American Independent Party, and the America First Party, have been refuted by some of the purported discussion participants.[69] Nevertheless, all of the aforementioned parties, except for the Reform Party, endorsed Michael Peroutka of the Constitution Party as their presidential candidate in 2004.

Platform[edit]

For comparison with other parties, see Comparison of politics of parties of the United States.

The preamble of the Constitution Party platform "gratefully acknowledges the blessing of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ as Creator, Preserver and Ruler of the Universe and of these United States,"[70] and supports the Constitutional provision in Article VI, Section 3 that "no religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or public trust under the United States" and calls on all those who love liberty and value their inherent rights to join with them in the pursuit of their goals.

Fiscal policy[edit]

The Constitution Party supports reducing the role of the United States federal government through cutting bureaucratic regulation, reducing spending, and replacing the income tax with a tariff-based revenue system supplemented by excise taxes. The party also takes the position that the "imposition […] of Federal income, payroll, and estate taxes […] is an unconstitutional Federal assumption of direct taxing authority." [71]

Social Security phase-out[edit]

The Constitution Party calls for the eventual end of social security.[72]

Foreign policy[edit]

The Constitution Party favors a non-interventionist foreign policy. It advocates reduction and eventual elimination of the role the United States plays in multinational and international organizations such as the United Nations, and favors withdrawal of the United States from most current treaties, such as North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), and the World Trade Organization. The party takes mercantilist positions in supporting protectionist policies on international trade.

The party also believes in exercising a tariff system to counteract the U.S.' increasingly negative balance of trade.[73] The tariff system would levy additional import costs, the amount of which would vary proportionally with how much less the exporting country's production costs are compared to that of U.S. companies.

Immigration policy[edit]

The party opposes illegal immigration and also seeks stricter controls on legal immigration. It demands that the federal government restore immigration policies based on the policy that potential immigrants will be disqualified from admission to the United States on the grounds of ill health, criminality, low morals, or financial dependence, believing that they would impose an improper burden on the United States, any state, and citizens of the United States. The party has stated a long term goal of a moratorium on future immigration, exempting extreme cases where it would be necessary.[74]

Additionally, it opposes welfare subsidies and other taxpayer-supported benefits to illegal immigrants, rejecting also the practice of bestowing U.S. citizenship on children born to illegal immigrant parents while in this country (jus soli). It also rejects any extension of amnesty to illegal immigrants. The Constitution Party calls for the use of U.S. troops to protect the states against an influx of illegal immigrants.

Social policy[edit]

The party opposes euthanasia and abortion, the latter including in cases of rape and incest.[75]

The party supports the ability of states to administer a death penalty:[76]

Our support of a State's option to impose the death penalty is limited to those who have been convicted of capital crimes. This is consistent with protecting innocent life because the death penalty would only be applied to those who have proven to be a threat to innocent life.

The party opposes same-sex marriage, and believes state and local governments have the right to criminalize "offensive sexual behavior".[77] The party further opposes pornography, believing it to be, at worst, "a destructive element of society resulting in significant and real emotional, physical, spiritual and financial costs to individuals, families and communities," distinguishable from the US citizen's "cherished First Amendment right to free speech." While expressing its belief in the individual responsibility of citizens and corporations, the party maintains that government plays a "vital role" in establishing and maintaining the highest level of decency in America's community standards.[78] The party opposes all government sponsorship, involvement in, or promotion of gambling,[79] and in keeping with the spirit of Article 1 Section 8 and Amendment 10, opposes federal anti-drug laws while maintaining that the federal government may have a role in limiting the import of drugs.[80]

The party supports the right to bear arms in accordance with the Second Amendment. The party believes that any attempt to make laws barring the second amendment are unconstitutional. It has taken a stand against the Patriot Act.

The Constitution Party believes that charitable giving is most effective when conducted by private parties. Because the authority to administer charity has not been granted to the government in the Constitution, the party maintains that the government has no business being involved in such endeavors.[81] The party opposes federal restrictions on, or subsidization of, medical treatments.[82]

The party supports English as the official language for all governmental business, opposes bilingual ballots, and insists that those who wish to take part in the electoral process and governance of the U.S. be required to read and comprehend basic English as a precondition of citizenship.[74] The party also opposes the federal Voting Rights Act.

In 2009, the Southern Poverty Law Center described the party as a "'Patriot' Group," described as a group or groups that "advocate or adhere to extreme anti-government doctrines."[83]

Environmental policy[edit]

The party believes that "it is our responsibility to be prudent, productive, and efficient stewards of God’s natural resources."[84] With respect to global warming, it says that "globalists are using the global warming threat to gain more control via worldwide sustainable development." According to the party, eminent domain is unlawful because "under no circumstances may the federal government take private property, by means of rules and regulations which preclude or substantially reduce the productive use of the property, even with just compensation."[84]

In regards to energy, the party calls attention "to the continuing need of the United States for a sufficient supply of energy for national security and for the immediate adoption of a policy of free market solutions to achieve energy independence for the United States" and calls for the abolition of the Department of Energy.[85]

Federalism[edit]

The party supports the repeal of the Sixteenth Amendment, which allows Congress to tax income, and the Seventeenth Amendment, which requires the direct (popular) election of Senators.[86] The party holds that each state's membership in the Union is voluntary.[87] This stance is known as the Compact theory.

Notable members and allies[edit]

CPWVa symbol

Pat Buchanan threatened in 1996 to run as the U.S. Taxpayers Party candidate if Bob Dole chose a pro-choice running mate. Dole later chose pro-life Jack Kemp and received Buchanan's endorsement. Buchanan's 2000 Reform Party running mate Ezola B. Foster switched her membership to the Constitution Party in 2002. Buchanan stated on the September 7, 2004 edition of Hardball with Chris Matthews, "There is a chance I would vote for [Michael] Peroutka."[88] However, he later penned an endorsement of President George W. Bush in the pages of The American Conservative.[89]

U.S. senator Bob Smith announced his switch from Republican to the U.S. Taxpayers Party in 1999 to seek its 2000 presidential nomination. Smith later charged that anti-New World Order ideologues within the party resisted his candidacy due to his Roman Catholicism. He left the party after one month and continued his campaign as a non-partisan independent but ceased the campaign soon thereafter and returned to the Republican party to assume a Senate committee chairmanship. In 2008, he began writing editorials on the Constitution Party's web page, fueling speculation that he would seek its presidential nomination again, although he had endorsed Rep. Duncan Hunter for the Republican nomination. He requested that his name be withheld from consideration in a March 2008 letter to CP supporters.

Minuteman Project co-founder Jim Gilchrist ran for Congress with the American Independent Party in 2005, but has since rejoined the Republicans.[90]

Author and WorldNetDaily columnist Jerome Corsi launched a brief campaign for the 2008 nomination but in July 2007 decided to return to writing.[91] Former Reagan Administration official and devout Catholic activist Alan Keyes had actively sought the Constitution nod after ending a bid for the GOP nomination.[92]

The party has also attracted notables in the anti-abortion movement such as Dr. Gregory Thompson,[93] Lon Mabon,[94] Paul deParrie, and Missionaries to the Preborn leader Pastor Matthew Trewhella.[95] However, many such notables were involved in the below-mentioned disaffiliation efforts over abortion, and it remains unclear what effect the movement has upon the current reorganized rump affiliates.

A 2008 candidate for the Republican nomination, Representative Ron Paul (R-Texas), endorsed several third party candidates shortly after bowing out of the race. Ultimately, he would go on to endorse 2008 Constitution Party candidate Chuck Baldwin.[96] The unaffiliated Constitution Party of Montana replaced Baldwin with Paul for president and Michael Peroutka for vice president. Paul requested that Montana remove his name from the ballot, but the Secretary of State of Montana denied his request, stating that the request was sent too late.[97]

In 2010, former Republican Congressman Tom Tancredo ran for governor of Colorado as a Constitutionalist. He received 36.8% of the vote finishing in 2nd place. Despite losing the election, Tancredo managed to secure major party status for the Constitution Party in Colorado, as that state requires a party to surpass 10% in a gubernatorial election to qualify for such status.[98]

In 2006, Rick Jore of Montana became the first Constitution Party candidate elected to a state-level office.[99][100]

2012 candidates[edit]

Former Republican Representative Virgil Goode (VA-5) was nominated at the convention in Nashville, Tennessee on April 22, 2012.[101] Goode received 203 votes; 202 were required for a majority. Darrell Castle of Tennessee, national vice chairman of the Constitution Party, came in second with 120 votes. Other candidates who received votes were Robby Wells from North Carolina, former football coach at Savannah State University; Dr. Laurie Roth of Washington state, who has a radio talk-show program; and registered nurse Susan Ducey of Kansas.[102]

Past presidential tickets[edit]

Electoral results[edit]

President[edit]

Election year Candidate Ballot access # of overall votes  % of overall vote # of electoral votes +/-
1992 Howard Phillips 21 43,369 0.04%
0 / 538
1996 Howard Phillips 38 182,820 0.19%
0 / 538
Steady 0
2000 Howard Phillips 41 98,020 0.09%
0 / 538
Steady 0
2004 Michael Peroutka 36 143,630 0.12%
0 / 538
Steady 0
2008 Chuck Baldwin 37 199,750 0.15%
0 / 538
Steady 0
2012 Virgil Goode 26 122,388 0.09%
0 / 538
Steady 0

House of Representatives[edit]

Election year # of overall votes  % of overall vote # of electoral votes +/-
2000 122,936 0.1%
0 / 435
2002 99,306 0.1%
0 / 435
Steady 0
2004 132,613 0.10%
0 / 435
Steady 0
2006 68,031 0.10%
0 / 435
Steady 0
2008 136,021 0.10%
0 / 435
Steady 0
2010 123,841 0.14%
0 / 435
Steady 0
2012 118,102 0.10%
0 / 435
Steady 0

Senate[edit]

United States Senate
Election year # of total votes  % of vote # of seats won Notes
1998 183,588 0.34% 0
2000 286,816 0.36% 0
2002 60,456 0.14% 0
2004 404,853 0.47% 0
2006 133,037 0.21% 0
2008 240,729 0.36% 0
2010 338,593 0.51% 0
2012 140,605 0.15% 0

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Southern Poverty Law Center." Constitution Party Hopes to Take Politics to the Extreme in 2004. Spl Center, Feb.-Mar. 2003. Web. 20 Sept. 2013. <http://www.splcenter.org/get-informed/intelligence-report/browse-all-issues/2003/fall/our-terrible-swift-sword>.
  2. ^ Rudin, Ken. "Election 2010 Scorecard". National Public Radio. Retrieved 13 July 2013. 
  3. ^ a b Clarkson, Fred (May 5, 2004). "Will Roy Moore crack the Bush base?". Salon Magazine. 
  4. ^ Cohen, Nancy L. (2012). Delirium: The Politics of Sex in America. Counterpoint. p. 321. ISBN 1582438013. 
  5. ^ Joyce, Kathryn (2010). Quiverfull: Inside the Christian Patriarchy Movement. Beacon Press. pp. 7, 28. ISBN 978-0807010730. 
  6. ^ Lovell, Jarret S. (2009). Crimes of Dissent: Civil Disobedience, Criminal Justice, and the Politics of Conscience. New York University Press. p. 50. ISBN 978-0814752272. 
  7. ^ Preamble to Constitution Party Platform "The Constitution Party gratefully acknowledges the blessing of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ as Creator, Preserver and Ruler of the Universe and of these United States. We hereby appeal to Him for mercy, aid, comfort, guidance and the protection of His Providence as we work to restore and preserve these United States. This great nation was founded, not by religionists, [sic] but by Christians; not on religions but on a foundation of Christian principles and values. For this very reason peoples of all faiths have been and are afforded asylum, prosperity, and freedom of worship here. The goal of the Constitution Party is to restore American jurisprudence to its Biblical foundations and to limit the federal government to its Constitutional boundaries."
  8. ^ Blumenthal, Max (2010). Republican Gomorrah: Inside the Movement That Shattered the Party. Nation Books. p. 86. ISBN 978-1568584171. 
  9. ^ Max Blumenthal and David Neiwert (Oct 10, 2008). "Meet Sarah Palin’s radical right-wing pals". Salon Magazine. 
  10. ^ Berlet, Chip (September 2, 2008). "Sarah Palin and Christian Dominionist Theocracy". Huffington Post. Retrieved 20 October 2013. 
  11. ^ Carrie Budoff; Thomas Fitzgerald (August 8, 2004). "Candidate counts on anger at Specter Democrats are hoping that James Clymer, of the Constitution Party, will draw off enough conservative support to boost Hoeffel's chances". The Philadelphia Inquirer. Retrieved 20 October 2013. 
  12. ^ Sara Diamond, "The U.S. Taxpayers Party"; The Guardian; UK; October 9, 1991; reprinted in Facing the Wrath; Common Courage Press; 1996.
  13. ^ "Constitution Party National Platform". Constitution Party. Retrieved February 4, 2014. 
  14. ^ Isn't the Constitution Party the same at the Tea Party? The Constitution Party, Retrieved March 22, 2014
  15. ^ "Constitution Party Ends Meeting Optimistically" Los Angeles Times December 9, 1957
  16. ^ "Gale, William Potter" in Hamilton, Neil A. American Social Leaders and Activists New York: Infobase Publishing; p. 152-153
  17. ^ Affiliation Statement; Constitution Party of Alabama website; CPAL; retrieved March 2014.
  18. ^ CPAZ official website.
  19. ^ CPAR
  20. ^ ACP; "Secretary of State, Elections Division;" Colorado Government site; retrieved March 2014.
  21. ^ Paulson, Steven K.; "ACP Not Relishing Role As Colorado Major Party"; May 8, 2011; CBS Broadcasting, Inc. online; retrieved March 2014.
  22. ^ Georgia CP website
  23. ^ Constitution Party of Idaho official website.
  24. ^ IDSOS other election related information; sources; accessed March 5, 2014.
  25. ^ Constitution Party of Illinois website
  26. ^ About us - Party leadership Constitution Party of Illinois. Retrieved July 23, 2014
  27. ^ "Constitution Party of Illinois Now Has Its First Elected Official"; "Independent Political Report;" April 12, 2013; retrieved February 9, 2014
  28. ^ Constitution Party of Indiana Retrieved July 23, 2014
  29. ^ Constitution Party of Iowa official website.
  30. ^ CPoK official website
  31. ^ Official Constitution Party MD website
  32. ^ Peroutka, Michael Anthony (January 12, 2011). "Michael Peroutka Addresses Maryland Constitution Party Meeting In Westminster, Carrol County". The American View. 
  33. ^ CP of MA website.
  34. ^ U.S. Taxpayers Party of Michigan Officials
  35. ^ U.S. Taxpayers Party Opposes All Four Michigan Statewide Ballot Proposals on November 5; All Business online; retrieved March 2014.
  36. ^ Constitution Party of Minnesota official website
  37. ^ Lovell, Jarret S. (2009). Crimes of Dissent: Civil Disobedience, Criminal Justice, and the Politics of Conscience. New York University Press. p. 50. ISBN 978-0814752272. 
  38. ^ Mississippi Constitution Party website
  39. ^ Constitution Party of Missouri
  40. ^ Montana Constitution Party Re-Affiliates with National Constitution Party; Ballot Access Org
  41. ^ Constitution Party of Montana Official Website
  42. ^ The Constitution Party of Montana: The Radical Right Wing Collides with Mainstream Politics; PDF auto download; MHRN.
  43. ^ Montana Constitution Party Bolts
  44. ^ Nebraska Party; Constitution Party of Nebraska; retrieved March 2014.
  45. ^ The Nebraska Independent Party; retrieved September 14, 2006.
  46. ^ IAP of NV
  47. ^ Officers Independent American Party of Nevada, retrieved July 20, 2014
  48. ^ "IAP wins local contests"; 11-04-2010; Nevada Appeal.com (Nevada Appeal—Capitol Bureau); retrieved 01-21-2013.
  49. ^ *Constitution Party of Tennessee website
  50. ^ Constitution Party of Texas
  51. ^ Powers, Dan (November 3, 2012). "State of Utah House of Representatives, the race for House District 22 remains firmly centered in Magna". The Oquirrh Times Online Newspaper. 
  52. ^ [1]
  53. ^ Note: With few exceptions, the state party affiliates and the national party itself changed their names in 2000 to the present day "Constitution Party."
  54. ^ a b United States District Court, Southern District of West Virginia, CIVIL ACTION NO. 6:00-0894
  55. ^ History of the CPWVa, cpwva.org
  56. ^ Political party defined - WV Code §3-1-8
  57. ^ Wisconsin Constitution Party: Our History; Wisconsin Constitution Party online; retrieved March 2014.
  58. ^ WCP
  59. ^ "Our Terrible Swift Sword; February–March 2003; "Constitution Party Hopes to Take Politics to the Extreme in 2004;" Southern Poverty Law Center web; retrieved Sept. 20, 2013
  60. ^ a b Official website; Constitution Party of North Carolina—State Executive Committee
  61. ^ Patriot Groups Active in the Year 2006, SPLC Intelligence Report, Spring 2007, Issue Number: 125
  62. ^ The Modern Militia Movement, MIAC Strategic Report, February 20, 2009
  63. ^ West Virginia Victory—Ballot Access News
  64. ^ Lightburn, Joseph B. Papers, Regarding Conservative Politics, 1957-1970
  65. ^ West Virginia voter registration form - WVSOS
  66. ^ Am I Registered To Vote? - WVSOS
  67. ^ Independent voters may request ballot; April 25, 2010; The Times West Virginian online; retrieved .
  68. ^ 3rd Parties to Merge Into 1?; retrieved September 14, 2006.
  69. ^ National Chairman Sets Record Straight on Third-Party Discussions; retrieved September 14, 2006.
  70. ^ 2012-2016 Constitution Party Platform and Resolutions; Constitution Party online; retrieved .
  71. ^ "Party Platform (Taxes)". Constitutionparty.org. Retrieved 2014-02-04. 
  72. ^ Social Security Phase-out Plan; Constitution Party organization online; retrieved .
  73. ^ "Party Platform (Tariffs and Trade)". Constitutionparty.org. Retrieved 2014-02-04. 
  74. ^ a b "Party Platform (Immigration)". Constitutionparty.org. Retrieved 2014-02-04. 
  75. ^ "Party Platform (Preamble) and (Sanctity of Life)". Constitutionparty.org. Retrieved 2014-02-04. 
  76. ^ "Party Platform (Crime)". Constitutionparty.org. Retrieved 2014-02-04. 
  77. ^ "Party Platform (Family)". Constitutionparty.org. Retrieved 2014-02-04. 
  78. ^ "Party Platform (Pornography, Obscenity, and Sexually Oriented Businesses)". Constitutionparty.org. Retrieved 2014-02-04. 
  79. ^ "Party Platform (Gambling)". Constitutionparty.org. Retrieved 2014-02-04. 
  80. ^ "Party Platform (Drug Abuse)". Constitutionparty.org. Retrieved 2014-02-04. 
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  92. ^ "Keyes to Reveal Plans in Hazleton"; Ragan, Tom; "Standard~Speaker," April 10, 2008
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References[edit]

  • Blumenthal, Max (2010). Republican Gomorrah: Inside the Movement That Shattered the Party. Nation Books. p. 86. ISBN 978-1568584171. 
  • "Constitution Party Assails Socialism", Seattle Daily Times  – via NewsBank (subscription required), 09-09-1958: 42 
  • "Constitution Party Sets Convention", Seattle Daily Times  – via NewsBank (subscription required), 07-31-1958: 22 
  • "Group Plans To Form New Political Party", Seattle Daily Times  – via NewsBank (subscription required), 09-07-1958: 9 
  • Hayden, Jay G. (09-09-1956), "Chances Slim 'Far-Rightist' Ticket Would Be Important", Seattle Daily Times  – via NewsBank (subscription required): 109 
  • "Only 3 Parties' Write-In Votes To Be Counted", Seattle Daily Times  – via NewsBank (subscription required), 10-23-1956: 9 
  • "'Write-in' Is Voter Privilege, Says Candidate", Seattle Daily Times  – via NewsBank (subscription required), 11-04-1956: 21 

External links[edit]