Tayabas

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For other places with the same name, see Tayabas (disambiguation).
For the barangay in Quezon City, see Payatas.
Tayabas
Component City
City of Tayabas
Lungsod ng Tayabas
Tayabas.jpg
Official seal of Tayabas
Seal
Nickname(s): City of Festivals
Home of The Finest Lambanog
Rest and Recreation Destination of Quezon
City of 11 Spanish Bridges
Map of Quezon showing the location of Tayabas
Map of Quezon showing the location of Tayabas
Tayabas is located in Philippines
Tayabas
Tayabas
Location within the Philippines
Coordinates: 14°01′N 121°35′E / 14.017°N 121.583°E / 14.017; 121.583Coordinates: 14°01′N 121°35′E / 14.017°N 121.583°E / 14.017; 121.583
Country Philippines
Region CALABARZON (Region IV-A)
Province Quezon
District 1st district of Quezon
Founded 1578
Barangays 66
Government[1]
 • Mayor Faustino Silang (Lakas–CMD)
Area[2]
 • Total 230.95 km2 (89.17 sq mi)
Population (2010)[3]
 • Total 91,428
 • Density 400/km2 (1,000/sq mi)
Demonym Tayabense (In Tayabasin)
Time zone PST (UTC+8)
ZIP code 4327
Dialing code 42
Income class 4th class, partially urban
Website tayabas.gov.ph

Tayabas, officially the City of Tayabas (Filipino: Lungsod ng Tayabas), is a city located in Quezon Province, the Philippines. According to the 2010 census, it has a population of 91,428 people.[3] Tayabas is known for lambanog (coconut arrack) and sweet food/delicacies, as well as tourism resorts. Tayabas is also known as the City of Festivals because of its colorful festivals. The city is famous for resorts, heritage houses, historical landmarks, rest and recreation destination and festivities. It is the former capital of the Province of Tayabas, now Aurora and Quezon.

Barangays[edit]

Tayabas is politically subdivided into 66 barangays.[2]

  • Alitao
  • Alsam Ibaba
  • Alsam Ilaya
  • Alupay
  • Angeles Zone I (Pob.)
  • Angeles Zone II
  • Angeles Zone III
  • Angeles Zone IV
  • Angustias Zone I (Pob.)
  • Angustias Zone II
  • Angustias Zone III
  • Angustias Zone IV
  • Anos
  • Ayaas
  • Baguio
  • Banilad
  • Ibabang Bukal
  • Ilayang Bukal
  • Calantas
  • Calumpang
  • Camaysa
  • Dapdap
  • Kanlurang Domoit
  • Silangang Domoit
  • Gibanga
  • Ibas
  • Ilasan Ibaba
  • Ilasan Ilaya
  • Ipilan
  • Isabang
  • Katigan Kanluran
  • Katigan Silangan
  • Lakawan
  • Lalo
  • Lawigue
  • Lita
  • Malaoa
  • Masin
  • Mate
  • Mateuna
  • Mayowe
  • Ibabang Nangka
  • Ilayang Nangka
  • Opias
  • Ibabang Palale
  • Ilayang Palale
  • Kanlurang Palale
  • Silangang Palale
  • Pandakaki
  • Pook
  • Potol
  • San Diego Zone I (Pob.)
  • San Diego Zone II (Pob)
  • San Diego Zone III
  • San Diego Zone IV
  • San Isidro Zone I (Pob.)
  • San Isidro Zone II
  • San Isidro Zone III
  • San Isidro Zone IV
  • San Roque Zone I (Pob.)
  • San Roque Zone II
  • Talolong
  • Tamlong
  • Tongko
  • Valencia
  • Wakas

History[edit]

In 1578, Fray Juan de Plasencia and Fray Diego de Oropesa, two Franciscan missionaries from Spain founded the town of Tayabas in order to spread Christianity to its natives. Prior to the occupation, however, the native Tayabenses lived in rural settings typical to those times, with barangays headed by village chiefs and councils of elders.[4]

From 1749 to 1901, Tayabas was the capital of the Province of Tayabas, now known as Quezon. In the 19th century, Tayabas was among the biggest towns in the country. Its Minor Basilica of St. Michael the Archangel, which was enlarged in the mid-1850s, is the longest church in the country and is a lasting testament to its glorious and historic past.

In more than three centuries of Spanish occupation, only eight cities and towns were given the title of Villa, and Tayabas was one of them. These are La Villa del Santisimo Nombre de Jesus de Cebu in 1565, La Villa de Santiago de Libon (Albay, 1573), La Villa Fernandina de Vigan (Ilocos, 1574), La Villa Rica de Arevalo (Iloilo, 1581), La Noble Villa de Pila (Laguna, 1610), La Muy Noble Villa de Tayabas, (Tayabas, 1703), La Villa de Bacolor (Pampanga, 1765), La Villa de Lipa (Batangas, 1887). Interestingly, that Tayabas was given the title of 'most noble' villa even before it became the provincial capital shows its importance even before 1749.

In the book "The Philippines," written by French traveler Jean Baptiste Mallat, and published in 1846, it appears that Tayabas had more than 21,000 people at that time. This was reduced to 16,000 when Lucena became an independent town in 1879. Due to low population growth during the Spanish period, this number remained unchanged until the coming of the Americans.

Tayabas is at the center of the province's long-settled heartland, which possessed the best lands, the oldest parishes, and the most active commercial centers. The provincial heartland was described by Pres. Manuel L. Quezon as having the “richest and gayest places in the province.”

Tayabas has many places of interest. Its Casa Comunidad, a centuries-old building, is the place where Apolinario "Hermano Pule" Dela Cruz was tried and sentenced to death in 1841. It was restored in the 1990s through funds donated by the "Friends of Casa Comunidad," an organization of affluent Manila-based Tayabenses.

Its numerous Spanish-era bridges mirror its rich architectural past. Two of the longest are the Malagonlong and the Malaoa bridges. Malagonlong's high and beautiful arches and its solid design are some of the reasons why it was declared a national historical site. It is so strong that it withstood the dynamites planted there to stop the Japanese advance during World War II.

Tayabas suffered a terrible blow near the end of World War II when it was completely burned to the ground after a bombing raid on March 15, 1945. Prior to that, the old houses of Tayabas rival those of Vigan's Spanish-era structures.

Cityhood[edit]

On March 18, 2007, Republic Act No. 9398, An Act Converting the Municipality of Tayabas in the Province of Quezon into a Component City to be known as City of Tayabas, was enacted into law. On July 14, 2007, the municipality held a plebiscite to ratify the conversion of the said act, with the residents voting in favor of the move, although there was a low turnout of voters for the plebiscite.

However, in its Decision dated November 18, 2008, the Supreme Court revoked the cityhood of Tayabas and 15 other cities, and declared their cityhood laws unconstitutional. According to the High Court, the cityhood laws violated Section 10, Article X of the Constitution as well as the equal protection clause.[5] More than a year later, on December 22, 2009, acting on the appeal of the so-called "League of 16 Cities" (of which Tayabas is a part), the Supreme Court reversed its earlier ruling and ruled that "at the end of the day, the passage of the amendatory law (regarding the criteria for cityhood as set by Congress) is no different from the enactment of a law, i.e., the cityhood laws specifically exempting a particular political subdivision from the criteria earlier mentioned. Congress, in enacting the exempting law/s, effectively decreased the already codified indicators."[6]

But on August 24, 2010, in a 16-page resolution, the Supreme Court reinstated its November 18, 2008 decision striking down the Cityhood laws[7] making Tayabas a municipality again.

The most recent development in the legal battle surrounding the "League of 16" came on February 15, 2011. Voting 7-6, the Supreme Court ruled that the 16 towns can stay as cities. It is the fourth time that the Supreme Court ruled on the case, and the third reversal, something that is unprecedented in its history. It said the conversion of the 16 towns into cities met all legal requirements.[8]

Demographics[edit]

Population census of Tayabas
Year Pop. ±% p.a.
1990 54,355 —    
1995 64,449 +3.24%
2000 70,985 +2.09%
2007 87,252 +2.89%
2010 91,428 +1.72%
Source: National Statistics Office[3]

Economy[edit]

The major agricultural products of Tayabas are rice and coconut. It is also known for Sweet delicacies and lambanog.

The City of Festivals[edit]

Tayabas is a City of Festivals in the Philippines because of its numerous numbers of celebration and colorful festival. Tayabas a visited-town due to its wonderful festivals and it continually draws large of crowd since it started.

Festivals/ Celebration[edit]

  • Taytsinoy Festival - As part of Chinese New Year the City of Tayabas celebrated its Taytsinoy Festival last February 2–5, which served as a connecting bridge between the Chinese and Tayabense people. The festivity also aimed to heal discrimination between the Tayabenses and Chinese folks.Tayabenses commemorated the event to impart themselves with the tradition and belief of Chinese society. Aligned with this were some Chinese activities being adopted by Tayabenses and contests like Chinese Garter Contest, Kiamoy Eating Contest, Chopstikan ng Pancit Habhab, Binibining Taytsinoy, and a lot more. The highlight of the event was the Dragon and Chinese Presentation in Parke Rizal and Pagdalaw ng Leon at ng Dragon at Tayabas Poblacion wherein all people undeniably enjoyed, especially the children.The four days celebration embodying numerous events greatly gave bunch of fun to all Tayabenses and guests. Ultimate learning, awareness of the Chinese culture and tradition, and endless merriment were being brought out by the municipality.
  • Turumba Festival -(Holy Week ) -celebration in honor of the Nuestra Senora de Turumba. Tayabense dance as a thanksgiving to the virgin mary in the main thoroughfares of Tayabas. Thousands of devotees from Quezon visits the Nuestra Senora de Dolorosa Church.
  • Mayohan sa Tayabas - A stellar attraction during the month of May. A grand, colorful and folsky Parada ang Baliskog welcomes a guest to Mayohan Festival. "kog" means arc, a welcome arc. The more the imaginative decked it with local flowers and palay. Yearly, 66 barangays, government and non-government organizations, art groups join the parade. A display of baliskog made indigenous materials like coco leaf, coco husk, bamboo poles, buli, rattan, dried flowers and tistis filled the streets of Tayabas and joyously welcome visitors and the summer season.Mayohan Festival ranks as major festival in the region. It continually draws large number of crowd since it started in 1989.
  • Hagisan ng Suman (Mayohan Festival) - Suman is the ritual gift of Hagisan. Hagisan is an opportunity for the Tayabasin to share their prosperity. Bundles of suman are gaily tied in a bamboo called bagakay, exhibited and installed at households along the procession route. As soon as the image of San Isidro passes by the bagakay must be emptied of its colourful array of abundance, which aside from suman, includes banana, mango, buko, pineapple and other local farm produce. In most houses, suman and other farm produce are no longer tied in bagakay, they simply throw them with passion and great enthusiasm from their decks, balconies, or windows to the multitudes of peasants and workers. Hagisan means throwing or sharing away.
  • Pa'yas kay san Isidro (Mayohan Festival) -“Pa’yas kay San Isidro” is visual delight. All houses along Felimon Perez Street in the four barangays of Muntingbayan District are decked with indigenous materials and fresh farm produce. Viewing is every May 13 to 15.
  • Aguyod Festival - Ang pagdiriwang ng Aguyod Festival ay hindi lamang naglalayong linangin ang kakayahan ng mga Tayabasin sa larangang ng sining kagaya ng pagsayaw, pag-arte at pagrampa sa entablado, manapa’y nilalayon din ng pagdiriwang na maipamulat sa mga Tayabasin ang kahalagahan ng pangangalaga sa kalikasan at sa kanilang kapaligiran sa pamamagitan ng wastong “waste manangement”at mabigyan ng pansin ang pagpapaunlad ng lokal na turismo kaalinsabay ng pagpapasigla ng negosyo ng mga lokal na mamumuhunan.
  • Hermano Pule A.K.A. Apolinario Dela Cruz - A commemoration of the martyrdom of Apolinario dela Cruz (Ka Puli). A native of Lucban who organized and led the Cofradia de San Jose, a confraternity which resisted the Spanish rule from 1832 until the time of his death in 1841.Puli was shot by firing squad on November 4, 1841 outside the vicinity of Casa de Comunidad in Tayabas. His body was cut up into pieces and his head put in a cage, stuck into a pole, and placed in front of his mother’s house.The event aims at gaining respect and national recognition to the heroic deed of Apolinario dela Cruz or Hermano Puli.
  • Araw ng Tayabas (August 13) - Designated as the day for commemorating heroism of Tayabasins. The event calls for unity, strengthens social bonding and encourages Tayabasins to renew commitment to service.
  • Feast of San Miguel Arkangel - (September 29)- Celebration of the fiesta.
  • Festejo de los Angeles -(Sept.22-29 ) -celebration of the Town Fiesta. It is where people wearing an Angel suit parades all over the main thoroughfares of the city.

Places of Interest[edit]

Minor Basilica of Saint Michael Archangel is considered one of the oldest and biggest church in the Philippines
Minor Basilica of St. Michael the Archangel
The Minor Basilica of St. Michael the Archangel is a Roman Catholic basilica located in Tayabas, Quezon. It is the largest Catholic church in the Province of Quezon.It is renowned for having the shape of a key. Locals often refer to the church as Susi ng Tayabas.On October 18, 1988 the title Minor Basilica was conferred by Pope John Paul II. It was proclaimed on January 21, 1989. It is considered to be one of the most beautiful churches in the Philippines.
Casa Comunidad de Tayabas is the biggest "Bahay na Bato" ever restored by the National Historical Institute
Casa Communidad de Tayabas
Constructed in 1831 when Don Diego Enriquez was gobernadorcillo, it is primarily designed as a uesthouse for visiting Spanish dignitaries. Casa de Comunidad is a national historical landmark which houses the local museum and the municipal library. It is host to many cultural and historical activities. This century old building, is the place where Apolinario "Hermano Pule" Dela Cruz was tried and sentenced to death in 1841. It was restored in the 1990s through funds donated by the "Friends of Casa Comunidad," an organization of affluent Manila-based Tayabenses.
Malagonlong Bridge is considered as a National Cultural Treasure and other 10 bridges in Tayabas
Malagonlong Bridge
A declared historical site by the National Historical Institute and a potential candidate for UNESCO World Heritage, Malogonlong Bridge is one of the oldest and longest stone arched bridges found in province of Quezon. It is a 136 metres (446 ft) long bridge built between the years 1840 and 1850 under the direction of the “Ministro del Pueblo,” Fray Antonio Mattheos, a Franciscan priest. It was the longest bridge ever made during the Spanish colonial era with approximately 100,000 adobe blocks used.
Nuestra Senora de Dolorosa
One of the oldest church in Tayabas. Turumba Festival or the feast of the Virgin Mary is also celebrated in the city, they dance as a thanksgiving to the virgin mary in the main thoroughfares of Tayabas.
Sancturaio Delas Almas
One of the oldest church of the City. A former cemetery and now a place for devotees of San Diego de Alcala.
Calle Budin
Kalye Budin is actually a short portion of Emilio Jacinto Street, a few blocks away from the public market, where local and foreign tourists drop by just to grab freshly-baked budins (sold at PHP 28/USD 0.64/IDR 5,714 per cake) and other delicacies the town and the province are known for. Nilupak (pound cassava cake), halayang ube (sweet purple yam/taro), ube candy, pastillas (milk candy), espasol (sticky rice snack) and tikoy (the local version of the Chinese sticky rice cake) can also be found there. Lucban longganisa (sausage), pansit Lucban (noodles), puto seko (rice cookies) and the potent but liked lambanog (coconut wine/vodka), uraro (arrowroot cookies from Catanauan) and apas (thin sweet cookies from Sariaya), as well as mazapan (another kind of milk candy), cassava chips, fish crackers and meringue are also sold. (credit:monstermango.blogspot)
Kamayan sa Palaisdaan
One of the famous restaurants in Quezon Province offering delectable cuisines.
Graceland Estates and Country Club
Graceland is a sprawling leisure estate nestled in the embrace of Quezon province’s eco-cultural tourism hub. An ambitious brainchild of a group of Filipinos sharing a grand vision, Graceland broke ground in 1996. A year later the great Asian financial crisis struck which threatened the fledgling development. Instead of giving up on the dream, the Graceland pioneers persevered and stayed on course with the vision.

Other places of interest:

  • Spanish colonial bridges
  • Lita Spa and Resort
  • Taao Cave (Ilasan)
  • Missionary Catechist of St. Therese of Infant Jesus (MCST) Mother House
  • Alitao River
  • St. Roche Parish Church (Ilasan)
  • Our Mother of Perpetual Help Church (Potol)
  • Tayabas Racing Circuit (TRC)
  • Mallari Distillery (Since 1908. Oldest Lambanog distillery in the Philippines)
  • Mi Casa en Tayabas
  • Bulwagan ng Tayabas Reception Hall and Catering Services
  • El Pescado Bar Cafe
  • Kundiman Restaurant
  • Nawawalang Paraiso Resort and Hotel
  • Mainit Hot Spring Resort
  • Talolong Resort
  • Villa Cinco Resort
  • Villa Cecilia Resort and Hotel
  • Mariposa Spring Resort

Notable Ancestral Houses of Tayabas[edit]

Nagar House[edit]

Located at Jose Rizal corner M.H. del Pilar Street and currently owned by Esther Nagar - Torio. Nagar house is actually a duplex type of residence in which one half is occupied by the current owner while the other half is rented out. Made of wood on both sides and probably dates back to early 1900's. The house may not be outstanding design-wise. But, like other houses of pre World War 2 period, it is designed well and functional. High ceilings, wide windows, and below are ventanillas. The wide eaves of the roof are repeated by the wide and long media agua. The emphasis on its horizontal form makes the house seems larger than it is. The espejos located above the windows are of half cart-wheel design. These provide a contrast to the rectangular framework of the windows. The calados in the transoms are of two types. One is made up of cut woodwork in stylized lotus pattern while the other is made up of bars of wood either in diamond patterns, or in vertical and horizontal formation.

Ruins of the San Agustin Mansion[edit]

The family of the San Agustin was the most prominent family in Tayabas during the first half of the 20th Century.[9] The ruins of the mansion, located along Rizal Street highlights their prominence in the city due to its proximity to the Casa Comunidad and the parish church. Unfortunately the mansion was destroyed in the bombings of 1945. The ruins is made of reinforced concrete. They consist of two columns supporting what must have been a balcony over the main doorway. Plant motifs in bas-relief adorns over a section of the ruins.

Sun Yat-sen School[edit]

Located along Ponce Street, a few paces away from the ruins of the San Agustin mansion and the Casa de Comunidad is the school for Chinese-Filipinos. According to local history, the structure was the former mansion of Ubaldo Potenciano who then bought the property to its original owner, Mayor Ragudo of Tayabas. During the war, Ubaldo Potenciano and his son were executed by the Japanese for aiding the guerrillas. After his execution, Ubaldo Potenciano's daughter sold the property to the Chinese. this became a Chinese school in 1959-1961. However, in the 1970's, it ceased to be a school.[10]

The building is of two stories in reinforced concrete. It has four bays in front, and another four bays on the side. It mixes decorative styles. The lower part has a front arcade with four large arches in trefoil style. The pilasters separating one bay from the other have fluted lines which are slender and thin in form. A fleur-de-lis decorates each keystone of the arches. The upper story is designed somewhat in the 1950's style. It has short, wing-like sun breakers separating one window from the other.It appears that the ground floor was constructed in the first half of the 20th century. The upper portion was destroyed in March of 1945. After the war, the second floor was renovated.

Baldevino House[edit]

The Baldevino house is actually a ruins of an old house which was adaptively re-used. Probably one of the old houses that was destroyed in World War 2. The outer exterior walls is made of thick adobe walls which suggest that the house is probably pre-1880s.

Abesamis House[edit]

The date of origin of the house is 1901 as inscribed in a wall of the house. The house is of two story. The lower part of the house is made of wood which sits on a low stone pedestal. This method of construction suggest that the house was originally located in the other part of the town then transferred piece by piece on its present site.

The house front has three bays and retains its 1900s look: large windows, ventanillas with iron grilles adorned with four-petaled flower, decorative bandejas on the walls between windows and cut-out floral patterns on the transom between rooms.

Sumilang House[edit]

The Sumilang house is strategically located right close to the public market. According to local history, the house was never completed because it was overtaken by the Japanese in 1941-1945.[11] The house, though in ruins, remains magnificent. It is entirely made of reinforced concrete. Its style connects with traditional Filipino architecture, while responding to the trends of its period in the 1930s. House bays are separated by pilasters. There are subtle floral decorations at the corners of the windows. Supporting corbels are scroll-shaped in form. The trapezoidal-shaped windows are typical of Art Deco style of the 1930s.

Orias House[edit]

Originally, the Orias house was the ruins of a former chapel honoring San Diego de Alcala on the road from Tayabas to Sariaya.[12] The former chapel was never restored to its former condition. Instead, it was roofed over and transformed into a house. The walls of the former chapel are of adobe, covered with lime plaster. The interior space is unusual for a house. It is at least four bays deep and has no dividing stone walls. The latter feature is what would be expected from a chapel space. The structure as such is not attractive. It is interesting solely because of its history as a former chapel-turned-residence.

List of Cultural Properties of Tayabas[edit]

Transportation[edit]

Jeepneys and tricycles are common options when travelling to destinations within the downtown and the city.

Local government[edit]

Elected officials:[1]

  • Mayor: Hon. Faustino Alandy Silang
  • Vice Mayor: Hon. Luz Cuadra
  • Councilors:
    • Hon. Brando Rea
    • Hon. Wenda Saberola
    • Hon. Ugto Abadilla
    • Hon. Jerry Caagbay
    • Hon. Jackpot Maphet Jacela
    • Hon. Lovely Reynoso
    • Hon. Nick Abesamis
    • Hon. Ondong Abrigo
    • Hon. Macky Reyes
    • Hon. Dino Romero

Education[edit]

Tayabas is the newest and youngest School Division of Region IV-A. Declared by Bro. Armin Luistro under the Memorandum of Agreement signed by Mayor Faustino Silang, City Mayor; Regional Director Lorna Dig Dino, DepEd CALABARZON; and Bro. Armin Luistro, DepEd Secretary. Division of Quezon released Dr. Edna Faura- Agustin and serves as the OIC- City Schools Division Superintendent.

Public/Private Education Institutions:

  • Luis Palad National High School
  • St. John Bosco Academy
  • Kiddie School Early Childhood Learning Center
  • Our Lady of Victory Integrated School
  • San Roque Parochial School
  • West Palale National High School
  • Tayabas East Central School I
  • Tayabas East Central School II
  • Tayabas East Central School III
  • Tayabas West Elementary School
  • Ilasan Elementary School
  • Masin Elementary School
  • East Palale Elementary School
  • Ibabang Palale Elementary School
  • Ilayang Palale Elementary School
  • Lawigue Elementary School
  • Lakawan Elementary School
  • Mate Elementary School
  • Isabang Elementary School
  • Dapdap Elementary School
  • Potol-Anos Elementary School
  • Busal Elementary School
  • Casa del Nino Jesus de Tayabas
  • Calumpang Elementary School
  • Pillars of Faith Christian Academy
  • Quezon Science High School (Brgy. Isabang, Tayabas City)
  • Wakas Elementary School
  • St. Lucy's School for Kids

Notable people from Tayabas[edit]

  • Orlando Nadres—1938-1991 - writer
  • Bishop Alfredo Maria Obviar - first bishop of the Diocese of Lucena, founder of MCST, declared a Servant of God
  • Hermana Fausta Labrador - born in Tayabas/founder of Sacred Heart College (Lucena City). her father's surname was originally San Agustin until he changed it to Labrador in compliance with the decree of Governor General Narciso Claveria
  • Paraluman (Sigrid Sophia Agatha von Giese y de Torres)--December 4, 1923-April 27, 2009 - Award-winning actress active from the 1940s to the 1970s
  • Isidro Cabuyao Sia - 1992 TOYM awardee for Pharmacology
  • Victor Emmanuel Carmelo "Vim" D. Nadera, Jr. - 2003 TOYM awardee for Literature
  • Heidi Lloce Mendoza - the truth teller during the anomaly in AFP, and Quezon Medalya ng Karangalan awardee.
  • Belen Palad - Quezon Medalya ng Karangalan Awardee 2013 Agriculture

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Official City/Municipal 2013 Election Results". Intramuros, Manila, Philippines: Commission on Elections (COMELEC). 11 September 2013. Retrieved 25 November 2013. 
  2. ^ a b "Province: QUEZON". PSGC Interactive. Makati City, Philippines: National Statistical Coordination Board. Retrieved 25 November 2013. 
  3. ^ a b c "Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay: as of May 1, 2010". 2010 Census of Population and Housing. National Statistics Office. Retrieved 25 November 2013. 
  4. ^ [1]
  5. ^ Supreme Court strikes down cityhood of 16 towns
  6. ^ SC reverses self, upholds creation of 16 cities
  7. ^ SC Reinstates 2008 Decision Voiding 16 Cityhood Laws
  8. ^ [2]
  9. ^ Ateneo Cultural Laboratory Final Report on Tayabas, Quezon. 
  10. ^ Ateneo Cultural Laboratory Final Report on Tayabas, Quezon. 
  11. ^ Ateneo Cultural Laboratory Final Report on Tayabas, Quezon. 
  12. ^ Ateneo Cultural Laboratory Final Report on Tayabas, Quezon. 

External links[edit]