Te Tai Tokerau

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Te Tai Tokerau electorate boundaries used since the 2002 election

Te Tai Tokerau is a New Zealand parliamentary Māori electorate that was created out of the Northern Maori electorate ahead of the first Mixed Member Proportional (MMP) election in 1996. It was first held by Tau Henare representing New Zealand First for one term, and then Dover Samuels of the Labour Party for two terms. From 2005 to 2014, it was held by MP Hone Harawira. Initially a member of the Māori Party, Harawira resigned from both the party and then Parliament, causing the 2011 by-election. He was returned under the Mana Party banner in July 2011 and confirmed at the November 2011 general election. In the 2014 election, he was beaten by Labour's Kelvin Davis, ending the representation of the Mana Party in Parliament.

Population centres[edit]

Te Tai Tokerau's boundaries are similar to those of the pre-Mixed Member Proportional (MMP) Northern Maori electorate. Te Tai Tokerau was created ahead of the first MMP election in 1996. In the 2002 boundary redistribution, the size of the electorate shrank to make room for an increase in the number of Māori electorates from six to seven.[1] The boundaries were not further altered in the 2007 or 2013/14 redistributions.[2][3]

Te Tai Tokerau is the northernmost Māori electorate, and covers an area between Cape Reinga in the Far North of the North Island to a boundary cutting through West Auckland. The major population centres are Whangarei, the Bay of Islands and north and west Auckland. The electorate contains all of the Ngāpuhi, Te Aupōuri, Ngāti Kuri, Te Rarawa and Ngāti Kahu tribal areas, and part of Ngāti Whātua's territory (rohe).

Its analogous general electorates are East Coast Bays, Helensville, North Shore, Northcote, Northland, Rodney, Te Atatū, Whangarei, the northern part of Waitakere and some of the islands located within Auckland Central.[4]

History[edit]

Northern Maori had been held by the Labour Party since the 1938 election, when longstanding Reform MP Taurekareka Henare was beaten by Labour's Paraire Karaka Paikea.[5] In 1993, after 55 years of his party holding the seat, Labour MP Bruce Gregory was beaten by Henare's great grandson, Tau Henare, standing for New Zealand First, ending Labour's unbroken hold on the four Māori seats. Henare went on to win Te Tai Tokerau after the switch to MMP, and New Zealand First won all five of the newly-drawn Māori electorates.

After a tumultuous parliamentary term which saw all but one of the five New Zealand First Māori MPs defect to other parties, (including Henare himself, who went on to found Mauri Pacific), Labour won all six Māori electorates contested at the 1999 election. In Te Tai Tokerau, Tau Henare was beaten into third place behind the New Zealand First candidate and Dover Samuels, who Henare had beaten three years previous.

However, Labour's losing the five Māori electorates in 1996 showed that the Māori vote was contestable for the first time in five decades, as the new electoral system coupled with the rise of small parties meant that non-Labour candidacy in these seats was more feasible than under First Past the Post.

The New Zealand foreshore and seabed controversy of 2004-05 proved to be the catalyst for the second challenge to Labour party domination of the Māori electorates, this time from the Māori Party. At the 2005 election, Samuels and three other Labour Māori MPs lost their seats to Māori Party challengers. In Te Tai Tokerau, the winner was Hone Harawira.[6][7]

Harawira resigned from the Māori Party in early 2011 and became an independent MP. On 11 May 2011, he resigned from Parliament effective 20 May, seeking a mandate for his new party, the Mana Party.[8][9] This caused the 25 June 2011 by-election, which was contested by five parties, with the main contenders Harawira, Kelvin Davis (Labour Party) and Solomon Tipene (Māori Party). Harawira retained the electorate with a majority of 1,117,[10] his previous majority being over 6,000.[11] In the 2011 general election some months later, Harawira had a similar majority to Davis.[12]

The Mana Party formed a coalition with the Internet Party just prior to the 2014 New Zealand general election. The coalition was registered with the Electoral Commission as the Internet Party and Mana Movement in July 2014, allowing it to contest the party vote.[13] The Internet Party was founded by controversial online millionaire Kim Dotcom, and this strategic coalition resulted in Harawira's main opponent, Labour's Kelvin Davis, getting endorsements from Winston Peters of New Zealand First[14] and the Prime Minister, John Key of the National Party.[15] Even the electorate's candidate for the Māori Party, Te Hira Paenga, reminded voters of the importance of strategic voting.[16] In his fourth challenge in the Te Tai Tokerau electorate, Davis ousted the incumbent Harawira, which ended the representation of the Mana Party in Parliament.[17]

Members of Parliament[edit]

Key

 NZ First    Labour    Māori    Mana  

Election Winner
1996 election Tau Henare
1999 election Dover Samuels
2002 election
2005 election Hone Harawira
2008 election
2011 by-election
2011 election
2014 election Kelvin Davis

List MPs[edit]

Members of Parliament elected from party lists in elections where that person also unsuccessfully contested Te Tai Tokerau. Unless otherwise stated, all MPs terms began and ended at general elections.

Election Winner
1996 election Joe Hawke
2005 election Dover Samuels
2008 election Kelvin Davis1

1Kelvin Davis also contested the 2011 by-election

Election results[edit]

2011 general election[edit]

General election 2011: Te Tai Tokerau[12]

Notes: Green background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member.
A Green tickY or Red XN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

Party Candidate Votes % ±% Party Votes % ±%
Mana Green tickY Hone Harawira 8,121 43.31 -18.641 4,844 24.49 +24.49
Labour Kelvin Davis 6,956 37.10 +7.66 6,855 34.65 -10.98
Māori Waihoroi Shortland 3,114 16.61 -45.351 2,208 11.16 -19.61
Legalise Cannabis Maki Herbert 559 2.98 -1.08 229 1.16 +0.08
NZ First   1,950 9.86 +2.44
National   1,814 9.17 -0.17
Green   1,704 8.61 +5.10
Conservative   102 0.52 +0.52
ACT   46 0.23 -0.32
United Future   17 0.09 -0.03
Libertarianz   6 0.03 +0.01
Alliance   5 0.03 ±0.00
Democrats   2 0.01 +0.01
Informal votes 912 473
Total Valid votes 18,750 19,782
Mana hold Majority 1,165 6.21 -26.30

1Swings against both Harawira (Mana Party) and Shortland (Māori Party) are calculated against Harawira's Māori Party vote in 2008

Electorate (as at 26 November 2011): 33,797[18]

2011 by-election[edit]

Te Tai Tokerau by-election, 2011

Notes: Green background denotes the winner of the by-election.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list prior to the by-election.
Yellow background denotes the winner of the by-election, who was a list MP prior to the by-election.
A Green tickY or Red XN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Mana Green tickY Hone Harawira 6,065 49.28
Labour Kelvin Davis 4,948 40.20
Māori Solomon Tipene 1,087 8.83
Legalise Cannabis Maki Herbert 135 1.10
OurNZ Kelvyn Alp 72 0.59
Informal votes 32
Total Valid votes 12,307
Mana gain from Māori Majority 1,117 9.08


2008 election[edit]

General election 2008: Te Tai Tokerau[19]

Notes: Green background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member.
A Green tickY or Red XN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

Party Candidate Votes % ±% Party Votes % ±%
Māori Green tickY Hone Harawira 12,019 61.95 +9.54 6,204 30.77 -0.27
Labour Kelvin Davis 5,711 29.44 -3.97 9,200 45.63 -3.70
Legalise Cannabis Judy Daniels 788 4.06 +1.05 218 1.08 +0.44
ACT Peter Tashkoff 680 3.51 112 0.56 +0.31
Hapu Party David Rankin 202 1.04
National   1,883 9.34 -4.33
NZ First   1,495 7.41 -0.45
Green   709 3.52 -0.83
Family Party   108 0.54
Progressive   74 0.37 -0.01
Bill and Ben   74 0.37
Kiwi   32 0.16
United Future   24 0.12 -0.29
RAM   10 0.05
Pacific   6 0.03
Alliance   5 0.02 -0.01
Libertarianz   5 0.02 ±0
Workers Party   3 0.01
Democrats   1 0.00
RONZ   0 0.00 -0.03
Informal votes 530 292
Total Valid votes 19,400 20,163
Māori hold Majority 6,308 32.52 +13.52


2005 election[edit]

General election 2005: Te Tai Tokerau[7]

Notes: Green background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member.
A Green tickY or Red XN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

Party Candidate Votes % ±% Party Votes % ±%
Māori Hone Harawira 9,965 52.41 6,151 31.00
Labour Red XN Dover Samuels 6,352 33.41 -16.99 9,788 49.33 +2.10
Independent Mangu Mere 1,250 6.57 -9.56
Destiny Ernest Morton 664 3.49 80 0.40
Legalise Cannabis Judy Daniels 574 3.01 126 0.64 -1.73
Independent Hana Maxwell 207 1.09
NZ First   1,559 7.86 -12.63
National   994 5.01 -0.85
Green   533 2.69 -8.67
United Future   81 0.41 -1.74
Progressive   71 0.36 -1.01
ACT   49 0.25 -1.18
99 MP   33 0.17
Christian Heritage   18 0.09 -1.81
Family Rights   17 0.09
Democrats   10 0.05
Alliance   6 0.03 -3.64
RONZ   6 0.03
One NZ   5 0.03 -0.01
Direct Democracy   3 0.02
Libertarianz   3 0.02
Informal votes 554 234
Total Valid votes 19,012 19,842
Turnout 20,706 69.79 +11.13
Māori gain from Labour Majority 3613 19.00

2002 election[edit]

General election 2002: Te Tai Tokerau[20]

Notes: Green background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member.
A Green tickY or Red XN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

Party Candidate Votes % ±% Party Votes % ±%
Labour Green tickY Dover Samuels 7,868 50.40 +3.08 7,646 47.23 -4.36
Independent Maryann Mangu 2,532 16.22
Alliance Rangimarie Naida Glavish 1,926 12.34 +5.25 594 3.67 -2.99
National Mita Whare Harris 1,018 6.52 +1.98 674 4.16 -2.32
Independent Michael John Smith 822 5.27
Christian Heritage Michael Norman 625 4.00 +1.96 308 1.90
Progressive Petera Kamira 428 2.74 222 1.37
New Generation Te Kaiarahi Hui 308 1.97
Quality of Life Ivan Erstich 83 0.53
NZ First   3,318 20.49 +4.76
Green   1,839 11.36 +5.62
Mana Māori   531 3.28
Legalise Cannabis   384 2.37
United Future   348 2.15
ACT   231 1.43 +0.48
ORNZ   81 0.50
NMP   7 0.04
One NZ   7 0.04
Informal votes 484 189
Total Valid votes 15,610 16,190
Turnout 16,562 58.66
Labour hold Majority 5,336 34.18

1999 election[edit]

General election 1999: Te Tai Tokerau[21][22]

Notes: Green background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member.
A Green tickY or Red XN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

Party Candidate Votes % ±% Party Votes % ±%
Labour Dover Samuels 8,583 47.32 9,403 51.59
NZ First Anaru George 2,891 15.94 2,868 15.73
Mauri Pacific Red XN Tau Henare 2,781 15.33 746
Alliance Ella Henry 1,286 7.09 1,214 6.66
National Tom Bowling Murray 824 4.54 1,182 6.48
Christian Heritage James Clendon Prime 370 2.04 282
ACT Nellie Rata 280 1.54 174 0.95
Independent Kingi Eruera Taurua 266 1.47
Mana Wahine Mere Rawiri-Tau 257 1.42
Piri Wiri Tua Te Kaiarahi Hui 207 1.14
Independent Dun Mihaka 187 1.03
Independent Marama Netana 104 0.57
Freedom Movement Atareta Kapa Hills 102 0.56 43
Green   1,046 5.74
Legalise Cannabis   553
Mana Māori   494
Future NZ   89
Animals First   36
One NZ   22
NMP   17
Libertarianz   16
McGillicuddy Serious   16
People's Choice Party 9
United NZ   9 0.05
Natural Law   5
Republican   4
South Island   0
Total Valid votes 18,138 18,228
Labour gain from Mauri Pacific Majority 5,692 31.38

1996 election[edit]

General election 1996: Te Tai Tokerau[23][24][25]

Notes: Green background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member.
A Green tickY or Red XN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

Party Candidate Votes % ±% Party Votes % ±%
NZ First Tau Henare 12,826 60.43 9,644 45.38
Labour Joe Hawke 4,408 20.77 6,176 29.06
Alliance Peter Campbell 1,468 6.92 1,818 8.55
National Rihari Dargaville 931 4.39 1,426 6.71
Independent Maryanne Baker 740 3.49
Indigenous Peoples Kingi Taurua 370 1.74
Christian Coalition Larry Sutherland 299 1.41 380 1.79
McGillicuddy Serious K. T. Julian 99 0.47 37 0.17
Natural Law Mary Austin 84 0.40 25 0.12
Legalise Cannabis   735 3.46
Mana Māori   592 2.79
ACT   238 1.12
Progressive Green 54 0.25
Animals First   35 0.16
Green Society 30 0.14
Te Tawharau 22 0.10
United NZ   19 0.09
Advance New Zealand 6 0.03
Superannuitants & Youth 6 0.03
Conservatives 4 0.02
Libertarianz   3 0.01
Ethnic Minority Party 2 0.01
Asia Pacific United 0 0.00
Informal votes 262 235
Total Valid votes 21,225 21,252
NZ First win new seat Majority 8,418 39.66

References[edit]

  1. ^ Report of the Representation Commission 2002 (PDF). Representation Commission. 21 March 2002. p. 11. ISBN 0-478-20169-9. Retrieved 2 October 2014. 
  2. ^ Report of the Representation Commission 2007 (PDF). Representation Commission. 14 September 2007. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-477-10414-2. Retrieved 2 October 2014. 
  3. ^ Report of the Representation Commission 2014 (PDF). Representation Commission. 4 April 2014. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-477-10414-2. Retrieved 2 October 2014. 
  4. ^ "Electorate Boundaries". Elections New Zealand. Retrieved 3 December 2011. 
  5. ^ Scholefield, Guy (1950) [First ed. published 1913]. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1949 (3rd ed.). Wellington: Govt. Printer. p. 131. 
  6. ^ "Hone Harawira". New Zealand Parliament. Retrieved 3 December 2011. 
  7. ^ a b "Official Count Results -- Te Tai Tokerau". Chief Electoral Office, Wellington. Retrieved 3 December 2011. 
  8. ^ "Harawira resigns from Parliament". 11 May 2011. Retrieved 11 May 2011. 
  9. ^ http://www.elections.org.nz/voting/te-tai-tokerau-by-election/te-tai-tokerau-by-election-results.html
  10. ^ "Official Count Results -- Te Tai Tokerau". New Zealand Electoral Commission. Retrieved 3 December 2011. 
  11. ^ "Official Count Results -- Te Tai Tokerau". Chief Electoral Office, Wellington. Retrieved 3 December 2011. 
  12. ^ a b "Official Count Results -- Te Tai Tokerau". Electoral Commission. 10 December 2011. Retrieved 3 October 2014. 
  13. ^ "Registration of Internet Party and MANA Movement logo". Electoral Commission. 24 July 2014. Retrieved 8 August 2014. 
  14. ^ Bennett, Adam (21 September 2014). "Election 2014: Winston Peters hits out at National after big poll surge". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 3 October 2014. 
  15. ^ McQuillan, Laura (17 September 2014). "Key's subtle endorsement for Kelvin Davis". Newstalk ZB. Retrieved 3 October 2014. 
  16. ^ "Davis picking up endorsements". Radio Waatea. 19 September 2014. Retrieved 3 October 2014. 
  17. ^ Smith, Simon (20 September 2014). "Davis' win a critical blow for Harawira, Internet Mana". Stuff.co.nz. Retrieved 30 September 2014. 
  18. ^ "Enrolment statistics". Electoral Commission. 26 November 2011. Retrieved 27 November 2011. 
  19. ^ 2008 election results
  20. ^ "Official Count results - Te Tai Tokerau,2002". 2002. Retrieved 4 December 2011. 
  21. ^ "Winning Candidates - 1999". Retrieved 4 December 2011. 
  22. ^ "Votes for Registered Parties by Electorate - 1999". Retrieved 4 December 2011. 
  23. ^ "Electorate Candidate and Party Votes Recorded at Each Polling Place - Te Tai Tokerau, 1996". Retrieved 24 December 2011. 
  24. ^ "Part III - Party Lists of Successful Registered Parties" (PDF). Electoral Commission. Retrieved 14 June 2013. 
  25. ^ "Part III - Party Lists of unsuccessful Registered Parties" (PDF). Electoral Commission. Retrieved 14 June 2013.