Tear down this wall!
Reagan speaking in front of the Brandenburg Gate
|Date||June 12, 1987|
|Also known as||Berlin Wall Speech|
"Tear down this wall!" was the challenge issued by United States President Ronald Reagan to Soviet Union leader Mikhail Gorbachev to destroy the Berlin Wall, in a speech at the Brandenburg Gate near the Berlin Wall on June 12, 1987, commemorating the 750th anniversary of Berlin. Reagan challenged Gorbachev, who was then the General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, to tear it down as an emblem of Gorbachev's desire to increase freedom in the Eastern Bloc through glasnost ("transparency") and perestroika ("restructuring").
Built in 1961, the Berlin Wall became known as a symbol of communist oppression. In the 1963 "Ich bin ein Berliner" speech, U.S. President John F. Kennedy stated the support of the United States for democratic West Germany shortly after the Soviet-supported Communist state of East Germany erected the Berlin Wall as a barrier to prevent movement from East to West.
President Reagan's 1987 visit was his second in five years. It came at a time of heightened East-West tensions, caused in particular by the debate over the stationing of short range American missiles in Europe and the United States' record peacetime defense buildup. Reagan was scheduled to attend the 1987 G-7 summit meeting in Venice, Italy, and later made a brief stop in Berlin.
Throughout his presidency Reagan was a very controversial figure in West Germany, and on the day before his visit, 50,000 people had demonstrated against the presence of the American president in the Berlin. During the visit itself, wide swaths of Berlin were shut off hermetically from the event. The leftist district of Kreuzberg, in particular, was targeted in this respect, with movement throughout this portion of the city in effect restrained completely (for instance the subway line 1 was shut down).
The Brandenburg Gate site was chosen to highlight the President's conviction that Western democracy offered the best hope to open the Berlin Wall. His speech focused on a series of political initiatives to achieve this end. The famous "tear down this wall" phrase was intended as the logical conclusion of the President's proposals. As the speech was being drafted, inclusion of the words became a source of considerable controversy within the Reagan administration. Several senior staffers and aides advised against the phrase, saying anything that might cause further East-West tensions or potential embarrassment to Gorbachev, with whom President Reagan had built a good relationship, should be omitted. American officials in West Germany and presidential speechwriters, including Peter Robinson, thought otherwise. Robinson traveled to West Germany to inspect potential speech venues, and gained an overall sense that the majority of West Berliners opposed the wall. Despite getting little support for suggesting Reagan demand the wall's removal, Robinson kept the phrase in the speech text. On May 18, 1987, President Reagan met with his speechwriters and responded to the speech by saying, "I thought it was a good, solid draft." White House Chief of Staff Howard Baker objected, saying it sounded "extreme" and "unpresidential," and Deputy US National Security Advisor Colin Powell agreed. Nevertheless, Reagan liked the passage, saying, "I think we'll leave it in."
Chief speechwriter Anthony R. Dolan gives another account of the line's origins, however, attributing it directly to Reagan. In an article published in The Wall Street Journal in November 2009, Dolan gives a detailed account of how in an Oval Office meeting that was prior to Robinson's draft Reagan came up with the line on his own. He records vivid impressions of his own reaction and Robinson's at the time. This led to a friendly exchange of letters between Robinson and Dolan over their differing accounts, which The Wall Street Journal published.
Arriving in Berlin on June 12, 1987, President and Mrs. Reagan were taken to the Reichstag, where they viewed the wall from a balcony. Reagan then made his speech at the Brandenburg Gate at 2:00 pm, in front of two panes of bulletproof glass protecting him from potential snipers in East Berlin. Among the spectators were West German president Richard von Weizsäcker, Chancellor Helmut Kohl, and West Berlin mayor Eberhard Diepgen.
That afternoon, Reagan said,
We welcome change and openness; for we believe that freedom and security go together, that the advance of human liberty can only strengthen the cause of world peace. There is one sign the Soviets can make that would be unmistakable, that would advance dramatically the cause of freedom and peace. General Secretary Gorbachev, if you seek peace, if you seek prosperity for the Soviet Union and eastern Europe, if you seek liberalization, come here to this gate. Mr. Gorbachev, open this gate. Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall!
Later on in his speech, President Reagan said, "As I looked out a moment ago from the Reichstag, that embodiment of German unity, I noticed words crudely spray-painted upon the wall, perhaps by a young Berliner, 'This wall will fall. Beliefs become reality.' Yes, across Europe, this wall will fall. For it cannot withstand faith; it cannot withstand truth. The wall cannot withstand freedom."
Another highlight of the speech was Reagan's call to end the arms race with his reference to the Soviets' SS-20 nuclear weapons, and the possibility "not merely of limiting the growth of arms, but of eliminating, for the first time, an entire class of nuclear weapons from the face of the Earth."
Response and legacy
The speech received "relatively little coverage from the media", Time magazine reported 20 years later. Communists were critical of the speech, and the Soviet press agency Tass accused Reagan of giving an "openly provocative, war-mongering speech."
Twenty-nine months later, on November 9, 1989, after increasing public unrest, East Germany finally opened the Berlin Wall. By the end of the year, official operations to dismantle the wall began. With the collapse of the Communist governments of Eastern Europe and, eventually, the Soviet Union itself, the tearing down of the wall epitomized the collapse for history. In September 1990, Reagan, no longer President, returned to Berlin, where he personally took a few symbolic hammer swings at a remnant of the Berlin Wall.
Former West German Chancellor Helmut Kohl said he would never forget standing near Reagan when he challenged Gorbachev to tear down the Berlin Wall. "He was a stroke of luck for the world, especially for Europe." However, even though the speech is considered one of Reagan’s most memorable and influential speeches, there is much dispute about how much influence and impact his words have had on the German people. It is largely felt in Germany that this speech had next to no effect on the course of events in either the Soviet Union or the German Democratic Republic, which are both thought to have met their ends largely for economic reasons. Because the media did not focus on the speech during the time due to the unknown impact the tearing down of the wall would bring, most Americans did not know about the speech’s important phrase. In an interview with Reagan himself, he recalls the East German police not allowing people to get near the wall, which prevented the citizens from experiencing the speech at all. The fact that West German police acted in a similar way has however seldom been noted in accounts such as these.
Finally, despite his famous lines that challenges Gorbachev to tear down the Berlin Wall, there is little evidence that Reagan’s speech has had any impact on even the decision behind tearing down the wall let alone the people he addresses. A 2012 article in the Atlantic points out many of the reasons for the tendency for American media to focus on the significance of this particular speech, without weighing the complexity of the events as they unfolded in both East and West Germany and the Soviet Union. Despite this, the speech is remembered by some as an important moment in Cold War history.
Peter Robinson, the White House wordsmith who drafted the address, said its most famous line was inspired by a conversation with Ingeborg Elz of West Berlin who had remarked in a conversation with him, "If this man Gorbachev is serious with his talk of Glasnost and perestroika he can prove it by getting rid of this wall." However, the words “tear down this wall” are remembered as the speech’s most influential element, and the message and goal of the speech is what formulated Reagan’s greatest legacy as a true influencer and communicator. Instead of using intimidation tactics against the Soviets like many other leaders, Reagan peacefully tested Gorbachev’s intentions and complimented him on his goals for Perestroika and Glasnost during his speech. With his delivery of the speech, Reagan earned Gorbachev's trust and gained his inspiration to decide on the Berlin Wall’s fate.
- "Reagan's 'tear down this wall' speech turns 20 - USATODAY.com". USA Today. June 12, 2007. Retrieved 2008-02-19.
- Boyd, Gerald M (June 13, 1987). "Raze Berlin Wall, Reagan Urges Soviet". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-02-09.
- "What the Berlin Wall still stands for". CNN Interactive. November 8, 1999. Retrieved 2008-02-18.
- "John Fitzgerald Kennedy". Scholastic Library Publishing, Inc. 2006. Retrieved 2008-02-16.
- "The Cold War". Workstations at Maryland. Retrieved 2008-02-08.
- Mann, James (June 10, 2007). "Tear Down That Myth". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-02-09.
- van Bebber, Werner (June 10, 2007). "Cowboy und Indianer". der Tagesspiegel. Retrieved 2015-01-23. (in German)
- Walsh, Kenneth T (June 2007). "Seizing the Moment". U.S. News & World Report. pp. 39–41. Retrieved 2007-06-27.
- Dolan, Anthony (November 2009). "Four Little Words". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2012-06-10.
- Robinson, Peter (November 2009). "Looking Again at Reagan and 'Tear Down This Wall'". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2012-06-10.
- Dolan, Anthony (November 2009). "Speechwriters' Shouts of Joy in Reagan's Oval Office". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2012-06-10.
- "Ronald Reagan's Famous "Tear Down This Wall" Speech Turns 20". Deutsche Welle. June 12, 2007. Retrieved November 8, 2014.
- "Remarks on East-West Relations at the Brandenburg Gate in West Berlin". Ronald Reagan Presidential Library. Retrieved May 29, 2011.
- Ratnesar, Romesh (June 11, 2007). "20 Years After "Tear Down This Wall" - TIME". Time. Retrieved 2008-02-19.
- Douglas, Carlyle C (September 16, 1990). "Reagan Hailed for Taking the Evil Out of the Empire". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-02-10.
- Jason Keyser (June 7, 2004). "Reagan remembered worldwide for his role in ending Cold War division". USA Today.
- Ratnesar, Romesh (June 11, 2007). "20 Years After "Tear Down This Wall"". TIME. Retrieved 3 October 2013.
- Hoare, Liam (September 20, 2012). "Let's Please Stop Crediting Ronald Reagan for the Fall of the Berlin Wall". The Atlantic.
- Robinson, Peter (Summer 2007). ""Tear Down This Wall": How Top Advisers Opposed Reagan's Challenge to Gorbachev—But Lost" 39. National Archives.
- Robinson, Peter. It's My Party: A Republican's Messy Love Affair with the GOP. (2000), hardcover, Warner Books, ISBN 0-446-52665-7
- Ambassador John C. Kornblum: "Reagan's Brandenburg Concerto", The American Interest, May–June 2007
- Ratnesar, Romesh. "Tear Down This Wall: A City, a President, and the Speech that Ended the Cold War" (2009)
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1987 Ronald Reagan speech in Berlin.|
|Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
- Full text and audio MP3 of the speech
- Full video of President Reagan delivering the speech at the Brandenburg Gate, courtesy of the Reagan Foundation.
- Ronald Reagan Signed and Inscribed Photograph at the Berlin Wall Shapell Manuscript Foundation
- Reagan speechwriter Peter Robinson reflecting on the speech before the Commonwealth Club of California in 2004.
- Image of text at National Archives site
- "Tear Down This Wall" How Top Advisers Opposed Reagan's Challenge to Gorbachev—But Lost by Peter Robinson
- A film clip of president Ronald Reagan's speech at the Berlin wall (June 12, 1987) is available for free download at the Internet Archive