Timeline of Russian innovation

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The Hall of Space Technology in the Tsiolkovsky State Museum of the History of Cosmonautics, Kaluga, Russia. The exhibition includes the models and replicas of the following Russian inventions:
the first satellite, Sputnik 1 (the ball shape under the ceiling);
the first spacesuits (lower-left corner);
the first human spaceflight module, Vostok 1 (center);
the first Molniya-type satellite (upper right corner);
the first space rover, Lunokhod 1 (six-wheeled vehicle bottom-right);
the first space station, Salyut 1 (left);
the first modular space station, Mir (upper left).

Timeline of Russian Innovation encompasses key events in the history of technology in Russia, starting from the Early East Slavs and up to the Russian Federation.

The entries in this timeline fall into the following categories:

This timeline examines scientific and medical discoveries, products and technologies introduced by various peoples of Russia and its predecessor state, regardless of ethnicity, and also lists inventions by naturalized immigrant citizens. Certain innovations achieved by a national operation may also may be included in this timeline, in cases where the Russian side played a major role in such projects. The inventions made abroad by Russian émigrés are not mentioned here.

All-Russia exhibition 1896 in Nizhny Novgorod. An electric tram, an earlier invention by Fyodor Pirotsky, drives between the pavilions featuring breakthrough designs by Vladimir Shukhov: the world's first steel tensile structures, gridshells, thin-shells and the first hyperboloid steel tower. The exhibition demonstrated the first lightning detector and an early radio receiver of Alexander Popov, caterpillar tractor of Fyodor Blinov, the first Russian automobile, and other technical achievements.
The wooden churches of Kizhi, built completely without nails and featuring such traditional elements of Russian architecture as the tented roof, multiple onion domes and bochka roofs.

Early East Slavs[edit]

Baked milk / Ryazhenka

  • Baked milk is made by simmering milk on low heat for eight hours or longer. The product has a light brown color, a specific taste and the ability to be stored safely at room temperature for up to forty hours, much longer than most milk-based beverages. It has been produced since ancient times, typically using a Russian oven. Nowadays it is produced on an industrial scale. Soured or fermented baked milk, traditionally known as ryazhenka, is especially popular in Russia.[1]
Russian Venus by Boris Kustodiev, shows a girl with birch twigs in a rural banya.

Banya

  • A Banya is a traditional Russian wet steam bath, where bathing takes place inside special rooms or stand-alone wooden houses, with steam being produced by splashing water upon a heated furnace. Historically, banya developed simultaneously with its closest relative, the Finnish sauna. However, modern saunas converted to dry steam, while banyas continue to use wet steam. Banya temperatures may exceed 110 °C, and people often hit themselves or others with bunches of dried branches and leaves from white birch, oak or eucalyptus in order to improve their circulation. It is customary to cool off outdoors or splash around in cold water, or even in a lake or river. In the winter, people may roll in the snow or jump into the water through holes in the ice. After two or three sessions of sweating and cooling off, the ritual ends with drinking beverages or tea, playing games or relaxing in good company in an antechamber off the steam room. Banya has a strong positive effect on health, helps prevent a number of diseases and strengthens the immune system.[2][3]
The cooking of Russian blini

Blini

  • Blini are thin pancakes made with yeast. Blin comes from Old Slavic mlin, that means "to mill". Russian blini are made with yeasted batter, which is left to rise. It is then diluted with cold or boiling water or milk. Blini may have originated in the time of the Slavic unity, and they had a somewhat ritual significance for the early Slavs in pre-Christian times, since they were a symbol of the sun due to their round form. Blini were traditionally prepared at the end of the winter to honor the rebirth of the new sun (Butter Week, or Maslenitsa). This tradition was adopted by the Orthodox church and is carried on to the present day.[4] Many people follow a simpler method of mixing flour, milk, sugar, egg, oil, and vanilla; with no yeast. They are eaten folded or rolled with a meat mixture or with jam, honey or any sweet condiment.

Gusli

  • Gusli is the oldest type of Slavic and Russian multi-string plucked instrument. Preserved instruments discovered by archaeologists have between 5 and 9 strings, in one case even 12. Gusli may have derived from a Byzantine form of the Greek kythare and have a number of relative instruments, like the Finnish kantele. The first mention of gusli dates back to 591 AD, to a treatise by the Greek historian Theophylact Simocatta, which describes the instrument being used by Slavs from the area of the later Kievan Rus'. The gusli are thought to have been the instrument used by the legendary Boyan (a bard, a singer of tales) and other heroes of Russian mythology. In later times gusli were widely used by wandering musicians and entertainers - Skomorokh.[5]
A typical Russian izba

Izba

  • An izba is a traditional Russian countryside dwelling, a type of log house, suited to the colder climate of North-Eastern Europe and Siberia. Traditional, old-style izba construction involved the use of simple tools, such as ropes, axes, knives, and spades. Nails were not generally used, as metal was relatively expensive, and neither were saws. Both the interior and exterior were made of split tree trunks, the gap between was usually filled with clay from a riverbed. From the 15th century on, the central element of the interior of an izba was the Russian oven. Outside izbas were often embellished by various special architectural features, for example rich wood carving decorations on windows. Such decorative elements and the use of the Russian oven are still commonly found in many modern Russian countryside houses.[6]

Kosovorotka

  • A kosovorotka is a Russian skewed-collared shirt, long sleeved and reaching down to mid-thigh, a traditional top garment going back to ancient times. The name derived from koso (askew), and vorot (collar), since the collar of this shirt appears skewed when it is left unbuttoned. The collar and sleeves of kosovorotka were often decorated with a traditional Slavic ornamentation. It was worn by peasants and townsmen of various social categories until the early 20th century, until it was replaced by less elaborate clothing. The garment is also known as a tolstovka, or the Tolstoy-shirt, because the writer Count Leo Tolstoy customarily wore one in the later years of his life. Now kosovorotkas appear mostly as souvenirs and as decorative garments in Russian folk art ensembles.[7]

Lapti

  • Lapti is an East Slavic version of bast shoes. A kind of basket fit to the shape of a foot, lapti were woven primarily from bast of the linden tree or from birch bark. They were easy to manufacture, but not very durable. In Russia, lapti were worn until the 1920s, or 1930s, as a cheap replacement for leather shoes, just like clogs in the Western Europe.[8]

Shchi

  • Shchi is a Russian soup with cabbage as the primary ingredient, which makes it possible for the prepared dish to be stored safely for a rather long time without it losing its taste qualities. Generally it is made with either fresh cabbage or sauerkraut and other winter vegetables, although meat may be added. Shchi made with sauerkraut has a sour taste and is called sour shchi. A summer sorrel soup, also popular in pre-Revolutionary and modern Russia, is known as green shchi. Usually smetana cream is added into shchi before serving.[9]
A course of shchi, prepared with meat and saffron milk caps. Scallion, parsley and smetana have been added before serving.

Smetana

  • Smetana is a thick, yellowish-white and slightly sour-tasting cream which contains about 40% milk fat. It is made by curdling pasteurized cream. In Russian cooking, it is used in virtually everything from appetizers and main courses to desserts. It is somewhat close to a crème fraîche (28%), but is much heavier and thicker, with usually 36% to 42% milkfat or even higher, and is more sour in taste. Smetana is ideal to be used in dishes requiring a long cooking time in the oven, since it will not curdle when cooked or added to hot dishes.[10]

Kievan Rus'[edit]

10th century[edit]

Architecture of Kievan Rus' The earliest Kievan churches were built and decorated with frescoes and mosaics by Byzantine masters. The great churches of Kievan Rus', built after the adoption of Christianity in 988, were the first examples of monumental architecture in the East Slavic lands. Early Eastern Orthodox churches were mainly made of wood, while major cathedrals often featured scores of small domes. The 10th-century Church of the Tithes in Kiev was the first to be made of stone.

A Russian girl wearing kokoshnik and sarafan.

Kokoshnik

  • The kokoshnik is a traditional Russian head-dress for women. It is patterned to match the style of the sarafan and can be pointed or round. It is tied at the back of the head with long thick ribbons in a large bow. The forehead is sometimes decorated with pearls or other jewelry. The word kokoshnik appeared in the 16th century, however the earliest head-dress pieces of a similar type were found in the 10th to 12th century burials in Veliky Novgorod. It was worn by girls and women on special occasions until the Russian Revolution, and was subsequently introduced into Western fashion by Russian émigrés.[11]

989 Kvass / Okroshka

  • Kvass or kvas, sometimes called in English a bread drink, is a fermented beverage made from black rye or rye bread, which contributes to its light or dark colour. By the content of alcohol resulted from fermentation, it is classified as non-alcoholic: up to 1.2% of alcohol, which is so low that it is considered acceptable for consumption by children. While the early low-alcoholic prototypes of kvass were known in some ancient civilizations, its modern, almost non-alcoholic form originated in Eastern Europe. Kvass was first mentioned in the Russian Primary Chronicle, which tells how Prince Vladimir the Great gave kvass among other beverages to the people, while celebrating the Christianization of Kievan Rus'. Kvass is also known as a main ingredient in okroshka, a Russian cold soup.[12][13]
Six-domed Saint Sophia Cathedral in Novgorod built on place of the original 13-domed wooden church, 11th century.

989 Multidomed church

  • The multidomed church is a typical form of Russian church architecture, which distinguishes Russia from other Orthodox nations and Christian denominations. Indeed the earliest Russian churches built just after the Christianization of Kievan Rus', were multi-domed, which led some historians to speculate what Russian pre-Christian pagan temples might have looked like. Namely, these early churches were 13-domed wooden Saint Sophia Cathedral in Novgorod (989) and 25-domed stone Desyatinnaya Church in Kiev (989-996). The number of domes typically has a symbolical meaning in Russian architecture, for example 13 domes symbolize Christ with 12 Apostles, while 25 domes mean the same with additional 12 Prophets from the Old Testament. Multiple domes of Russian churches were often made of wood and were comparatively smaller than the Byzantine domes.[14][15]

997 Kissel

  • Kissel or kisel is a dessert that consists of sweetened juice, typically that of berries, thickened with oats, cornstarch or potato starch, with red wine or dried fruits added sometimes. The dessert can be served either hot or cold, and if made using less thickening starch it can be consumed as a beverage, which is common in Russia. Kissel was mentioned for the first time in the Primary Chronicle, where it forms part of the story of how a besieged Russian city was saved from nomadic Pechenegs.[13][16]

11th century[edit]

A birch-bark letter with spelling lessons and drawings made by a 6-7 year old Novgorodian boy named Onfim.

Birch bark document

  • A birch bark document is a document written on pieces of birch bark. This form of writing material was developed independently by several ancient cultures. In Rus' the usage of the specially prepared birch bark as a cheap replacement for pergament or paper became widespread soon after the Christianization of the country. The earliest Russian birch bark documents (likely written in the first quarter of the 11th century) have been found in Veliky Novgorod. In total, more than 1000 such documents have been discovered, most of them in Novgorod and the rest in other ancient cities in Russia, Ukraine and Belarus. Many birch bark documents were written by common people rather than by clergy or nobility. This fact led some historians to suggest that before the Mongol invasion of Rus' the level of literacy in the country might have been considerably higher than in contemporary Western Europe.[17]

Koch / Icebreaker

A 17th-century koch in a museum in Krasnoyarsk
  • The koch was an ancient form of icebreaker, being a special type of one or two small wooden sailing ships with a mast, used for voyages in the icy conditions of the Arctic seas and Siberian rivers. The koch was developed by the Russian Pomors in the 11th century, when they started settling on the White Sea shores. The koch's hull was protected by a belt of ice-floe resistant flush skin-planking (made of oak or larch) along the variable water-line, and had a false keel for on-ice portage. If a koch was in danger of being trapped in the ice-fields, its rounded bodylines below the surface would allow for the ship to be pushed up out of the water and onto the ice with no damage. In the 19th century similar protective features were adopted to modern icebreakers.[18]
Ancient Russian Gudok.

Gudok

  • The gudok is an ancient East Slavic string musical instrument, played with a bow. It usually had three strings, two of them tuned in unison and played as a drone, the third tuned a fifth higher. All three strings were in the same plane at the bridge, so that a bow could make them all sound at the same time. Sometimes the gudok also had several sympathetic strings (up to eight) under the sounding board. These made the gudok's sound warm and rich. It was also possible to play while standing or dancing, which made it popular among skomorokhs. The name gudok comes from the 17th century, however the same type of instrument existed from 11th to 16th century, but was called smyk.[19]

Medovukha

  • Medovukha is an old Slavic honey-based alcoholic beverage very similar to mead, but much cheaper and faster to make. Since the old times the Slavs exported the fermented mead as a luxury product to Europe in huge quantities. Fermentation occurs naturally over 15 to 50 years, originally rendering the product very expensive and only accessible to the nobility. However, in the 11th century East Slavs found that fermentation occurred much faster when the honey mixture was heated, enabling medovukha to become a commonly available drink in the territory of Rus'. In the 14th century, the invention of distillation made it possible to create a prototype of the modern medovukha, however vodka was invented at the same time and gradually surpassed medovukha in popularity.[20]
A lubok depiction of the "Wall against Wall" (Stenka na Stenku) fist fighting.

1048 Russian fist fighting

  • Russian fist fighting is an ancient Russian combat sport, basically similar to modern boxing. However, it features some indigenous techniques and often fought in collective events called Stenka na Stenku ("Wall against Wall"). It has existed since the times of Kievan Rus', first mentioned in the Primary Chronicle in the year 1048. The government and the Russian Orthodox Church often tried to prohibit the fights, however fist fighting remained popular until the 19th century, while in the 20th century some of the old techniques were adopted for the modern Russian martial arts.[13][21]

12th century[edit]

Pernach (left) and two shestopyors.

Pernach

  • The pernach is a type of flanged mace developed since the 12th century in the region of Kievan Rus' and later widely used throughout Europe. The name comes from the Russian word перо (pero) meaning feather, reflecting the form of pernach that resembled an arrow with fletching. The most popular variety of pernach had six flanges and was called shestopyor (from Russian shest' and pero, that is six-feathered). Pernach was the first form of the flanged mace to find wide usage. It was perfectly suited to defeat plate armour and plate mail. In later times it was often used as a symbol of power by military leaders in Eastern Europe.[22]

Shashka

  • The shashka is a special kind of sabre, a very sharp, single-edged, single-handed, and guardless sword. In appearance, the shashka is midway between a full sabre and a straight sword. It has a slightly curved blade, and could be effective for both slashing and thrusting. Originally the shashka was developed in the 12th century by Circassians in the Northern Caucasus. These lands were integrated into the Russian Empire in the 18th century. By that time shashka was adopted as their main cold weapon by Russian Cossacks.[23]

Treshchotka

  • The treshchotka, sometimes referred in plural as treshchotki, is a Russian folk music idiophone instrument which is used to imitate hand clapping. Basically it is a set of small boards on a string that get clapped together as a group. There are no known documents confirming the usage of the treshchotka in ancient Russia, however, the remnants of what might have been the earliest 12th century treshchotka were recently found in Novgorod.[24]

1149 Bear spear

  • The bear spear or rogatina was a medieval type of spear used in bear hunting and also to hunt other large animals, like wisents and war horses. The sharpened head of a bear spear was enlarged and usually had the form of a bay leaf. Right under the head there was a short crosspiece that helped to fix the spear in the body of an animal. Often it was placed against the ground on its rear point, which made it easier to absorb the impact of the attacking beast. The Russian chronicles first mention rogatina as a military weapon in the year 1149, and as a hunting weapon in the year 1255.[25]

13th century[edit]

Sokha

  • The sokha is a light wooden plough which could be pulled by one horse. Its origin was in northern Russia, most likely in the Novgorod Republic, where it was used as early as in the 13th century. A characteristic feature of sokha construction is the bifurcated plowing tip (рассоха), so that a sokha has two plowshares, later made of metal, which cut the soil. The sokha is an evolution of a scratch-plough by an addition of a spade-like detail which turns the cut soil over (in regular ploughs the curved mouldboard both cuts and turns the soil).[26]
Preparation of pelmeni, with khokhloma handicraft seen on the background.

Pelmeni

Onion dome

  • The onion dome is a dome whose shape resembles an onion, after which they are named. Such domes are often larger in diameter than the drum upon which they are set, and their height usually exceeds their width. The whole bulbous structure tapers smoothly to a point. The so-called onion dome is the dominant form for church domes in Russia, and though the earliest preserved Russian domes of the type date from the 16th century; illustrations of the old chronicles indicate that they were used since the late 13th century.[28]

Grand Duchy of Moscow[edit]

Zvonnitsa of Transfiguration Cathedral in Vyazemy near Moscow.

14th century[edit]

Lapta

  • Lapta is a Russian ball game played with a bat, similar to modern baseball. The game is played outside on a field the size of 20 x 25 sazhens (about 140 x 175 feet). Points are earned by hitting the ball, served by a player of the opposite team, and sending it as far as possible, then running across the field to the kon line, and if possible running back to the gorod line. The running player should try to avoid being hit with the ball, which is thrown by opposing team members. The most ancient balls and bats for lapta were found in 14th-century layers during excavations in Novgorod.[29]

Zvonnitsa

  • A zvonnitsa is a large rectangular structure containing multiple archs or beams that carry bells, where bell ringers stand on its basement level and perform the ringing using long ropes, like playing on a kind of giant musical instrument. It was an alternative to bell tower in the medieval architecture of Russia and some Eastern European countries. Zvonnitsa appeared in Russia in the 14th century and was widely used until the 17th century. Sometimes it was mounted right atop the church building, resulting in the special type of church called pod zvonom ("under ringing") or izhe pod kolokoly ("under bells"). The most famous example of this type of a church is the Church of St. Ivan of the Ladder adjacent to the Ivan the Great Bell Tower in the Moscow Kremlin.[30][31]

Anbur script The alphabet was introduced by a Russian missionary, Stepan Khrap, also known as Saint Stephen of Perm (Степан Храп, св. Стефан Пермский) in 1372. The name Abur is derived from the names of the first two characters: An and Bur. The alphabet derived from Cyrillic and Greek, and Komi tribal signs, the latter being similar in the appearance to runes or siglas poveiras, because they were created by incisions, rather than by usual writing. The alphabet was in use until the 17th century, when it was superseded by the Cyrillic script. Abur was also used as cryptographic writing for the Russian language.

1376 Sarafan

  • The sarafan is a long, shapeless pinafore-type jumper dress, a part of the traditional Russian folk costume worn by women and girls. Sarafans could be of single piece construction with thin shoulder straps over which a corset is sometimes worn, giving the shape of the body of a smaller triangle over a larger one. It comes in different styles such as the simpler black, flower- or check-patterned versions formerly used for everyday wear, or elaborate brocade versions formerly reserved for special occasions. Chronicles first mention it in the year 1376, and since that time it was worn well until the 20th century. It is now worn as a folk costume for performing Russian folk songs and folk dancing. Plain sarafans are still designed and worn today as a summer-time light dress.[32][33]

15th century[edit]

Streltsy with muskets and bardiches.

Bardiche

  • The bardiche was a long poleaxe, that is a type of weapon combining the features of an axe and a polearm, known primarily in Eastern Europe where it was used instead of halberds. Occasionally such weapons were made in Antiquity and Early Middle Ages, but the regular and widespread usage of bardiches started in early 15th century Russia. It was probably developed from the Scandinavian broad axe, but in Scandinavia it appeared only in the late 15th century. In the 16th century the bardiche became a weapon associated with the streltsy, Russian guardsmen armed with firearms, who used bardiches to rest handguns upon when firing.[34]
Boyars with gorlatnaya hats on a painting by Andrey Ryabushkin.

Boyar hat

  • The boyar hat, also known as gorlatnaya hat, was a fur hat worn by Russian nobility between the 15th and 17th centuries, most notably by boyars, for whom it was a sign of their social status. The higher hat indicated higher status. In average, it was one ell in height, having the form of a cylinder with more broad upper part, velvet or brocade on top and a main body made of fox, marten or sable fur. Today the hat is sometimes used in the Russian fashion.[35]

Gulyay-gorod

  • The gulyay-gorod (literally "wandering town") was a mobile fortification made from large wall-sized prefabricated shields set on wagons or sleds, a development of the wagon fort concept. The usage of installable shields instead of permanently armoured wagons was cheaper and allowed more possible configurations to be assembled. Such mobile structures were used mostly in the open steppe, where few natural shelters could be found. The wide-scale usage of gulyay-gorod started during the Russo-Kazan Wars, and later it was often used by the Ukrainian Cossacks.[36]

Ukha

  • Ukha is a Russian soup, made with broth and fish like salmon or cod, root vegetables, parsley root, leek, potato, bay leaf, lime, dill, green parsley and spiced with black pepper, cinnamon and cloves. Fish like perch, tenches, sheatfish and burbot were used to add flavour to the soup. Ukha as a name in the Russian cuisine for fish broth was established only in the late 17th to early 18th centuries. In earlier times this name was first given to thick meat broths, and then later chicken. Beginning from the 15th century, fish was used more and more often to prepare ukha, thus creating a dish that had a distinctive taste among soups.[37]

Russian oven

Typical Russian oven in a peasant izba.
  • The Russian oven or Russian stove is a unique type of oven/furnace that first appeared in the early 15th century. The Russian oven is usually placed in the centre of the izba, a traditional Russian dwelling, and plays an immense role in the traditional Russian culture and way of life. It is used both for cooking and domestic heating and is designed to retain heat for long periods of time. This is achieved by channeling the smoke and hot air produced by combustion through a complex labyrinth of passages, warming the bricks from which the oven is constructed. In winter people may sleep on top of the oven to keep warm. As well as warming and cooking, the Russian oven can be used for washing. A grown man can easily fit inside, and during the Great Patriotic War some people escaped the Nazis by hiding in ovens. Porridge or pancakes prepared in such an oven may differ in taste from the same meal prepared on a modern stove or range. The process of cooking in a traditional Russian oven can be called "languor" - holding dishes for a long period of time at a steady temperature. Foods that are believed to acquire a distinctive character from being prepared in a Russian oven include baked milk, pearl barley, mushrooms cooked in sour cream, or even a simple potato.[38][39]

Rassolnik

  • Rassolnik is a Russian soup made from pickled cucumbers, pearl barley and pork or beef kidneys, though a vegetarian version also exists. The dish is known from the 15th century, when it was initially called kalya. The key part of rassolnik is rassol, a liquid based on the juice of pickled cucumbers with some additions, famous for its usage in hangover treatment.[40]
Russian Vodka in various bottles and cups.

c. 1430 Russian vodka

  • Russian vodka is perhaps the world's most famous national brand of vodka, that is a distilled liquor, composed solely of water and ethanol with possible traces of impurities and flavorings. Vodka is one of the world's most popular liquors. It is made by fermentation of rye, wheat, potatoes, grapes, or sugar beet molasses. Alcoholic content usually ranges between 35 to 50 percent by volume. The standard Russian vodka is 40 percent alcohol by volume (80 proof). The exact origins of vodka cannot be traced definitively, but almost certainly vodka as a beverage comes from 14th-15th century Eastern Europe. Russia is often named the birthplace of vodka. The distillation apparatus was known in Moscow from the late 14th century and was used to produce spirit, the precursor of vodka. According to Russian food historian William Pokhlyobkin, the first original recipe of Russian vodka was produced around 1430 by a monk called Isidore from Chudov Monastery inside the Moscow Kremlin.[41]

Early 16th century[edit]

The kokoshniks of the Holy Trinity Church in Nikitinki, Moscow.

Kokoshnik (architecture)

The Church of Ascension in Kolomenskoye, Moscow, an early tented roof church. Kokoshniks are seen at the base of the tent.

1510s Tented roof masonry

  • The tented roof masonry was a technique widely used in the Russian architecture in the 16th and 17th centuries. Before that time tented roofs (conical, or actually polygonal roofs) were made of wood and used in the wooden churches. These hipped roofs are thought to have originated in the Russian North, as they prevented snow from piling up on wooden buildings during long winters. Wooden tents also were used to cover towers in kremlins, or even applied in some common buildings, like it was in Western Europe, but the thin, pointed, nearly conical roofs of the similar shape made of brick or stone became a unique form in Russian church architecture. Some scholars, however, argue that hipped roofs have something in common with European Gothic spires, and even tend to call this style 'Russian Gothic'. The Ascension church of Kolomenskoye, built in 1532 to commemorate the birth of the first Russian Tsar Ivan IV, is often considered the first tented roof church, but recent studies show that the earliest use of the stone tented roof was in the Trinity Church in Alexandrov, built in the 1510s.[43]

1530 Middle Muscovite

Tsardom of Russia[edit]

Late 16th century[edit]

Russian abacus

  • The Russian abacus or schety (literally "counts") is a decimal type of abacus that has a single slanted deck in a unique vertical layout, with ten beads on each wire (except one wire which has four beads, for quarter-ruble fractions, that is usually near the user). It was developed in Russia from the late 16th century, at the time when abacus already was falling out of use in the Western Europe. However, the decimality of the Russian abacus (explained by Russian ruble's being the world's first decimal currency) and its simplicity (compared to the previous European and Asian versions) led to the wide use of this device in Russia well until the advent of electronic calculators in the late 20th century.[44]

1550 Streltsy

1552 Battery-tower

1561 Saint Basil's Cathedral

1566 Great Abatis Line

  • The Great Abatis Line, or Bolshaya Zasechnaya Cherta in Russian, was the largest fortification line of the abatis type, built by the Grand Duchy of Moscow and later the Tsardom of Russia. Its purpose was to protect Russia from the raids of nomads of the Eastern European steppes, such as the Crimean Tatars. As a fortification construction stretching for hundreds kilometers, the Great Abatis Line is analogous to the Great Wall of China and the Roman Limes. Most of its length consisted of abatis, which is a barrier built from felled trees arranged as a barricade. It was also fortified by ditches and earth mounds, palisades, watch towers and natural features like lakes and swamps. Stone and wooden kremlins of the towns were also included in the Great Abatis Line, as well as the smaller forts called ostrogs. The Great Abatis Line was built south of Moscow between the Bryansk woods and Meschera swamps starting from the 12th century, and was officially completed in 1566, exceeding 1000 km in length.[48]
A view of the Tsar Cannon, showing its massive bore and cannonballs, and the Lion's head cast into the carriage.

1586 Tsar Cannon

  • The Tsar Cannon is an enormous cannon, commissioned in 1586 by Russian Tsar Feodor and cast by Andrey Chokhov. It is the largest bombard by caliber. The cannon weighs 39.312 metric tonnes and has a length of 5.34 m (17.5 ft). Its bronze-cast barrel has a calibre of 890 mm (35.0 in), and an external diameter of 1,200 mm (47.2 in). Along with a new carriage, the 2 ton cannonballs surrounding the cannon were added in 1835 and are larger than the diameter of its barrel; in fact, it was originally designed to fire 800 kg stone grapeshot. The cannon is decorated with reliefs, including one depicting Tsar Feodor on a horse, hence the name of the cannon, though now the word Tsar is associated more with the supreme size of the weapon. Several copies of the cannon were made in the 21st century and installed in Donetsk and several Russian cities, while the original Tsar Cannon is in the Moscow Kremlin.[49][50]

17th century[edit]

The bochka roofs of the Transfiguration Church in Kizhi, holding onion domes above.

Bochka roof

  • The bochka roof or simply bochka (Russian: бочка, barrel) is the type of roof in the traditional Russian architecture that has a form of half-cylinder with an elevated and sharpened upper part, resembling the sharpened kokoshnik. Typically made of wood, the bochka roof was extensively used both in the church and civilian architecture in the 17th and 18th centuries. Later it was sometimes used in Russian Revival style buildings.[51]
Gorodki arranged in the pushka (cannon) pattern behind the gorod line.

Gorodki

  • Gorodki or townlets is an old Russian folk sport whose popularity has spread also to Scandinavia and the Baltic States. Similar to bowling, the aim of the game is to knock out groups of skittles arranged in some pattern by throwing a bat at them. The skittles, or pins, are called gorodki (literally little cities or townlets), and the square zone in which they are arranged is called the gorod (city). The game is mentioned in the old Russian chronicles and was known in the form close to the modern one at least from the 17th century, since one of the famous players in gorodki was the young Peter I of Russia.[52]

Russian Mountains

  • Russian Mountains were winter sled rides held on specially constructed hills of ice, sometimes up to 200 feet tall, being the predecessor to the modern roller coaster. Known from the 17th century, the slides were built to a height of between 70 and 80 feet, consisted of a 50 degree drop, and were reinforced by wooden supports. In the 18th century they were especially popular in St. Petersburg and surrounding areas, from where by the late 18th century their usage and popularity spread to Europe. Sometimes wheeled carts were used instead of tracks, like in the Katalnaya Gorka built in Catherine II's residence in Oranienbaum. The first such wheeled ride was brought to Paris in 1804 under the name Les Montagnes Russes (French for "Russian Mountains"), and the term Russian Mountains continues to be a synonym for roller coaster in many countries today.[53]
A typical wooden Bird of Happiness.

Bird of Happiness

  • The Bird of Happiness is the traditional North Russian wooden toy, carved in the shape of a bird. It was invented by Pomors, the inhabitants of the White and Barents Sea coastline. The Bird of Happiness is made without glue or other fasteners, by elaborate carving of thin petals for the bird’s wings and tail and then using a special method of spreading and curving them. Similar methods are also used in other products of the North Russian handicraft. The amulet is usually made of pine, fir, spruce, or Siberian cedar. It is suspended inside a house, guarding the family hearth and well-being.[54]

Dymkovo toy

  • Dymkovo toys, also known as the Vyatka toys or Kirov toys are moulded painted clay figures of people and animals (sometimes in the form of a pennywhistle). It is an old Russian folk handicraft which still exists in a village of Dymkovo near Kirov (former Vyatka). Traditionally, the Dymkovo toys are made by women. Up until the 20th century, this toy production had been timed to the spring fair called свистунья (svistunya), or whistler. The first recorded mention of this event took place in 1811, however it is believed to have existed for some 400 years, thus dating the history of Dymkovo toy at least from the 17th century.[55][56]
Troika pulling a sleigh.

Troika

  • The troika (тройка, "triplet" or "trio") is a traditional Russian harness driving combination, using three horses abreast, usually pulling a sleigh. It differs from most other three-horse combinations in that the horses are harnessed abreast. In addition to that, the troika is the world's only multiple harness with different horse gaits – the middle horse trots and the side horses canter. At full speed a troika could reach 45–50 kilometres per hour (28–31 mph), which was a very high speed on land for vehicles in the 17th-19th centuries, making the troika closely associated with the fast ride. The troika was developed from the late 17th century, first being used for speedy delivering of mail, and having become common by the late 18th century. It was often used for travelling in stages where teams of tired horses could be exchanged for fresh animals to transport loads and people over long distances.[57][58]

1630 Late Muscovite Russian architecture characterized by many large cathedral-type churches with five onion-like cupolas, surrounding them with tents of bell towers and aisles.

1659 Khokhloma

Khokhloma tableware on a Soviet postage stamp.
  • Khokhloma is the name of a Russian wood painting handicraft, known for its vivid flower patterns, red and gold colors over the black background, and the distinctive effect on the cheap and light wooden tableware or furniture, making it look heavier, metal-like and glamorous. It first appeared in the second half of the 17th century, at least from 1659, in today's Nizhny Novgorod Oblast and was named after the large trade settlement Khokhloma. The handicraft owes its origin to the Old Believers, who, fleeing from persecutions of officials, took refuge in local woods and taught some of the icon painting techniques to the local craftsmen, such as the usage of a goldish color without applying real gold. Nowadays khokhloma is one of the symbols of Russia, and apart from its usage in making tableware, furniture and souvenirs, it can be found in the wider context, for example in paintings on Russian airliners.[59]

1685 Tula gingerbread

  • The Tula gingerbread is a type of printed gingerbread from the city of Tula, the most known kind of Russian gingerbreads. Usually the Tula gingerbread looks like a rectangular tile or a flat figure. Modern Tula gingerbreads usually contain jam or condensed milk, while in the old times they were made with honey. The first mention of the Tula gingerbread is in Tula сensus book of 1685.[60]

1688 Balalaika

  • The balalaika is a stringed instrument with a characteristic triangular body and 3 strings (or sometimes 6, in 3 courses), perhaps the best-known national Russian musical instrument. The balalaika family of instruments includes, from the highest-pitched to the lowest, the prima balalaika, sekunda balalaika, alto balalaika, bass balalaika and contrabass balalaika. The earliest mention of balalaika is found in a 1688 document, and initially it was an instrument of skomorokhs (sort of Russian free-lance musical jesters). In the 1880s the modern standard balalika was developed by Vasily Andreev, who also started a tradition of balalaika orchestras, which finally led to the popularity of the instrument in many countries outside Russia.[61]
A Podstakannik with a glass inside

Glass-holder

  • The podstakannik (Russian: подстаканник, literally "thing under the glass"), or tea glass holder, is a holder with a handle, most commonly made of metal, that holds a drinking glass. The primary purpose of podstakanniki (pl.) is to hold a very hot glass of tea, which is usually consumed right after it is brewed. It is a traditional way of serving and drinking tea in Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, and other post-Soviet states.

1693

  • Naryshkin Baroque. Also called Moscow Baroque, or Muscovite Baroque, is the name given to a particular style of Baroque architecture and decoration which was fashionable in Moscow from the turn of the 17th into the early 18th centuries.

Early 18th century[edit]

A classic 14-facet Soviet table-glass.

Table-glass

  • The table-glass or granyonyi stakan (literally faceted glass) is a type of drinkware made from especially hard and thick glass, having a faceted form. Granyonyi stakan has certain advantages over the other drinkware, since due to its form and hardness it is more difficult to break. It is arguably handier in usage on moving trains or rolling ships, where it is less prone to tip and fall, or slip from hands, and less likely to break upon hitting the floor. A legend says that the first known Russian faceted glass was given as a present to Tsar Peter the Great from a glass-maker called Yefim Smolin, living in Vladimir Oblast. He boasted to Tsar that his glass couldn't be broken. Tsar Peter liked the present, however, after drinking some alcoholic beverage from it, he threw the glass on the ground and managed to break it. Still Peter didn't punish the glass-maker, and the production of such glasses continued, while the Russian tradition of breaking drinkware on certain occasions originated from that episode.[62]
Modern Russian rubles and kopecks.

1704 Decimal currency

  • The decimal currency is a type of currency that is based on one basic unit and a sub-unit which is a power of 10, typically 100. Most modern currencies adhere to this pattern. Russia was the first country to introduce such a currency after decimalisation of its financial system in 1704, during the reign of Peter the Great, when Russian ruble was made equal to 100 kopecks.[63]

1717 Metal lathe compound slide

  • by Andrey Nartov. A compound slide on a metal lathe adds the ability to turn tapers more easily, and may be used to turn more precise diameters. They are a standard feature of modern manually operated lathes.

1718 Yacht club

A view of St. Petersburg by Alexey Zubov, 1716. Shows yachts and war ships on the Neva River.
  • The yacht club is a sports club specifically related to sailing and yachting. The oldest yacht club in the world, by date of establishment, is the Neva Yacht Club, founded by the Russian Tsar Peter the Great in 1718 in St. Petersburg (likely, the idea had been devised as early as 1716, when the First Neva Shipyard started building civilian vessels). Though, since it was not a purely voluntary association of members, but an organisation founded by Tsar's decree, the Neva Yacht Club's being the world's oldest is challenged by the Royal Cork Yacht Club in Ireland, founded in 1720. Both clubs have gone through periods of dormancy and undergone various name changes.[64][65]

 Russian Empire[edit]

1720s[edit]

A corner of the acoustic room inside the Leaning Tower of Nevyansk, with some rebar seen.

1725 Rebar

1730s[edit]

The Leaning Tower of Nevyansk has a metallic rod on top, grounded through the rebar (some are seen below).

1732 Cast iron cupola / Lightning rod

  • The cast iron cupola was a type of cupola made of cast iron rather than made from stone or brick as it was in ancient or medieval domes. The first application of this technology is found in the mysterious Leaning Tower of Nevyansk, completed in 1732. The tower's tented roof had a cast iron carcass and outer shell. The second time, this technique was applied only some 100 years later, during the reconstruction of the Mainz Cathedral in Germany in 1826, while the third time it was used in the dome of Saint Isaac's Cathedral in St. Petersburg, built in the 1840s. The very top of the tower was crowned with a gilded metallic sphere with spikes. Since it was grounded through the rebar of the tower carcass, it acted like a lightning rod. Thus, the Russian builders de facto created the first lightning rod in the Western world some 25 years before Benjamin Franklin, however it is not known whether that was intentional.[66]

1733 Peter and Paul Cathedral

The Tsar Bell.

1735 Tsar Bell

  • The Tsar Bell, also known as the Tsarsky Kolokol or Royal Bell, is a huge bell on display on the grounds of the Moscow Kremlin. The bell was commissioned by Empress Anna, niece of Peter the Great. Currently it is the largest and heaviest bell in the world, weighing 216 tons, with a height of 6.14 m (20.1 ft) and diameter of 6.6 m (21.6 ft). It was founded from bronze by masters Ivan Motorin and his son Mikhail in 1733–1735. The bell, however, was never rung because of a fire in 1737, when a huge slab (11.5 tons) cracked off while it was still in the casting pit. In 1836, the bell was placed on a stone pedestal next to the Ivan the Great Bell Tower. For a time, the bell served as a chapel, with the broken area forming the door. According to the legend, on Judgement Day the Tsar Bell will be miraculously repaired and lifted up to heaven, where it will ring the blagovest (call to prayer).[50]
Inside the ice palace of Empress Anna of Russia.

1739 Ice palace

1740s[edit]

1741 Quick-firing gun

1750s[edit]

1754 Coaxial rotor / Model helicopter

Bronze Licorne: caliber 152mm, effective range 1278m, height 174cm, weight 707kg, cast in 1849 in the Bryansk Arsenal master Nazarov, currently displayed at the Military-Historical Museum of Artillery, Engineers and Signal Corps, St. Petersburg.

1757 Licorne (Russian field gun)

  • by M.W. Danilov and S.A. Martynov

1760s[edit]

1761 Atmosphere of Venus

  • Mikhail Lomonosov was the first person to hypothesize the existence of an atmosphere on Venus based on his observation of the transit of Venus of 1761 in a small observatory near his house in Petersburg.

1762 Off-axis reflecting telescope

1770s[edit]

1770 Amber Room

  • The Amber Room in the Catherine Palace of Tsarskoye Selo near Saint Petersburg is a complete chamber decoration of amber panels backed with gold leaf and mirrors. It was dubbed the Eighth Wonder of the World due to its singular beauty and the large quantity of a rare material (amber is rather hard to carve). Due to its unique history it was also called the World's Greatest Lost Treasure. Several generations of German and Russian craftsmen worked on this masterpiece, prompted by several generations of monarchs. Construction began in 1701 to 1709 in Prussia. In 1716 the Amber Cabinet was given by Prussian king Friedrich Wilhelm I to his then ally, Tsar Peter I of Russia. Then it was expanded by Russian craftsmen, and by 1770, when the work was finished, the Room covered more than 55 square meters and contained over six tons of amber. It was looted during World War II by Nazi Germany, brought to Königsberg and lost in the chaos at the end of the war. In 1979-2003 Russian craftsmen again reconstructed the Amber Room in the Catherine Palace, while the location of the original one is still a mystery.[69][70]

1770 Thunder Stone

  • The largest stone ever moved by man, used a base for a statue.

1776 Orenburg shawl

1778 Russian samovar

  • In 1778 the Lisitsyn brothers introduced their first samovar design, and the same year they registered the first samovar-making factory in Russia.[71]

1780s[edit]

1784 Orlov Trotter

1790s[edit]

Russian guitar

Valenki

1793 Screw drive elevator

  • The screw drive elevator is an elevator that uses a screw drive system instead of a hoist, like it was in the earlier elevators. The invention of the screw drive was the most important step in elevator technology since ancient times, which finally led to the creation of modern passenger elevators. The first such elevator was invented by Ivan Kulibin and installed in the Winter Palace in 1793, while several years later another of Kulibin's elevators was installed in Arkhangelskoye near Moscow. In 1823, an "ascending room" made its debut in London.[72]

1795 Fedoskino miniature / Russian lacquer art

1796 Peaked cap

  • The peaked cap has been worn by Russian Army officers as a type of forage cap since 1796 by some regiments, and from 1811 by the most of the army.

19th century[edit]

1802 Modern powdered milk

1802 Electric arc

1803 Arc welding

1805 Droshky any of various 2 or 4 wheeled, horse-drawn, public carriages (early taxicabs).

1810s[edit]

1811 Sailor cap

1812 Naval mine

1814 Beehive frame

1820s[edit]

1820s Russian Revival architecture is the generic term for a number of different movements within Russian architecture that arose in second quarter of the 19th century and was an eclectic melding of pre-Peterine Russian architecture and elements of Byzantine architecture.

1820 Monorail

1825 Zhostovo painting

1828 Electromagnetic telegraph

1829 Three bolt diving equipment

1830s[edit]

1832 Data recording equipment

  • Semen Korsakov was reputedly the first to use the punched cards in informatics for information storage and search. Korsakov announced his new method and machines in September 1832, and rather than seeking patents offered the machines for public use.

1835 Centrifugal fan

1838 Electrotyping

1839 Electric boat

1839 Galvanoplastic sculpture

1840s[edit]

1847 Field anesthesia

1848 Modern oil well

  • by Vasily Semyonov[78]

1850s[edit]

1850s Neo-Byzantine architecture in the Russian Empire emerged in the 1850s and became an officially endorsed preferred architectural style for church construction during the reign of Alexander II of Russia (1855–1881), replacing the Russo-Byzantine style of Konstantin Thon.

1851 Struve Geodetic Arc

1851 Russian Railway Troops

1854 Modern field surgery

1857-1861 Theory of chemical structure

  • By Alexander Butlerov, one of the principal creators of the theory of chemical structure, the first to incorporate double bonds into structural formulas, the discoverer of Hexamine and the discoverer of the Formose reaction.

1857 Radiator

1858 Saint Isaac's Cathedral

1859 Aluminothermy

1860s[edit]

1860s Russian salad

1861 Beef Stroganoff

1864 Modern icebreaker

  • An icebreaker is a special-purpose ship or boat designed to move and navigate through ice-covered waters. The first steam-powered metal-hulled icebreaker of the modern type was the Russian Pilot, built in 1864 on orders of the merchant and shipbuilder Mikhail Britnev. It had the bow altered to achieve an ice-clearing capability (20° raise from keel line). This allowed the Pilot to push itself on the top of the ice and consequently break it. Britnev fashioned the bow of his ship after the shape of the old wooden Pomor kochs, which had been navigating icy waters of the White Sea and Barents Sea for centuries.[82]

1869 Periodic table of the elements

1870s[edit]

Gymnasterka

  • The gymnasterka was originally introduced into the Tsarist army about 1870 for wear by regiments stationed in Turkestan during the hot summers.[83] It took the form of a loose fitting white linen "shirt-tunic" and included the coloured shoulder-boards of the green tunic worn during the remainder of the year. The gymnasterka was taken into use by all branches of the Imperial Army at the time of the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78. Originally intended for working dress during peace-time and patterned on the traditional Russian peasant smock, the gymnasterka was subsequently adopted for ordinary duties and active service wear. It was worn as such by non-commissioned ranks in summer during the 1890s and early 1900s. The officers' equivalent was a white double breasted tunic or kitel. During the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-05 the white gymnasterka with its red or blue shoulder-boards proved too conspicuous against modern weaponry and the garments were often dyed various shades of khaki.[84] The smartness and comfort of the white gymnasterka enabled it to survive for a few more years of peacetime wear until a light khaki version was adopted in 1907-09 and worn during World War I.

1872 Electric lamp

  • By Alexander Lodygin. In 1872 he applied for a Russian patent for his filament lamp. He also patented this invention in Austria, Britain, France, and Belgium. For a filament, Lodygin used a very thin carbon rod, placed under a bell-glass.

1873 Odhner Arithmometer

1873 Armored cruiser

1876 Yablochkov candle

1877 Torpedo boat tender

1877 Tracked wagon

1878 Cylindrical oil tank

1879 Modern oil tanker

1880s[edit]

1880s

Winogradsky column

  • The Winogradsky column is a simple device for culturing a large diversity of microorganisms. Invented in the 1880s by Sergei Winogradsky, the device is a column of pond mud and water mixed with a carbon source such as newspaper (containing cellulose), blackened marshmallows or egg-shells (containing calcium carbonate), and a sulfur source such as gypsum (calcium sulfate) or egg yolk. Incubating the column in sunlight for months results in an aerobic/anaerobic gradient as well as a sulfide gradient. These two gradients promote the growth of different microorganisms such as Clostridium, Desulfovibrio, Chlorobium, Chromatium, Rhodomicrobium, and Beggiatoa, as well as many other species of bacteria, cyanobacteria, and algae.

1880 Vitamins

1880 Electric tram

1881 Carbon arc welding

1883 Cathedral of Christ the Saviour

1888 Caterpillar farm tractor

1888 Shielded metal arc welding

1888 Photoelectric cell

1888 Three-phase electric power systems

  • Mikhail Dolivo-Dobrovolsky was one of the first contributors to invention and development of three-phase systems like three-phase motor, three-phase generator and three-phase transformer.

1889 Mosin–Nagant rifle

1890s[edit]

1890 Matryoshka doll

1890 Chemosynthesis

1891 Thermal chemical cracking

1892 Viruses

1894 Nephoscope

1895 Lightning detector / Radio receiver

1896 Thin-shell structure

1896 Tensile structure

1896 Hyperboloid structure

1897 Gridshell

1898 Polar icebreaker

  • A polar icebreaker is an icebreaker capable of operating in the polar waters with their vast and thick multi-year sea ice. The Russian icebreaker Yermak (named after Yermak the conqueror of Siberia) was the first icebreaker able to ride over and crush pack ice. It was built in England between 1897-1898 after Admiral Stepan Makarov's design and under his supervision. Between 1899-1911 Yermak sailed in heavy ice conditions for more than 1000 days. Starting from this vessel, Russia created the largest fleet of oceangoing icebreakers in the 20th and 21st centuries.[90]

20th century[edit]

Mstyora miniature

1901 Classical conditioning

1901 Chromatography

1902 Fire fighting foam

  • Fire fighting foam is foam used for fire suppression. Its role is to cool the fire and to coat the fuel, preventing its contact with oxygen, resulting in suppression of combustion. Fire fighting foam was invented by the Russian engineer and chemist Aleksandr Loran in 1902. He was a teacher in a school in Baku, which was the main center of the Russian oil industry at that time. Impressed by the terrible and hardly extinguishable oil fires that he had seen there, Loran tried to find such a liquid substance that could deal effectively with the problem, and so he invented his fire fighting foam.[91]

1903 Theoretical foundations of spaceflight

1903 Cytoskeleton

1903 Motor ship

  • The Russian tanker Vandal was the world's first diesel-powered ship.

1904 Foam extinguisher

  • The foam extinguisher is a type of fire extinguisher based on fire fighting foam. It works and looks similar to the soda-acid type, but the inner parts are different. The main tank contains a solution of water, foam compound (usually made from licorice root) and sodium bicarbonate. The first such extinguisher was produced in 1904 by Aleksandr Loran, who invented fire fighting foam two years before.[92]

1905 Auscultatory blood pressure measurement

1905 Korotkov sounds

1905 Insubmersibility

1906 Electric seismometer

1907 Aerosani / Snowmobile

1907 Bayan

1907 Church of the Savior on Blood

  • The Church contains over 7500 square metres of mosaics — according to its restorers, more than any other church in the world.

1910s[edit]

1910 Synthetic rubber

1910 Montage (filmmaking) or Kuleshov Effect (by Lev Kuleshov)

1910 Non-Aristotelian logic By Nikolai Vasilyev

1911 Knapsack parachute

1911 Hafnium

1911 Stanislavski's system

  • A progression of techniques used to train actors to draw believable emotions to their performances. The method that was originally created and used by Constantin Stanislavski from 1911 to 1916 was based on the concept of emotional memory for which an actor focuses internally to portray a character's emotions onstage.

1912 Drogue parachute

1913 Zaum

  • Zaum (Russian: зáумь) is a word used to describe the linguistic experiments in sound symbolism and language creation of Russian Futurist poets such as Velimir Khlebnikov and Aleksei Kruchenykh.

1913 Airliner

1913 Half-track

1914 Gyrocar

1914 Tachanka

1914 Strategic bomber

1914 Aerial ramming

1915 Activated charcoal gas mask

1915 Vezdekhod

1915 Tsar Tank

  • This eccentric design differed from modern tanks in that it did not use caterpillar tracks, rather it used a wheeled tricycle design. The two front spoked wheels were nearly 9 metres (27 feet) in diameter; the back wheel was smaller, only 1.5 metres (5 feet) high.

1916 Trans-Siberian Railway

  • The longest railway in the world.

1916 Optophonic piano [95]

 Soviet Union[edit]

Late 1910s[edit]

1917 Socialist realism

  • A style of realistic art which was developed in the Soviet Union and became a dominant style in other socialist countries.

1918 Budenovka

1918 Ushanka

1919 Theremin

1919 Constructivism (art)

  • An artistic and architectural philosophy which was a rejection of the idea of autonomous art. The movement was in favour of art as a practice for social purposes.

1920s[edit]

1920s Chapayev (game)

1920s Constructivist architecture

  • A form of modern architecture that flourished in the Soviet Union in the 1920s and early 1930s. It combined advanced technology and engineering with an avowedly Communist social purpose.

1923 Palekh miniature

1924 Optophonic Piano

1924 Primordial soup theory

1925 Interlaced video

  • Interlaced video is a technique of doubling the perceived frame rate introduced with the composite video signal used with analog television without consuming extra bandwidth. It was first demonstrated by Léon Theremin in 1925.

1926 Graphical sound

  • By Pavel Tager and Aleksandr Shorin

1927 Light-emitting diode

1927 Polikarpov Po-2 biplane

1928 Rabbage

  • Rabbage or Raphanobrassica, was the first ever non-sterile hybrid obtained through the crossbreeding, which was an important step in biotechnology. It was produced by Georgii Karpechenko in 1928.

1929 Cadaveric blood transfusion

1929 Pobedit

  • Pobedit is a specialized alloy that is close in hardness to diamond (85-90 on the Rockwell scale). It was created in the USSR in 1929 and was used in mining, metal-cutting and as a material for special mechanical parts. Later a number of similar alloys have been developed.[96][97]

1929 Teletank / Military robot

1930s[edit]

Spring-loaded camming device

Abalakov thread climbing device

Electric rocket motor

1930 Blood bank

1930 Paratrooping

1931 Pressure suit

1931 Hypergolic rocket propellants

1931 Rhythmicon / Drum machine

1931 Flame tank

1932 Postconstructivism

  • A transitional architectural style that existed in the Soviet Union in the 1930s, typical of early Stalinist architecture before World War II.

1932 Children's railway

1932 Terpsitone

1932 Underwater welding

1933 Stalinist architecture

  • Also referred to as Stalinist Gothic, or Socialist Classicism, is a term given to architecture of the Soviet Union under the leadership of Joseph Stalin.

1934 Tupolev ANT-20

  • Purpose-designed propaganda aircraft, the largest aircraft in 1930s

1934 Cherenkov detector

1935 Kirza

  • Kirza is a type of artificial leather based on the multi-layer textile fabric, modified by membrane-like substances, produced mainly in the Soviet Union and Russia as a cheap and effective replacement for natural leather. The surface of kirza imitates pig leather. The material is mainly used in production of military boots and belts for machinery and automobiles. The name kirza is an acronym from Kirovskiy Zavod (Kirov plant) located in the city of Kirov, which was the first place of the mass production of kirza. The technology was invented in 1935 by Ivan Plotnikov and improved in 1941. Since that time kirza boots became a typical element of the uniform in the Soviet and Russian Army.[103]

1935 Moscow Metro

1935 Kremlin stars

1936 Airborne firefighting [105]

1937 Superfluidity

1937 Drag chute

  • The drag chute or braking parachute is an application of the drogue parachute for decreasing the landing distance of an aircraft below that available solely from the aircraft's brakes. For the first time drag chutes were used in 1937 by the Soviet airplanes in the Arctic that provided support for the famous polar expeditions of the era. The drag chute allowed safe landings on small ice-floes.

1937 Manned drifting ice station

  • Soviet and Russian manned drifting ice stations are important contributors to exploration of the Arctic. An idea to use the drift ice for the exploration of nature in the high latitudes of the Arctic Ocean belongs to Fridtjof Nansen, who fulfilled it on Fram between 1893 and 1896. However, the first stations to be placed right upon the drifting ice originated in the Soviet Union in 1937, when the first such station in the world, North Pole-1, started operating. More drifting ice stations were organised after World War II, and many special equipment was developed for them, such as the elevated tents to be placed on the melting ice and indicators monitoring the ice cracks.[106]

1937 Welded sculpture

  • Welded sculpture is an artform in which sculpture is made using welding techniques. The first such sculpture was the famous Worker and Kolkhoz Woman by Vera Mukhina. Initially it was placed atop the Soviet pavilion at the 1937 World's Fair in Paris. The choice of welding method was explained by a giant size of the sculpture, and also was intended to demonstrate the innovative Soviet technologies.[107]

1937 Fire-fighting sport

  • Fire-fighting sport is a sport discipline that includes a competition between various fire fighting teams in fire fighting-related exercises, such as climbing special stairs in a mock-up house, unfolding a water hose, and extinguishing a fire using hoses or extinguishers. It was developed in the Soviet Union in 1937, while international competitions have taken place since 1968.[108]

1938 Deep column station

  • The deep column station is a type of subway station, consisting of a central hall with two side halls, connected by ring-like passages between a row of columns. Depending on the type of station, the rings transmit load to the columns either by "wedged arches" or through purlins, forming a "column-purlin complex." The fundamental advantage of the column station is the significantly greater connection between the halls, compared with a pylon station. The first deep column station in the world is Mayakovskaya, designed by Alexey Dushkin and opened in 1938 in Moscow Metro.[110]

1938 Sambo

  • Sambo (an acronym, Самбо stands for САМооборона-Без-Оружия, meaning "self-defence without weapons") is modern martial art, combat sport and self-defense system developed in the Soviet Union and recognized as an official sport by the USSR All-Union Sports Committee in 1938, presented by Anatoly Kharlampiev.[111]

1939 Kirlian photography

1939 Ilyushin Il-2

1939 Self-propelled multiple rocket launcher

1940s[edit]

1940s TRIZ

1940 T-34 tank

1941 Competitive rhythmic gymnastics

1941 Maksutov telescope

1941 Degaussing

1942 Winged tank

1942 Gramicidin S

1944 Microtron

1944 EPR spectroscopy

1945 T-54/55 tank

  • World's most produced tank.

1945 Passive resonant cavity bug

1947 Modern multistage rocket

1947 MiG-15

1947 AK-47

  • The AK-47 (other names include Avtomat Kalashnikova, Kalashnikov, or AK) is a selective fire, gas operated 7.62mm assault rifle, developed in the Soviet Union by Mikhail Kalashnikov. The AK-47 was one of the first true assault rifles. It has been manufactured in many countries and has seen service with regular armed forces as well as irregular, revolutionary and terrorist organizations worldwide. Even after six decades, due to its durability, low production cost and ease of use, the original AK-47 and its numerous variants are the most widely used and popular assault rifles in the world; more AK-type rifles have been produced than all other assault rifles combined.[114]

1947 Light beam microphone

  • The technique of using a light beam to remotely record sound probably originated with Léon Theremin in the Soviet Union at or before 1947, when he developed and used the Buran eavesdropping system. This worked by using a low power infrared beam (not a laser) from a distance to detect the sound vibrations in the glass windows. Lavrentiy Beria, head of the KGB, had used this Buran device to spy on the U.S., British, and French embassies in Moscow

1949 Staged combustion cycle

1950s[edit]

1950s Head transplant

1950s Magnetotellurics

1950 Berkovich tip

1951 Belousov–Zhabotinsky reaction

1951 Explosively pumped flux compression generator

1952 Masers

1952 Vysotka

1952 Carbon nanotubes

  • A 2006 editorial written by Marc Monthioux and Vladimir Kuznetsov in the journal Carbon described the interesting and often misstated origin of the carbon nanotube. A large percentage of academic and popular literature attributes the discovery of hollow, nanometer-size tubes composed of graphitic carbon to Sumio Iijima of NEC in 1991. In 1952 L. V. Radushkevich and V. M. Lukyanovich published clear images of 50 nanometer diameter tubes made of carbon in the Soviet Journal of Physical Chemistry. This discovery was largely unnoticed, as the article was published in the Russian language, and Western scientists' access to Soviet press was limited during the Cold War. It is likely that carbon nanotubes were produced before this date, but the invention of the transmission electron microscope (TEM) allowed direct visualization of these structures.[115][116]

1952 Anthropometric cosmetology or Ilizarov apparatus

1954 Nuclear power plant

1955 MiG-21

1955 Ballistic missile submarine

1955 Fast-neutron reactor

  • BN350 nuclear fast reactor.

1955 Leningrad Metro

1955 Tokamak

  • The Tokamak T-4 was tested in 1968 in Novosibirsk, conducting the first ever quasistationary thermonuclear fusion reaction. The first actual experimental tokamak was built in 1955. The Tokamak design plays the basic role in modern projects for power generation based on thermonuclear fusion like ITER.

1957 ANS synthesizer

1957 Synchrophasotron

1957 Spaceport

1957 Intercontinental ballistic missile

1957 Orbital space rocket

1957 Artificial satellite

  • Sputnik 1, the first Earth-orbiting artificial satellite. It was launched into an elliptical low earth orbit by the Soviet Union on 4 October 1957, and was the first in a series of satellites collectively known as the Sputnik program.

1957 Space capsule

1957 Raketa hydrofoil

1958 Modern ternary computer

1959 Nuclear icebreaker

  • A nuclear-powered icebreaker is a purpose-built ship with nuclear propulsion for use in waters continuously covered with ice. Nuclear-powered icebreakers are far more powerful than their diesel powered counterparts, and have been constructed by Russia primarily to aid shipping in the frozen Arctic waterways in the north of Siberia, along the Northern Sea Route. NS Lenin was the world's first nuclear icebreaker, launched in 1957 at the Admiralty Shipyard and completed in 1959.[117]

1959 Space probe

1959 Missile boat

1959 Staged combustion cycle

1960s[edit]

1960s Rocket boots

1960 Reentry capsule

1961 Human spaceflight

1961 RPG-7

1961 Lawrencium

1961 Anti-ballistic missile

1961 Space food

1961 Space suit

1961 Tsar Bomb

  • The most powerful weapon ever tested. The Tsar Bomba was a three-stage Teller–Ulam design hydrogen bomb with a yield of 50 to 58 megatons of TNT (210 to 240 PJ). This is equivalent to about 1,350–1,570 times the combined power of the bombs that destroyed Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 10 times the combined power of all the conventional explosives used in World War II, or one quarter of the estimated yield of the 1883 eruption of Krakatoa, and 10% of the combined yield of all nuclear tests to date.

1961 Platform screen doors

1961 Ekranoplan

1961 Mil Mi-8

1962 Detonation nanodiamond

1962 AVL tree datastructure

1962 3D holography

1964 Rutherfordium

1964 Druzhba pipeline

  • The longest oil pipeline system in the world.

1964 Plasma propulsion engine

1964 Kardashyov scale

1965 Extra-vehicular activity

1965 Molniya orbit satellite

1965 Voitenko compressor

1965 Proton rocket

1965 Air-augmented rocket

1966 Nobelium

1966 Lander spacecraft

1966 Orbiter

1966 Caspian Sea Monster

1966 Soyuz rocket

  • According to the European Space Agency, the Soyuz launch vehicle is the most frequently used and most reliable launch vehicle in the world.[118]

1966 Orbital module

1967 Space toilet

1967 Ostankino Tower

1967 The Motherland Calls

1967 Computer for operations with functions

1967 Automated space docking

1967 Venus lander

1968 Dubnium

1968 Mil Mi-12

  • The largest helicopter ever built.

1968 Supersonic transport

1969 Intercontinental submarine-launched ballistic missile

1970s[edit]

Semiconductor Heterostructures

1970s Radial keratotomy

1970 Robotic sample return

1970 Space rover

  • Lunokhod 1, the first space exploration rover, reached the Moon surface on November 17, 1970.

1971 Space station

  • Salyut 1 (DOS-1) (Russian: Салют-1; English: Salute 1) was launched April 19, 1971. It was the first space station to orbit Earth. Developed under supervision of Vladimir Chelomey.

1972 Hall effect thruster

1972 Nuclear desalination

1973 Reflectron

1974 Electron cooling

  • Electron cooling was invented by Gersh Budker (INP, Novosibirsk) in 1966 as a way to increase luminosity of hadron colliders. It was first tested in 1974 with 68 MeV protons at NAP-M storage ring at INP.

1975 Underwater assault rifle

1975 Arktika class icebreaker

  • The Arktika class is a Russian and former Soviet class of the world's most powerful nuclear icebreakers. Its pilot ship, NS Arktika, was the second Soviet nuclear icebreaker, completed in 1975. She became the first surface ship to reach the North Pole, on August 17, 1977.[119]

1975 Androgynous Peripheral Attach System

1976 Close-in weapon system

1976 Mobile ICBM

1977 Vertical launching system

1977 Kirov class battlecruiser

  • The Kirov class battlecruisers of the Russian Navy are the largest and heaviest surface combatant warships (i.e., not an aircraft carrier, assault ship or submarine) currently in active operation in the world.

1978 Unmanned resupply spacecraft

1978 Active protection system

1979Space-based radio telescope [120]

1980s[edit]

Kalina cycle

  • Invented and patented in the 1980s by Russian engineer Alexander Kalina. His invention included the first time development of a contiguous set of ammonia-water mixture thermodynamic properties, which provide the basis for unique power plant designs for different forms of power generation from different heat sources.[121]

1980s EHF therapy

1980 Typhoon class submarine

  • The largest submarine ever built.

1981 Quantum dot

1981 Tupolev Tu-160

  • The Tupolev Tu-160 is a supersonic, variable-geometry heavy bomber designed by the Soviet Union. Although several civil and military transport aircraft are bigger, the Tu-160 has the greatest total thrust, and the heaviest takeoff weight of any combat aircraft, and the highest top speed as well as one of the largest payloads of any current heavy bomber. Pilots of the Tu-160 call it the “White Swan”, due to its maneuverability and anti-flash white finish.[122]

1982 Helicopter ejection seat

1984 Tetris

1986 Modular space station

1987 MIR submersible

  • The first to reach the seabed under the North Pole. Developed in cooperation with Finland.

1987 RD-170 rocket engine

1988 Buran

1988 An-225

1989 Kola Superdeep Borehole

1989 Supermaneuverability

Early 1990s[edit]

1989-1991 BARS apparatus

1991 Thermoplan

  • The thermoplan is a disc-shaped airship of hybrid type, currently under development in Russia. The key feature of thermoplan is its two section structure. The main section of the airship is filled with helium, while the other section is filled with air that can be heated or cooled by the engines. This design greatly improves the maneuverability, alongside with the disc shape which helps resist the powerful winds up to 20 metre per second. The projet was started in the late 1980s and the early 1990s, with the first working prototype tested in 1991. That was rather small airship, and the giant thermoplan wasn't built at that time due to the problems caused by the economy crisis of the 1990s. In the late 2000s (decade), the project was revived under the name Locomoskyner by the Russian company Locomosky in Ulyanovsk.[123]

1991 Scramjet

 Russian Federation[edit]

1990s[edit]

RD-180 Engine

1992 Znamya (space mirror)

1992 Nuclotron

1993 RAR

1997 Two-level single-vault transfer station

1998 Beriev Be-200

  • Four retractable water scoops, two forward and two aft of the fuselage step can be used to scoop a total of 12 tonnes of water in 14 seconds.

1998 Submarine-launched spacecraft

1999 Sea Launch

1999 Flerovium

2000s[edit]

2000s Heterotransistor

2000 Livermorium

2000 Abstract state machine

2001 Space tourism

2001 Mirny Mine

  • The largest diamond mine in the world and the second largest human-made excavation.

2001 Superconducting nanowire single-photon detector

2003 Park Pobedy metro escalators

2004 Graphene

2005 Orbitrap

2007 NS 50 Let Pobedy

  • NS 50 Let Pobedy is the world's largest nuclear-powered icebreaker, and the largest icebreaker in general. The keel was originally laid in 1989 by Baltic Works of Leningrad (now St Petersburg), and the ship was launched in 1993 as the NS Ural, while completed in 2007 under a new name. This icebreaker is the sixth and last of the Arktika class. The vessel was put into service by Murmansk Shipping Company, which manages all eight Russian state-owned nuclear icebreakers.[125]

2007 Father of all bombs

2010s[edit]

2010 Chatroulette

  • The first randomized webcam chatroom

2011 Nuclear power station barge

  • The first mass-produced portable nuclear power station

2011 Nord Stream

2011 Spektr-R

2012 Russky Island Bridge

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Glenn Randall Mack, Asele Surina. Food Culture In Russia And Central Asia. Greenwood Press, 2005. ISBN 0-313-32773-4. Page 22.
  2. ^ Aaland, Mikkel (1998). The Russian Bania. History of the Great Russian Bath. Cyber-Bohemia.
  3. ^ Russian Banya
  4. ^ Maslenitsa, Blin! Article about and recipe for bliny and description of a related holiday.
  5. ^ The history of gusli. (Russian)
  6. ^ Traditional Russian Village Structure
  7. ^ Русские рубахи / Russian shirts (Russian)
  8. ^ Lapti at the Slavyanskaya Sloboda Slavic ethnography site (Russian)
  9. ^ Soup in the Russian cuisine. Shchi (Russian)
  10. ^ Nordic Recipe Archive - Cooking ingredients - Milk products
  11. ^ Primeval Rus': Women's head dress and jewellery (Russian)
  12. ^ The history of kvas at kvas.ru site (Russian)
  13. ^ a b c Primary Cronicle (Russian)
  14. ^ Russian Church Design by Lisa Kies.
  15. ^ About Russian Domes and Cupolas at Sky Palace world architecture site.
  16. ^ Kissels at supercook.ru (Russian)
  17. ^ Online library of 956 Russian birch bark documents and modern translations (Russian)
  18. ^ Navigation in ice conditions. Experience of Russian sailors by Nataly Marchenko at ris.npolar.no (Svalbard Science Forum)
  19. ^ String instruments at the site Russian musical instruments. (Russian)
  20. ^ Medovukha at the site Culinary Edem (Russian)
  21. ^ Russian fist fighting at the site Russian Civilization (Russian)
  22. ^ Medieval flanged maces by Shawn M. Caza.
  23. ^ The culture and customs of Adygs at the site www.adigeya.com (Russian)
  24. ^ "Russian Folk Instruments". www.barynya.com. 
  25. ^ Кирпичников А. Н., «Древнерусское оружие», 1971 / Kirpichnikov A.N. The Ancient Russian weapons, 1971. (Russian)
  26. ^ The study of the history of ancient ploughs of the Novgorod land by V. Ya. Konetsky. (Russian)
  27. ^ Pelmeni. A Tasty History by Josh Wilson at The School of Russian and Asian Studies site.
  28. ^ The shapes of domes of ancient Russian churches by Sergey Zagraevsky at the site of RusArch.ru (Russian)
  29. ^ No Wrong Way to Swing Bat at the site of The St. Petersburg Times.
  30. ^ Zvonnitsa in the Great Soviet Encyclopedia (Russian)
  31. ^ Churches Under Bells at the site hramy.ru (Churches of Russia) (Russian)
  32. ^ What Is a Traditional Russian Sarafan? at aerotranslate.com (Russian)
  33. ^ Russian sarafan at linorusso.ru (Russian)
  34. ^ Кирпичников А. Н., «Военное дело на Руси в XIII—XV вв.» Л., 1976 / Kirpichnikov A.N. Warfare in Russia in the 13th-15th centuries. Leningrad, 1976. (Russian)
  35. ^ Киреева Е. В. «История костюма. Европейский костюм от античности до XX века.» Москва. Просвещение. 1976 / Kireeva E. V. The history of costume. European costume from Antiquity into the 20th century. Moscow, Prosvescheniye, 1976. (Russian)
  36. ^ V.F.Shperk, "The History of Fortification" (В. Ф. Шперк, История фортификации) (1957) (Russian)
  37. ^ Ukha at kulinarnie-recepty.ru (Russian)
  38. ^ Russian oven in the 20th century (Russian)
  39. ^ Russian oven at pechka.su (Russian)
  40. ^ How to cook solyanka and rassolnik at solyanca.ru (Russian)
  41. ^ Pokhlebkin V. V. / Похлёбкин В. В. (2007). The history of vodka / История водки (in Russian). Moscow: Tsentrpoligraph / Центрполиграф. p. 272. ISBN 5-9524-1895-3. 
  42. ^ Kokoshnik (architecture) in the Great Soviet Encyclopedia (Russian)
  43. ^ The first stone tented roof church and the origins of the tented roof architecture by Sergey Zagraevsky at RusArch.ru (Russian)
  44. ^ Russian Abacus at ergosolo.ru (Russian)
  45. ^ Russian Fortresses, 1480–1682, Osprey Publishing, ISBN 1-84176-916-9
  46. ^ Brumfield, William Craft (1997). Landmarks of Russian Architecture: A Photographic Survey. Routledge. ISBN 978-90-5699-537-9. 
  47. ^ Brunov, N. I. (1988). Hram Vasilia Blazhennogo v Moskve (Храм Василия Блаженного в Москве. Покровский собор) (in Russian). Iskusstvo. 
  48. ^ Abatis Lines with maps at cultinfo.ru (Russian)
  49. ^ Andrey Chokhov at subscribe.ru (Russian)
  50. ^ a b М.Е. Портнов. Царь-Пушка и Царь-Колокол. Московский Рабочий, Москва, 1990 / M.E.Portnov. Tsar Cannon and Tsar Bell, Moskovsky Rabochiy, Moscow 1990, ISBN 5-239-00778-0 (Russian)
  51. ^ Bochka (architecture) at the Great Soviet Encyclopedia (Russian)
  52. ^ The history of gorodki at gorodki.org (Russian)
  53. ^ Roller Coasters A Thrill Seeker's Guide to the Ultimate Scream Machines pg 14 (1st Published Edition)
  54. ^ Bird of Happiness (Russian wooden toy)
  55. ^ The Encyclopedia of Vyatka Land. Vol. 10, Handicrafts. Vyatka, 2000. ISBN 5-85271-041-5. (Russian)
  56. ^ Dymkovo toy: all about the history and the best makers (Russian)
  57. ^ Russian troika at zooclub.ru (Russian)
  58. ^ Jingle bells at damascus.ru (Russian)
  59. ^ Khokhloma Ware: Folk art for the masses by Stuart King
  60. ^ Tula gingerbread at russia.worlds.ru (Russian)
  61. ^ Balalaika by Dmitry Belinskiy, from the newspaper Krymskaya Pravda. (Russian)
  62. ^ The Day of Granenyi Stakan at hronograf.narod.ru (Russian)
  63. ^ The history of Russian ruble and copeck, part 4 (Russian)
  64. ^ World's oldest yacht clubs
  65. ^ History of yacht clubs in Russia
  66. ^ a b The office of the first Russian oligarch (Russian)
  67. ^ Peter and Paul Cathedral at walkspb.ru (Russian)
  68. ^ Principles of helicopter aerodynamics by J. Gordon Leishman, p. 7.
  69. ^ The Amber Room: The Fate of the World's Greatest Lost Treasure
  70. ^ Amber Cabinet of the Catherine Palace in Tsarskoye Selo by L.V. Nikiforova (Russian)
  71. ^ Самовары Лисицыных / Samovars of Lisitsyns at the site of Sloboda, a Tula-based newspaper. (Russian)
  72. ^ Conveyor technology: Elevator at conveyor-tech.com
  73. ^ The Unknown Russian Monorail (Russian)
  74. ^ Virtual Museum of Information technology (Russian)
  75. ^ A Brief History of Diving (Russian)
  76. ^ History of diving in Russia (Russian)
  77. ^ a b c The history of galvanoplating in Russia (Russian)
  78. ^ The question about the world's first oil well (Russian)
  79. ^ Family Sangalli / San Galli
  80. ^ The hot boxes of San Galli (Russian)
  81. ^ St Isaac's Cathedral at nevsky-prospekt.com
  82. ^ Prolonging the navigation by Pavel Veselov. 1993. № 6. pp. 36-37. (Russian)
  83. ^ Boris Mollo, page 137 "Uniforms of the Imperial Russian Army", ISBN 0-7137-0920-0
  84. ^ A. Ivanov and P. Jowett, page 19 "The Russo-Japanese War 1904-05", ISBN 1 84176 708 5
  85. ^ a b The inventor of tractor (Russian)
  86. ^ Hopkins, Frederick Gowland (11 December 1929). The Earlier History of Vitamin Research (Speech). Nobel Prize Award Ceremony. Stockholm. It is now generally agreed that the first clear evidence, based upon experiment, for the existence of dietary factors of the nature of vitamins came from the school of Bunge at Basel. In 1881 Lunin, one of the workers in that school, fed mice upon an artificial mixture of the separate constituents of milk; of all the constituents, that is, which were then known, namely the proteins, fats, carbohydrates, and salts. He found that upon such a mixture the animals failed to survive and was led to conclude that "a natural food such as milk must therefore contain besides these known principal ingredients small quantities of unknown substances essential to life". Such a statement, already half a century old, when allowed to stand out clear and apart from a context which tended to bury it, seems to contain the essentials of what is believed today. 
  87. ^ Biography of Nikolay Bernardos by A. A. Chekanov (Russian)
  88. ^ Official website of the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour
  89. ^ Nikolay Slavyanov's biography at weldportal.ru (Russian)
  90. ^ Icebreaker Yermak at the polarpost.ru (Russian)
  91. ^ Loran and the fire extinguisher at p-lab.org (Russian)
  92. ^ The history of fire extinguisher (Russian)
  93. ^ Vernadsky, Georgy (1969). "Rise of Science in Russia 1700–1917". Russian Review (Blackwell Publishing) 28 (1): 37–52. ISSN 0036-0341. 
  94. ^ Morton, Maurice (1999) [1987]. Rubber Technology (3 ed.). Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers. p. 236. ISBN 0-412-53950-0. 
  95. ^ "The Optophonic Piano (1916)". The Audio Playground Synthesizer Museum. Archived from the original on 27 Nov 2001. 
  96. ^ "Победит". Большая советская энциклопедия (3 ed.). М.: Советская энциклопедия. 1975.  (Russian)
  97. ^ Васильев, Н. Н.; Исаакян, О. Н.; Рогинский, Н. О.; Смолянский, Я. Б.; Сокович, В. А.; Хачатуров, Т. С. (1941). "ПОБЕДИТ". Технический железнодорожный словарь. М.: Трансжелдориздат.  (Russian)
  98. ^ The Mechanical Advantage
  99. ^ Abalakov thread
  100. ^ Vita Germetika: A Brief History of Creating and Development of Soviet-Russian space suits (Russian)
  101. ^ Konstantin Khrenov's biography at dic.academic.ru (Russian)
  102. ^ Cherenkov's biography at Nobelprize.org
  103. ^ В. И. Шмакова Комбинат «Искож» // Энциклопедия земли Вятской Киров: «О-Краткое», 2008. — Т. 10. Книга вторая. / V.I. Shmakova. "Iskozh" fabric // The Encyclopedia of Vyatka Land. Kirov, "О-Краткое", 2008. Vol. 10. part 2. ISBN 978-5-91402-040-5 (Russian)
  104. ^ "Moscow Subway System Second Only to Tokyo in Usage". VOA. 2010-03-29. Retrieved 2010-04-01. 
  105. ^ Ford, Bruce (July 2006). "Russian Smokejumpers: The Pre-War Years". Smokejumper Magazine (National Smokejumper Association). Retrieved 22 Nov 2011. 
  106. ^ "North Pole drifting stations (1930s-1980s)". Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. 
  107. ^ The history of welding (Russian)
  108. ^ Fire-fighting sport (Russian)
  109. ^ Kreichi, Stanislav (10 Nov 1997). "The ANS Synthesizer: Composing on a Photoelectronic Instrument". Theremin Center. Retrieved 13 Dec 2005. 
  110. ^ Mayakovskaya station on the official site of the Moscow metro. (Russian)
  111. ^ Creation of Sambo – by Michail Lukashev, first published in Physical Culture and Sport magazine N9-10/91.(Russian)
  112. ^ George Parada (n.d.), “Panzerkampfwagen T-34(r)” at Achtung Panzer! website, retrieved on 17 November 2008.
  113. ^ Gareth R. Eaton et al. (1998). Foundations of modern EPR. World Scientific. pp. 45–46. ISBN 981-02-3295-0. 
  114. ^ Poyer, Joe. The AK-47 and AK-74 Kalashnikov Rifles and Their Variations. North Cape Publications. 2004.
  115. ^ Monthioux, Marc; Kuznetsov, V (2006). "Who should be given the credit for the discovery of carbon nanotubes?" (PDF). Carbon 44: 1621. doi:10.1016/j.carbon.2006.03.019. 
  116. ^ Радушкевич, Л. В. (1952). О Структуре Углерода, Образующегося При Термическом Разложении Окиси Углерода На Железном Контакте (PDF). Журнал Физической Химии (in Russian) 26: 88–95. 
  117. ^ Nuclear icebreakers at Bellona.org
  118. ^ Soyuz launch vehicle: The most reliable means of space travel, ESA
  119. ^ Nuclear Powered Icebreakers, Bellona Foundation
  120. ^ Из истории ОАО "Корпорация "Комета" (in Russian). Kometa Corporation. Retrieved 7 April 2013. 
  121. ^ http://kalinacycle.net/history/
  122. ^ 'White swan” - Russian supersonic aircraft at moscowtopnews.com
  123. ^ The official site of the Locomosky company
  124. ^ Nuclotron overview at nucloweb.jinr.ru
  125. ^ World's largest icebreaker Ships Monthly. May 2007.
  126. ^ Luke Harding (2007-09-12). "Russia unveils the 'father of all bombs'". Guardian Unlimited. Retrieved 2007-09-12. 
  127. ^ Илья Kрамник (2007-09-12). Кузькин отец (in Russian). Lenta.ru. Retrieved 2007-09-12. 

External links[edit]