|Cruz in 2013|
|United States Senator
January 3, 2013
Serving with John Cornyn
|Preceded by||Kay Bailey Hutchison|
|Solicitor General of Texas|
January 9, 2003 – May 12, 2008
|Preceded by||Julie Parsley|
|Succeeded by||James Ho|
|Born||Rafael Edward Cruz
December 22, 1970
Calgary, Alberta, Canada
|Spouse(s)||Heidi Suzanne (Nelson) Cruz|
|Residence||Houston, Texas, U.S.|
|Alma mater||Princeton University (A.B.) (1992) (cum laude)
Harvard University (J.D.) (1995) (magna cum laude)
|Website||Ted Cruz for Senate
Senator Ted Cruz
Rafael Edward "Ted" Cruz (born December 22, 1970) is the junior United States Senator for the state of Texas since 2013, and is a member of the Republican Party. He was Solicitor General of Texas from 2003 to May 2008, after being appointed by Texas Attorney General Greg Abbott. He was the first Hispanic Solicitor General in Texas, the youngest Solicitor General in the United States, and the Solicitor General with the longest tenure in Texas history. He was also the first Hispanic, and the first minority to be elected U.S. Senator from Texas. He is one of three Latinos in the Senate. The others—also Cuban-Americans like Cruz—are fellow Republican Marco Rubio of Florida and Democrat Bob Menendez of New Jersey.
Between 1999 and 2003, Cruz served as the director of the Office of Policy Planning at the Federal Trade Commission, an Associate Deputy Attorney General at the United States Department of Justice, and as Domestic Policy Advisor to U.S. President George W. Bush on the 2000 Bush-Cheney campaign. In addition, Cruz was an Adjunct Professor of Law at the University of Texas School of Law in Austin, where he taught U.S. Supreme Court litigation, from 2004 to 2009.
Cruz was the Republican nominee for the Senate seat which was vacated by fellow Republican Kay Bailey Hutchison. On July 31, 2012, he defeated Lieutenant Governor David Dewhurst in the Republican primary runoff, 57–43. Cruz defeated the Democrat, former state Representative Paul Sadler, in the general election held on November 6, 2012; he prevailed with 56–41 over Sadler. Cruz openly identifies with the Tea Party movement, and is also endorsed by the Republican Liberty Caucus.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Education
- 3 Legal career
- 4 U.S. Senate
- 5 Personal life
- 6 Electoral history
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Cruz was born in Calgary, Alberta, where his parents, Eleanor Elizabeth Wilson Darragh and Rafael Bienvenido Cruz, were working in the oil business. His parents owned a seismic-data processing firm for oil drillers. Cruz's father, who was born in 1939 in Matanzas, Cuba, as Robert T. Garrett of the Dallas Morning News has described, "suffered beatings and imprisonment for protesting the oppressive regime" of dictator Fulgencio Batista. He fought for communist revolutionary Fidel Castro in the Cuban Revolution when he was 14 years old, but "didn't know Castro was a Communist." A few years later he became a staunch critic of Castro when "the rebel leader took control and began seizing private property and suppressing dissent." The elder Cruz fled Cuba in 1957 at the age of 18, landing in Austin to study at the University of Texas, knowing no English and with $100 sewn into his underwear. His younger sister fought in the counter-revolution and was tortured by the new regime. He remained regretful for his early support of Castro, and emphatically conveyed this remorse to his young son over the following years. The elder Cruz worked his way through college as a dishwasher, making 50 cents an hour, earning a degree in mathematics. Cruz's father today is a pastor in Carrollton, Texas, a Dallas suburb, and became a U.S. citizen in 2005.
Cruz's mother was born and raised in Wilmington, Delaware, in a family of Irish and Italian descent. She was the first person in her family to attend college. She earned an undergraduate degree in mathematics from Rice University in Houston in the 1950s, working summers at Foley's and Shell Oil. She later worked in Houston as a computer programmer at Shell. Cruz has said, "I'm Cuban, Irish, and Italian, and yet somehow I ended up Southern Baptist."
Cruz's parents returned to Houston in 1974, after working in the Alberta oil fields, when a slump hit the price of oil and they sold their first seismic data company. They were divorced while Cruz was in law school.
Cruz attended high school at Faith West Academy in Katy, Texas, and later graduated from Second Baptist High School in Houston as valedictorian in 1988. During high school, Cruz participated in a Houston-based group called the Free Market Education Foundation where Cruz learned about free-market economic philosophers such as Milton Friedman, Friedrich Hayek, Frédéric Bastiat and Ludwig von Mises. The program was run by Rolland Storey and Cruz entered the program at the age of 13.
Cruz graduated cum laude from Princeton University with a Bachelor of Arts from the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs in 1992. While at Princeton, he competed for the American Whig-Cliosophic Society's Debate Panel and won the top speaker award at both the 1992 U.S. National Debating Championship and the 1992 North American Debating Championship. In 1992, he was named U.S. National Speaker of the Year and Team of the Year (with his debate partner, David Panton). Cruz was also a semi-finalist at the 1995 World Universities Debating Championship.
Cruz's senior thesis on the separation of powers, titled "Clipping the Wings of Angels," draws its inspiration from a passage attributed to President James Madison: "If angels were to govern men, neither external nor internal controls on government would be necessary." Cruz argued that the drafters of the Constitution intended to protect the rights of their constituents, and the last two items in the Bill of Rights offered an explicit stop against an all-powerful state. Cruz wrote: "They simply do so from different directions. The Tenth stops new powers, and the Ninth fortifies all other rights, or non-powers."
After graduating from Princeton, Cruz attended Harvard Law School, graduating magna cum laude in 1995 with a Juris Doctor. While at Harvard Law, Cruz was a primary editor of the Harvard Law Review, and executive editor of the Harvard Journal of Law and Public Policy, and a founding editor of the Harvard Latino Law Review. Referring to Cruz's time as a student at Harvard Law, Professor Alan Dershowitz said, "Cruz was off-the-charts brilliant." At Harvard Law, Cruz was a John M. Olin Fellow in Law and Economics.
Cruz served as a law clerk to J. Michael Luttig of the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit in 1995 and William Rehnquist, Chief Justice of the United States in 1996. Cruz was the first Hispanic ever to clerk for a Chief Justice of the United States.
Cruz joined the Bush–Cheney campaign in 1999 as a domestic policy adviser, advising then-Governor George W. Bush on a wide range of policy and legal matters, including civil justice, criminal justice, constitutional law, immigration, and government reform.
Cruz assisted in assembling the Bush legal team, devise strategy, and draft pleadings for filing with the Supreme Court of Florida and U.S. Supreme Court, the specific case being Bush v. Gore, during the 2000 Florida presidential recounts, leading to two successful decisions for the Bush team.
After President Bush took office, Cruz served as an associate deputy attorney general in the U.S. Justice Department and as the director of policy planning at the U.S. Federal Trade Commission.
Texas Solicitor General
Cruz has authored more than 80 United States Supreme Court briefs and presented 43 oral arguments, including nine before the United States Supreme Court. Cruz's record of having argued before the Supreme Court nine times is more than any practicing lawyer in Texas or any current member of Congress. Cruz has commented on his nine cases in front of the U.S. Supreme Court: "We ended up year after year arguing some of the biggest cases in the country. There was a degree of serendipity in that, but there was also a concerted effort to seek out and lead conservative fights."
In the landmark case of District of Columbia v. Heller, Cruz drafted the amicus brief signed by attorneys general of 31 states, which said that the D.C. handgun ban should be struck down as infringing upon the Second Amendment right to keep and bear arms. Cruz also presented oral argument for the amici states in the companion case to Heller before the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit.
In addition to his success in Heller, Cruz has successfully defended the constitutionality of Ten Commandments monument on the Texas State Capitol grounds before the Fifth Circuit and the U.S. Supreme Court, winning 5-4 in Van Orden v. Perry.
In 2004, Cruz was involved in another high-profile case, which was Elk Grove Unified School District v. Newdow. In Newdow, Cruz wrote a U.S. Supreme Court brief on behalf of all 50 states which argued that a non-custodial parent does not have standing in court to sue to stop a public school from requiring its students to recite of the Pledge of Allegiance. The Supreme Court upheld the position of Cruz’s brief in a 9-0 decision.
Cruz served as lead counsel for the state and successfully defended the multiple litigation challenges to the 2003 Texas congressional redistricting plan in state and federal district courts and before the U.S. Supreme Court, winning 5-4 in League of United Latin American Citizens v. Perry.
Cruz also successfully defended, in Medellin v. Texas, the State of Texas against an attempt by the International Court of Justice to re-open the criminal convictions of 51 murderers on death row throughout the United States.
Cruz has been named by American Lawyer magazine as one of the 50 Best Litigators under 45 in America, by The National Law Journal as one of the 50 Most Influential Minority Lawyers in America, and by Texas Lawyer as one of the 25 Greatest Texas Lawyers of the Past Quarter Century.
After leaving the Solicitor General position in 2008, he worked in a private law firm in Houston, Morgan, Lewis & Bockius, often representing corporate clients, until he was sworn in a U.S. Senator from Texas in 2013. At Morgan, Lewis, he led the firm’s U.S. Supreme Court and national appellate litigation practice.
In 2009, while working for Morgan, Lewis, Cruz formed and then abandoned a bid for state attorney general when the incumbent Attorney General Greg Abbott, who hired Cruz as Solicitor General, decided to run for re-election.
Cruz's election has been described by the Washington Post as “the biggest upset of 2012 . . . a true grassroots victory against very long odds.” On January 19, 2011, after U.S. Senator Kay Bailey Hutchison said she would not seek reelection, Cruz announced his candidacy via a blogger conference call. In the Republican senatorial primary, Cruz ran against sitting Lieutenant Governor David Dewhurst. Cruz was endorsed by the Club for Growth, a fiscally conservative political action committee; Erick Erickson, editor of prominent conservative blog RedState; the FreedomWorks for America super PAC; nationally syndicated radio host Mark Levin; former Attorney General Edwin Meese; Tea Party Express; Young Conservatives of Texas; and U.S. Senators Tom Coburn, Jim DeMint, Mike Lee, Rand Paul and Pat Toomey. He was also endorsed by former Alaska Governor Sarah Palin and former Texas Congressman Ron Paul, George P. Bush, and former U.S. Senator from Pennsylvania Rick Santorum.
Cruz won the runoff for the Republican nomination with a 14-point margin over Dewhurst. In the November 6 general election, Cruz faced Democrat Paul Sadler, an attorney and a former state representative from Henderson, in east Texas. Cruz won with 4.5 million votes (56.4%) to Sadler's 3.2 million (40.6%). Two minor candidates got the remaining 3% of the vote. Cruz got 40% of the Hispanic vote.
Cruz has called his failure to disclose his connections with Caribbean Equity Partners Investment Holdings LTD before the election an inadvertent omission.
Cruz is pro-life, with an exception only when a pregnancy endangers the mother's life. Cruz opposes same-sex marriage, but believes that the legality of same-sex marriage should be left to the states to decide.
Cruz is a gun-rights supporter. On March 25, 2013, an announcement was made by Cruz and U.S. Senators Rand Paul and Mike Lee threatening that they would filibuster any legislation that would entail gun control, such as the Manchin-Toomey Amendment, which would require additional background checks on sales at gun shows. On April 17, 2013, Cruz voted against the Manchin-Toomey Amendment. Republicans successfully filibustered the amendment by a vote of 54–46, as 60 votes were needed for cloture.
Regarding foreign policy, in 2004, he criticized Democratic Presidential candidate John Kerry for being "against defending American values, against standing up to our enemies, and, in effect, for appeasing totalitarian despots."  In 2013, Cruz stated that America had no “dog in the fight” during the Syrian civil war.
Affordable Care Act and U.S. government shutdown of 2013
In the summer of 2013, Cruz started "nationwide tour" sponsored by The Heritage Foundation to promote a congressional effort to defund the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, arguing that a shutdown of the government would not be a disaster for America or the Republican Party.
On September 24, 2013, Cruz began a speech on the floor of the Senate regarding the Affordable Care Act relative to a continuing resolution designed to fund the government and avert a government shutdown. Cruz promised to keep speaking until he was "no longer able to stand." Cruz yielded the floor at noon the following day for the start of the proceeding legislative session after twenty-one hours nineteen minutes. His speech was the fourth-longest in United States Senate history. Following Cruz's speech, the Senate voted 100–0 regarding a "procedural hurdle toward passing a stopgap funding bill to avert a government shutdown." Cruz was joined by 18 Republican senators in his effort to prevent stripping out a clause that would have defunded the Affordable Care by voting against the cloture motion, leaving the effort 21 votes short of the required number to deny cloture.
Cruz is believed to a major force behind the U.S. government shutdown in 2013. Cruz delivered a message on October 11, 2013 to fellow Republicans against accepting Obamacare and describing it as a "train wreck," claimed the American people remain "energized" around the goal of gutting the law. Cruz claimed Obamacare is causing "enormous harm" to the economy. Republican strategist Mike Murphy stated: "Cruz is trying to start a wave of Salem witch trials in the G.O.P. on the shutdown and Obamacare, and that fear is impacting some people’s calculations on 2016."
The Houston Chronicle which had endorsed Cruz in the general election, regretted that he had not lived up to the standard set by the previous U.S. Senator from Texas, Kay Bailey Hutchison. After a deal was made to end the shutdown and to extend the debt-ceiling deadline, Senate Republican leader Mitch McConnell called Cruz's actions "not a smart play" and a "tactical error" and Cruz stated: “I would do anything, and I will continue to do anything I can, to stop the train wreck that is Obamacare. The test that matters. . . is are we doing anything for all the people that are getting hurt from Obamacare?”
After the launch of the healthcare.gov website, with which there were significant implementation problems,  Cruz stated, "Obamacare is a disaster. You have the well-publicized problems with the website. It just isn't working." He called for Health and Human Services Secretary Kathleen Sebelius to resign.
- Committee on Armed Services
- Committee on the Judiciary
- Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation
- Committee on Rules and Administration
- Special Committee on Aging
Speculation for higher office
Many commentators have expressed their opinion that Cruz is running for President in 2016. On March 14, 2013, Cruz gave the keynote speech at the 2013 Conservative Political Action Conference in Washington DC. He came in tied for 7th place in the 2013 CPAC straw poll on March 16, winning 4% of the votes cast.
Cruz planned several speaking events for the summer of 2013 across Iowa, New Hampshire and South Carolina which are early primary states, leading to speculation that he was laying the groundwork for a run for President in 2016.
As Cruz was born in Canada, various commentators from the Austin American-Statesman and the Los Angeles Times, discussed Cruz's legal status as a natural-born citizen. Because he was a U.S. citizen at birth (since his mother was a U.S. citizen who lived in the U.S. for more than 10 years as required by the Nationality Act of 1940), most commentators believe Cruz is eligible to serve as President of the United States. After hearing that according to legal experts he is a dual citizen of Canada and the U.S., Cruz announced on August 19, 2013 that he would renounce his Canadian citizenship.
Cruz and his wife, Heidi Cruz (née Nelson), have two daughters. Cruz met his wife while working on the George W. Bush presidential campaign of 2000. Cruz's wife is currently head of the Southwest Region in the Investment Management Division of Goldman, Sachs & Co. and previously worked in the White House for Condoleezza Rice and in New York as an investment banker.
- 2012 Republican primary
|Republican primary results, May 29, 2012|
- 2012 Republican primary runoff
|Republican runoff results, July 31, 2012|
- 2012 General Election
|General Election, November 6, 2012|
|Libertarian||John Jay Myers||162,354||2.06%|
- List of Harvard University people
- List of Hispanic and Latino Americans in the United States Congress
- List of law clerks of the Supreme Court of the United States
- List of politicians affiliated with the Tea Party movement
- Texas Solicitor General R. Ted Cruz to Join Morgan Lewis to Help Lead U.S. Supreme Court and National Appellate Practice > News : Morgan, Lewis & Bockius - an international la...
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- Davidsen, Dana (31 October 2013). "Cruz pheasant hunts, bashes Obamacare in Iowa". www.cnn.com. CNN. Retrieved 31 October 2013.
- Cillizza, Chris (September 13, 2013) "Rand Paul, 2016 Republican front-runner", The Washington Post. Retrieved September 28, 2013.
- Bump, Philip (September 25, 2013) "Ted Cruz's First 2016 Campaign Ad Is Over 21 Hours Long", The Atlantic Wire. Retrieved September 28, 2013.
- Metzler, Rebekah (September 27, 2013) "Poll: Ted Cruz Leads 2016 GOP Field", U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved September 28, 2013.
- Romano, Lois (March 14, 2013). "CPAC 2013: Marco Rubio, Rand Paul fight for the future of the GOP". Politico. Retrieved March 14, 2013.
- Montanaro, Domenico (March 16, 2013). "Rand Paul wins CPAC straw poll; Rubio close second". NBC News. Retrieved July 21, 2013.
- Ashley Killough (July 21, 2013). "Cruz tries to sidestep 2016 question". CNN. Retrieved July 21, 2013.
- Herman, Ken (August 7, 2012). "Could there be a President Ted Cruz?". Austin American-Statesman. Retrieved August 20, 2013.
- West, Paul (August 1, 2013). "Questions about the qualifications of Ted Cruz, the GOP's newest star". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 17, 2013.
- Graham, David A. (May 1, 2013). "Yes, Ted Cruz Can Be Born in Canada and Still Become President of the U.S.". The Atlantic. Retrieved July 30, 2013.
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- "Board Member Bios: Heidi Cruz". Greater Houston Partnership. Retrieved August 16, 2013.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ted Cruz.|
|Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Ted Cruz|
- U.S. Senator Ted Cruz official U.S. Senate website
- Ted Cruz for U.S. Senate campaign website
- Biography at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
- Biography at Ballotpedia
- Biography at NNDB
- Biography, voting record, and interest group ratings at Project Vote Smart
- Congressional profile at GovTrack
- Congressional profile at OpenCongress
- Congressional profile at Roll Call
- Fact-checking at PolitiFact.com
- Financial information (federal office) at the Federal Election Commission
- Financial information (federal office) at OpenSecrets.org
- Issue positions and quotes at On the Issues
- Legislation sponsored at The Library of Congress
- Voting record at The Washington Post
- Appearances on C-SPAN programs
- Appearances at the Internet Movie Database
- Collected news and commentary at Bloomberg News
- Collected news and commentary at The New York Times
- Collected news and commentary at The Washington Post
- Collected news and commentary at Texas Monthly
- Collected news and commentary at The Houston Chronicle
- Collected news and commentary at The Texas Tribune
- Attorney profile at Morgan Lewis law firm (archived)
- "Ted Cruz, hatching a site, expects Abbott to run for a different office," Austin American-Statesman, W. Gardner Selby, March 4, 2009
- "Justices listen to a key voice," The National Law Journal (cover story), Marcia Coyle, April 7, 2008
- Announcement of Ted Cruz's departure as Solicitor General
- Debating the Supreme Court's Heller decision with the DC Attorney General on News Hour with Jim Lehrer (video)
- "A Day in the life of... Ted Cruz," Texas Bar Journal, Kim Davey, Vol. 69, No. 7
|Party political offices|
Kay Bailey Hutchison
|Republican nominee for U.S. Senator from Texas
|United States Senate|
Kay Bailey Hutchison
|U.S. Senator (Class 1) from Texas
Served alongside: John Cornyn
|United States order of precedence (ceremonial)|
|United States Senators by seniority