Tegra

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NVIDIA Tegra T20 (Tegra 2) and T30 (Tegra 3) chips.

Tegra is a system on a chip (SoC) series developed by Nvidia for mobile devices such as smartphones, personal digital assistants, and mobile Internet devices. The Tegra integrates an ARM architecture central processing unit (CPU), graphics processing unit (GPU), northbridge, southbridge, and memory controller onto one package. The series emphasizes low power consumption and high performance for playing audio and video.

History[edit]

The Tegra APX 2500 was announced on February 12, 2008, the Tegra 6xx product line was revealed on June 2, 2008,[1] and the APX 2600 was announced in February 2009. The APX chips were designed for smartphones, while the Tegra 600 and 650 chips were intended for smartbooks and mobile Internet devices (MID).[2]

The first product to use the Tegra was Microsoft's Zune HD media player in September 2009, followed by the Samsung M1.[3] Microsoft's KIN was the first cellular phone to use the Tegra;[4] however, the phone did not have an app store, so the Tegra's power did not provide much advantage. In September 2008, Nvidia and Opera Software announced that they would produce a version of the Opera 9.5 browser optimised for the Tegra on Windows Mobile and Windows CE.[5][6] At Mobile World Congress 2009, Nvidia introduced its port of Google's Android to the Tegra.

On January 7, 2010, Nvidia officially announced and demonstrated its next generation Tegra system-on-a-chip, the Nvidia Tegra 250, at Consumer Electronics Show 2010.[7] Nvidia primarily supports Android on Tegra 2, but booting other ARM-supporting operating systems is possible on devices where the bootloader is accessible. Tegra 2 support for the Ubuntu GNU/Linux distribution was also announced on the Nvidia developer forum.[8]

Nvidia announced the first quad-core SoC at the February 2011 Mobile World Congress event in Barcelona. Though the chip was codenamed Kal-El, it is now branded as Tegra 3. Early benchmark results show impressive gains over Tegra 2,[9][10] and the chip was used in many of the tablets released in the second half of 2011.

In January 2012, Nvidia announced that Audi had selected the Tegra 3 processor for its in-vehicle infotainment systems and digital instruments display.[11] The processor will be integrated into Audi's entire line of vehicles worldwide, beginning in 2013.

In summer of 2012 Tesla Motors began shipping the Model S all electric, high performance sedan, which contains two NVIDIA Tegra 3D Visual Computing Modules (VCM). One VCM powers the 17-inch touchscreen infotainment system, and one drives the 12.3-inch all digital instrument cluster."[12]

Specifications[edit]

Tegra APX[edit]

Tegra APX 2500
Tegra APX 2600
  • Enhanced NAND flash
  • Video codecs:[13]
    • 720p H.264 Baseline Profile encode or decode
    • 720p VC-1/WMV9 Advanced Profile decode
    • D-1 MPEG-4 Simple Profile encode or decode

Tegra 6xx[edit]

Tegra 600
  • Targeted for GPS segment and automotive
  • Processor: ARM11 700 MHz MPCore
  • Memory: low-power DDR (DDR-333, 166 MHz)
  • SXGA, HDMI, USB, stereo jack
  • HD camera 720p
Tegra 650
  • Targeted for GTX of handheld and notebook
  • Processor: ARM11 800 MHz MPCore
  • Low power DDR (DDR-400, 200 MHz)
  • Less than 1 Watt envelope
  • HD image processing for advanced digital still camera and HD camcorder functions
  • Display supports 1080p at 24 frame/s, HDMI v1.3, WSXGA+ LCD and CRT, and NTSC/PAL TV output
  • Direct support for Wi-Fi, disk drives, keyboard, mouse, and other peripherals
  • A complete board support package (BSP) to enable fast time to market for Windows Mobile-based designs

Tegra 2[edit]

The second generation Tegra SoC has a dual-core ARM Cortex-A9 CPU (lacking ARM's advanced SIMD extension—NEON), an ultra low power (ULP) GeForce GPU with 4 pixel shaders + 4 vertex shaders,[14] a 32-bit single-channel memory controller with either LPDDR2-600 or DDR2-667 memory, a 32KB/32KB L1 cache per core and a shared 1MB L2 cache.[15] There is also a version of the SoC supporting 3D displays; this SoC uses a higher clocked CPU and GPU. Unfortunately the video decoder has been unchanged since the original Tegra which does not provide good HD playback and has poor format support. The video decoder is only capable of decoding Baseline profile HD format which is obsolete and was never used to encode HD video for the web. Tests of even YouTube HD videos show that Tegra 2 based tablets cannot decode most YouTube HD videos smoothly without highly optimized software.

Common features:

Model number CPU GPU Memory Adoption
Processor Cores Frequency (GHz) Microarchitecture Core configuration1 Frequency (MHz) Type Amount Bus width (bits) Bandwidth (GB/s) Availability Utilizing devices
Tegra 250 AP20H (Harmony) Cortex-A9 2 1 GHz  ? 4:4:?:? 300 MHz LPDDR2 300 MHz
DDR2 333 MHz
 ? 32-bit single-channel 2.4 GB/sec
2.66 GB/sec
Q1 2010 Motorola Atrix 4G, Motorola Droid X2, Motorola Photon, LG Optimus 2X / LG Optimus Dual P990 / Optimus 2x SU660 (?), Samsung Galaxy R, Samsung Captivate Glide, ZTE Mimosa X, Micromax Superfone A85, T-Mobile G2X P999, Acer Iconia Tab A200 and A500, LG Optimus Pad, Motorola Xoom,[17] Sony Tablet S, Dell Streak 7, Dell Streak Pro,[18] Asus Slider, Toshiba Thrive[19] tablet, T-Mobile G-Slate
Tegra 250 T20 (Ventana) 333 MHz Avionic Design Tamonten Processor Board,[20] Exper EasyPad, Notion Ink Adam tablet, Olivetti OliPad 100, Point of View Mobii 10.1, ViewSonic G Tablet, ViewSonic ViewPad 10s, ASUS Eee Pad Transformer, Samsung Galaxy Tab 10.1, Toshiba AC100, Toshiba Folio 100, Advent Vega, Hannspree Hannspad, Aigo n700, CompuLab Trim-Slice nettop, E-Noa Interpad, Malata Tablet Zpad, MSI 10-inch (250 mm) tablet, Toradex Colibri T20, Lenovo IdeaPad Tablet K1, Lenovo ThinkPad Tablet, Velocity Micro Cruz Tablet L510, Zyrex Onepad SP1110, Zyrex Onepad SP1113G, Acer Iconia Tab A100
Tegra 250 3D AP25 1.2 GHz 400 MHz Q1 2011 Fusion Garage Grid 10[citation needed]
Tegra 250 3D T25

Tegra 3[edit]

The Ouya uses a Tegra 3 T33-P-A3

The Tegra 3 (codenamed "Kal-El")[21] is functionally a SoC with a quad-core ARM Cortex-A9 MPCore CPU, but includes a fifth "companion" core. While all cores are Cortex-A9s, the companion core is manufactured with a special low power silicon process that uses less power at low clock rate but does not scale well to high clock rates; hence it is limited to 500 MHz. There is also special logic to allow running state to be quickly and transparently transferred between the companion core and one of the normal cores. The goal is for a mobile phone or tablet to be able to power down all the normal cores and run on only the companion core, using comparatively little power, during standby mode or when otherwise underutilizing the CPU. According to Nvidia, this includes playing music or even video content.[22] Compared to Tegra 2, the ARM Cortex-A9s in Tegra 3 now supports ARM's SIMD extension, NEON. The GPU in Tegra 3 is an evolution of the Tegra 2 GPU, with three times the number of shader units (12 compared to 4) and higher clock frequency. It can also output video up to 2560×1600 resolution and supports 1080p MPEG-4 AVC/h.264 40 Mbit/s High-Profile, VC1-AP, and DivX 5/6 video decode.[23] The Tegra 3 was released on November 9, 2011.[24]

Common features:

  • 12-core GeForce ULP GPU (8 pixel shaders, 4 vertex shaders, ? TMUs, ? ROPs)[16]
  • 40 nm LPG semiconductor technology by TSMC
  • CPU cache: L1: 32 KB instruction + 32 KB data, L2: 1 MB
  • The number of active cores can be reduced at runtime to save power and possibly even enter single-core mode[25]
Model number CPU GPU Memory Adoption
Processor Cores Frequency (GHz) Microarchitecture Core configuration1 Frequency (MHz) Type Amount Bus width (bits) Bandwidth (GB/s) Availability Utilizing devices
Tegra 3 T30L Cortex-A9 4 1.2 GHz (up to 1.3 GHz in single-core mode)  ? 416 MHz 8:4:?:? DDR3-1333  ? 32-bit single-channel 5.34 GB/sec[26] Q1 2012 Asus Transformer Pad TF300T, ASUS MeMO Pad Smart ME301T, Microsoft Surface, Nexus 7 (2012),[27] Sony Xperia Tablet S, Acer Iconia Tab A210, WEXLER.TAB 7t, Lenovo IdeaTab A2109, Toshiba AT300 (Excite 10),[28] Toshiba AT10-A (Excite Pure), BLU Quattro 4.5,[29] XOLO Play T1000,[30] BLU Quattro 4.5 HD[31] HP Slate 7 Plus.[32]
Tegra 3 T30 1.4 GHz (up to 1.5 GHz in single-core mode) 520 MHz LPDDR2-1066
DDR3-L-1500
 ? 32-bit single-channel 4.26 GB/sec
6 GB/sec[33]
Q4 2011 Asus Eee Pad Transformer Prime,[34] IdeaTab K2 / LePad K2,[35] Acer Iconia Tab A510, Acer Iconia Tab A700, ZTE Era, ZTE PF 100, ZTE T98, Toshiba AT270, Asus VivoTab RT, Fuhu Inc. nabi 2 Tablet,[36] Tesla Model S, Kungfu K3,[37] Goophone I5, Olivetti Olipad 3,[38] Microsoft Surface,[39] Lenovo IdeaPad Yoga 11,[40][41]Toradex Colibri T30, Toradex Apalis T30, Nvidia Cardhu developer tablet, Realpad Bunaken (RL-P700-QC)
Tegra 3 AP33 LG Optimus 4X HD, Fujitsu Arrows X F-10D, HTC One X
Tegra 3 T33 1.6 GHz (up to 1.7 GHz in single-core mode)[26] DDR3-1600 ? 32-bit single-channel 6.4 GB/sec[26] Q2 2012 Asus Transformer Pad Infinity (TF700T), Fujitsu ARROWS X F-02E, Ouya, HTC One X+, Fujitsu Arrows Tab F-05E

Tegra 4[edit]

The Tegra 4 (codenamed "Wayne") was announced on January 6, 2013 and is functionally a SoC with a quad-core CPU, but includes a fifth low-power Cortex A15 companion core which is invisible to the OS and performs background tasks to save power, implementing an concept similar to ARM's big.LITTLE. The graphics on the SoC are claimed to be about 20 times faster than Tegra 2 and 6 times faster than Tegra 3.[42]

Common features:

  • 28 nm HPL semiconductor technology
  • CPU cache: L1: 32 KB instruction + 32 KB data, L2: 2 MB
Model number CPU GPU Memory Adoption
Processor Cores Frequency (GHz) Microarchitecture Core configuration1 Frequency (MHz) Type Amount Bus width (bits) Bandwidth (GB/s) Availability Utilizing devices
Tegra 4 Wayne T114[43] Cortex-A15 4 up to 1.9 VLIW-based VEC4 units[44] 72 (48:24:4)[16][44] 672 MHz[45] DDR3L or LPDDR3  ? 32-bit dual-channel up to 933 MHz (1866 MHz data rate)[46][47] Q2 2013[48] Nvidia Shield, Tegra Note 7, Microsoft Surface 2, HP SlateBook x2,[49] ZTE N988S, Nuvola NP-1, Project Mojo, Asus Transformer Pad Infinity (2013 model), Toshiba AT10-LE-A (Excite Pro), Vizio 10" tablet, Wexler.Terra 7, Wexler.Terra 10, Acer TA272HUL AIO, HP Slate 21 AIO, Xiaomi Phone 3, Wacom Cintiq Companion Hybrid, Coolpad 大观 4,[50]

1 Pixel shaders : Vertex shaders : Pixel pipelines

The Tegra 4 has full support for hardware decoding and encoding of WebM video (up to 1080p 60Mbit/s @ 60fps).[51]

Along with Tegra 4, Nvidia also introduced i500, a software modem based on Nvidia's acquisition of Icera, which can be reprogrammed to support new network standards. It supports category 3 (100Mbit/s) LTE but will later be updated to Category 4 (150Mbit/s).

Tegra 4i[edit]

The Tegra 4i (codenamed "Grey") was announced on February 19, 2013. With hardware support for the same audio and video formats,[51] but using Cortex-A9 cores instead of Cortex-A15, the Tegra 4i is a cut-down variant of the Tegra 4 and is expected to be included in future budget phones and tablets. Unlike its Tegra 4 counterpart, the Tegra 4i also integrates the Icera i500 LTE/HSPA+ baseband processor onto the same die. The Tegra 4i also features only 60 cores in its GPU compared to the 72 GPU cores found in the Tegra 4.

Common features:

  • 28 nm HPM semiconductor technology
  • CPU cache: L1: 32 KB instruction + 32 KB data, L2: 1 MB
Model number CPU GPU Memory Adoption
Processor Cores Frequency (GHz) Microarchitecture Core configuration1 Frequency (MHz) Type Amount Bus width (bits) Bandwidth (GB/s) Availability Utilizing devices
Tegra 4i Grey[52] Cortex-A9 "R4" 4 up to 2.3 VLIW-based VEC4 units[44] 60 (48:12:2)[44] 660 MHz[45] LPDDR3-1600 32-bit single-channel 800 MHz (PoP configuration) or 933 MHz (discrete configuration)[47] Q1 2014 Blackphone, LG G2 Mini, Wiko Wax[53][54]

1 Pixel shaders : Vertex shaders : Pixel pipelines

Tegra K1[edit]

Nvidia’s Tegra K1 (code-named Logan) features an ARM Cortex general-purpose or Nvidia's 64-bit Project Denver processing unit as well as a Kepler (microarchitecture) graphics processing unit with support for general-purpose processing on GPU, Direct3D 11.2 (part of DirectX 11.2), Polymorph Engine v2.0 (for improved tessellation), OpenGL ES 3.1, CUDA 6, OpenCL 1.2 and OpenGL 4.4. Nvidia claims that it outperforms both the Xbox 360 and the PS3, whilst consuming significantly less power.[55] Motley Fool predicted that Tegra K1 will be as powerful as the GeForce GT 630,[56] a low end PC graphics card.[57][58]

Nvidia had demonstrated a development board in March 2013 consisting of a Tegra 3 coupled with a Kepler-family GPU over PCI Express. They called it "Kayla" and it was an early development board for running CUDA on ARM.[59] In June 2014, Codethink reported to run Wayland-based Weston compositor with Linux kernel 3.15, making use of EGL and a "100% open-source graphics driver stack" (nouveau (software)) on a Tegra K1.[60]

Model number CPU GPU Memory Adoption
Processor Cores Frequency (GHz) Microarchitecture Core configuration1 Frequency (MHz) Type Amount Bus width (bits) Bandwidth (GB/s) Availability Utilizing devices
Tegra K1[62] Cortex-A15 R3
(32-bit)
4 2.2 GK20A (Kepler) 192:8:4[63]
364.79 GFLOPS[64]
950[63] DDR3L
LPDDR2
LPDDR3[63]
max 4 GiB 64-bit 17[63] Q2 2014 Jetson TK1 development board,[65]
Lenovo ThinkVision 28,
XiaoMi MiPad,[66][67] HTC Nexus 9,[68] Nvidia Shield Tablet[69]
Tegra K1 Denver
(64-bit)
2[63] 2.5 max 8 GiB (with 40-bit address extension)  ?  ? 2014 Acer Chromebook CB5,[70] Google Project Tango Tablet,[71][72]

1 Unified Shaders : Texture mapping units : Render output units

Upcoming releases[edit]

As started with the Tegra 3, all upcoming Tegra SoCs have codenames that are references to comic book superheroes. Specifically, Superman (Kal-El), Batman (Wayne), Jean Grey (Grey), Wolverine (Logan), Erista (son of Wolverine) and Spider-Man (Parker).[73][74]

Nvidia's Project Denver is intended to produce a line of 64-bit chips that combine GPU and CPU functions in the same manner as the 32-bit Tegras, starting with Parker.[75]

Erista[edit]

The sixth-generation Tegra will feature Nvidia’s own custom general-purpose ARMv8-compatible core code-named Project Denver as well as code-named Maxwell graphics processing core with GPGPU support. Nvidia Tegra “Erista” is due some time in the 2015.

Parker[edit]

Nvidia Tegra "Parker" will feature Nvidia’s own custom general-purpose ARMv8-compatible core code-named Project Denver as well as code-named Maxwell graphics processing core with GPGPU support. The chips will be made using FinFET process technology, which likely means that it will be made using TSMC 16 nm FinFET manufacturing process.

Nvidia Tegra “Parker” is due some time after Erista.

Linux support[edit]

Nvidia distributes proprietary device drivers for Tegra through OEMs and as part of its "Linux for Tegra" (formerly "L4T") development kit. As of April 2012, due to different "business needs" from that of their GeForce line of graphics cards, Nvidia and one of their Embedded Partners, Avionic Design GmbH from Germany, are also working on submitting open source drivers for Tegra upstream to the mainline Linux kernel.[76][77] Nvidia co-founder & CEO laid out the Tegra processor roadmap using Ubuntu Unity in GPU Technology Conference 2013.[78]

Similar platforms[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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External links[edit]