||This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in the Persian Wikipedia. (August 2012)|
|Native name||متروی تهران|
|Owner||Tehran Urban and Suburban Railway Company|
|Transit type||Rapid transit (Lines 1-4)
Regional rail (Line 5)
|Number of lines||5 (4 rapid transit, 1 regional rail)|
|Number of stations||89 (total)|
|Daily ridership||2 million (January 2011)|
|Annual ridership||633 million (2013)|
|Website||Tehran Urban & Suburban Railway|
|Began operation||1999 (Regional rail: Line 5)
2000 (Metro: Line 2)
|System length||152 km (94 mi)
(Total: Metro + Regional rail)
|Track gauge||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge|
The Tehran Metro (Persian: متروی تهران) is a rapid transit system serving Tehran, the capital of Iran. The system consists of four operational metro lines (and a fifth regional rail line), with construction begun on a further two lines in 2007.
The Tehran Metro carries more than 2 million passengers a day. In 2013, 633 million trips were made on Tehran Metro. The system is currently 152-kilometer (94 mi) long, is planned to have a length of 430 kilometers (270 mi) once all constructions finished.
The line uses standard gauge and is partly underground. Ticket price is 5000 IRR for each journey (about USD 0.15), regardless of the distance traveled, but using prepaid tickets costs much less. Seniors may travel for free on the metro. On all Tehran metro trains the first, the second, and the last carriages are reserved for women who do not wish to ride with men in the same car. Women can still ride other cars freely.
The initial plans of the Tehran Metro, which was to be Iran's first metro system, were laid out before the Iranian revolution in the 1970s. In 1970 the Plan and Budget Organization and the Municipality of Tehran announced an international tender for construction of a metro in Tehran. The French company SOFRETU, affiliated with the state-owned Paris transportation authority RATP, won the tender and in the same year began to conduct preliminary studies on the project. In 1974 a final report with a so-called "street-metro" proposal was tendered. The street-metro system recommended a road network with a loop express way in the central area and two highways for new urban areas and an 8-line metro network which were complemented by bus network and taxi services. Geological surveys commenced in 1976. In 1978 construction on the line was started in northern Tehran by the French company, however this development was short-lived with the advent of the Iranian Revolution and Iran–Iraq War in 1979 and 1980 respectively. SOFRETU ceased operations in Iran in December 1980. On March 3, 1982, the Iranian Cabinet ministers formally announced the stop of Tehran Metro operations by the French company.
In 1985, the "Tehran Metro Execution Plan" was re-approved by the Majles, the Iranian Parliament, on the basis of legal project of "Amendment of Law of Establishment of Tehran Urban and suburban Railway Company" which had been founded on Farvardin 1364 (April 1985). This was a literal continuation of exactly the same project that had been laid out before the revolution. Work proceeded slowly due to the continuing Iran–Iraq War and often ground to a halt.
By the summer of 1985, urban pressure from the rapidly urbanising population, and lack of developed public transport system prompted the work to be resumed in earnest. "Line 1" (From Blvd. Shahid Ayatollah Haghani to City of Rey) and its extension to Behesht-e-Zahra Cemetery was made a priority. "Line 2" (From Dardasht in Tehran Pars district to Sadeghiyeh Second Square) and an extending towards the City of Karaj and Mehrshahr district was also made a secondary priority. Studies were also made to establish the previously designed Lines 3 and 4. It was decided that an organisation by the name of the Metro Company should be established in order to handle the future development of the system.
Following this phase, the Metro Company was managed by Asghar Ebrahimi Asl for eleven years. During this time, hundreds of millions of dollars were spent on the system and the Metro Company was given government concessions for the exploitation of iron ore mines in Bandar Abbas (Hormuzgan Province), exploitation and sale of Moghan Diotomite mine in Azarbaijan Province, export of refinery residues from Isfahan oil refinery as well as tar from Isfahan steel mill . The year after Asghar Ebrahimi Asl left the management of the Metro Company and Mohsen Hashemi succeeded him, the first line of the Tehran Metro was launched between Tehran and Karaj.
On 7 March 1999, an overland Tehran-Karaj express electric train started a limited service of 31.4 km (19.5 mi) between Azadi Square (Tehran) and Malard (Karaj) calling at one intermediate station at Vardavard. The line was constructed by the Chinese company NORINCO.
From 2000 onwards, commercial operation began on Lines 1 and 2. The wagons on these lines are provided by CRV via CNTIC. The railway tracks and points on these lines are provided by the Austrian company Voestalpine.
The Metro uses equipment manufactured by a wide range of international companies: Double-deck passenger cars for the Tehran-Karaj regional line are supplied by CRV (although some trains are from SEGC) via CNTIC and assembled by the Wagon Pars factory in Arak.
As of 2010[update] approximately $2 billion has been spent on the Metro project. The Tehran Metro transports about 2.5 million passengers daily through its 5 operational lines (1, 2, 3, 4, 5) with two lines (1 and 3) are still being developed by Tehran Metro Company with another two lines (Lines 6, 7) under construction and line 8 in engineering phase. New 80 wagons have been added to the system in September 2012 to ease transportation and reduce rush-hour congestion. Iran is able to produce its need in wagons and trains independently.
|1||2001||36.2 km (22.5 mi)||29||Metro|
|2||2000||20.4 km (12.7 mi)||22||Metro|
|3||2012||19 km (12 mi)||9||Metro|
|4||2007||22 km (14 mi)||18||Metro|
|5||1999||41.5 km (25.8 mi)||11||Regional rail|
|TOTAL:||139.1 km (86.4 mi)(or 152 km?)||89|
The line, coloured red on system maps, is 28.1 kilometers (17.5 mi) long, of which 14.9 km (9.3 mi) are underground (from Tajrish station to Shoush-Khayyam crossing) and the rest runs at surface level. The number of stations along this line is 29 of which 18 stations are located underground and 11 above ground. As of 2005[update], the total capacity of line 1 is 650,000 passenger per day, with trains stopping at each station for 20 seconds. The trains are each made up of seven wagons, with a nominal capacity of 1,300 seated and standing passengers. The maximum speed of the trains is 80 km/h (50 mph) per hour which will be tempered to an average of 45 km/h (28 mph) per hour due to stoppages at stations along the route.
Line 1 runs mostly north-south, and the extension phase to Imam Khomeini International Airport is under construction. A 4.1 kilometers (2.5 mi), three station extension of the line from Mirdamad station to Qolhak station opened on May 20, 2009. The 4 kilometers (2.5 mi), four stations second phase of this extension from Qolhak station to Tajrish Square was completed in 2011. Construction was to be completed by March 2007 but faced major issues due to large boulders and rock bed in part of the tunnels as well as water drain issues. It has also faced major financing issues as the government has refused to release funds earmarked for the project to the municipality.
This line, which opened between Sadeghieh and Imam Khomeini in February 2000, is 20.4 kilometers (12.7 mi) long, with 19 km (12 mi) as a subway and 1.4 kilometers (0.87 mi) elevated. At this time, there were 19 stations along the line, of which Imam Khomeini Station was shared by Line 1. Line 2 is coloured blue on system maps and runs mostly east-west through the city.
The line was extended from Imam-Khomeini to Baharestan Metro Station in 2004, and to Shahid Madani, Sarsabz and Elm-o-Sanat University in March 2006 with the intermediate stations, Darvazeh Shemiran and Sabalan, opening in July 2006. It was extended further from Elm-o-Sanat University to Tehran Pars in February 2009, and to Farhangsara in June 2010.
Line 3 travels from northeast to southwest. Line 3 is one of the most important lines as it connects southwest Tehran to northeast, crosses busy parts of the capital city, and can help to alleviate traffic problems. About 7 kilometers (4.3 mi) of Line 3 became operational in December 2012, followed by 12 kilometers (7.5 mi) in April 2014, for a current total length of 19 kilometers (12 mi). Line 3 will have a total length of 37 kilometers (23 mi), when the remaining 18 kilometers (11 mi) of the line that are still under construction becomes operational.
The line is 22 km (14 mi) long with 19 stations and one terminal. Section 1, from Ferdowsi Square to Darvazeh Shemiran, opened in March 2007. Section 2 from Darvazeh shemiran to Shohada Square opened in February 2009. On May 24, 2009, Section 3 from Ferdowsi Square to Engelab Square opened. On July 23, 2012 two more stations were inaugurated, connecting line 4 with line 5.
Line 5 is coloured green on system maps; it is a 41.5 kilometers (25.8 mi) long regional rail line and has eleven stations. Entering the area of Karaj with main stations at Karaj and Golshahr. It connects with the western end of Line 2 at Tehran (Sadeghiyeh) station.
This line is under construction. When completed this line will be 33 km long with 19 stations as it connects southeast Tehran to northwest.
This line, similar to line 6, and in contrast with line 3, goes from northwest to southeast and is under construction with 2 recently bought modern TBM machines. Its first phase is expected to be completed in mid 2015.
- Darvazeh Shemiran station; Lines 2 and 4
- Shahid Beheshti station; Lines 1 and 3
- Darvazeh Dowlat; Lines 1 and 4
- Emam Khomeyni; Lines 1 and 2
- Vali Asr station; Lines 3 and 4
- Daneshgah‐e Emam Ali station; Lines 2 and 3
- Azadi station; Lines 2 and 4
- Sadeghiyeh; Lines 2 and 5, and
- Ekbatan (Eram Sabz); Lines 4 and 5.
Art in the Tehran Metro
A combination of modern art and traditional Persian art is prominent in every station of the Tehran Metro.
All routes have been equipped with automatic train protection (ATP), automatic train stop (ATS), centralized traffic control (CTC), and SCADA. More and more residents use the metro due to the improvement in the peak-hour headways, the opening of more stations and overall improvement with new escalators, elevators, and air-conditioning in the trains.
- On 18 July 2007, a twenty square metres area immediately adjacent to the entrance of the Toupkhaneh metro station caved in. There were no casualties, but the station had to undergo numerous repairs.
- On 15 April 2012, safety walls of Mianrood River broke due to heavy rain in Tehran, and consequently 300,000 cubic meters of water entered metro tunnel of Line 4. The two nearest stations were still under construction, so Metro operators had enough time to evacuate other stations from passengers. Nobody was killed, but water depth in the Habib-o-llah station, the deepest station on Line 4, was estimated to be near 18 meters. It took nearly two weeks to reopen the flooded stations which were previously in operation.
The Cultural Heritage Organization of Iran has complained that the vibrations caused by the Metro were having a significant and highly adverse effect on the Masudieh Palace in the Baharestan neighbourhood of central Tehran . The Cultural Heritage Organisation has also complained about vibrations near other historic sites such as the Golestan Palace and the National Museum of Iran. However, engineers and technical experts believe that it is the noise that induces the false sense of vibration and like many metro systems in large cities, no untoward impact is probable.
- "12km section of Tehran Metro inaugurated". TehranTimes. 22 April 2014. Retrieved 2014-04-23.
- "Tehran Metro head resigns in row with Ahmadinejad". Reuters. 5 March 2011. Retrieved 2011-03-05.
- "1391-Statistics and Information-City and Municipality of Tehran/Year 2012-Indicators of Tehran Municipality-Transportation and Traffic".
- "Tehran Metro, Iran". Railway-Technology.com. Retrieved 2014-06-29.
- "About Metro - Metro History". Tehran Urban & Suburban Railway Operating Company. Retrieved 2014-04-23.
- "Development of stations operating" (pdf). Tehran Urban & Suburban Railway Operating Company. 20 June 2011. Retrieved 2014-04-23.
- Schwandl, Robert (2010). "Asia - Iran - Tehran Metro". UrbanRail.net. Retrieved 2011-01-17.
- "Lines 3 and 4 of Tehran Subway Rapidly Developing". Payvand Iran News. 15 December 2010. Retrieved 2014-04-23.
- Tehran Successful Test in Crisis Management
- http://metro.tehran.ir/Portals/0/PDF/statistics/Aban/f_masir,%2001.08.pdf (pdf) (in Persian)
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tehran Metro.|
- Tehran Metro (official site) (English)
- The Unofficial Homepage of Iranian Railways
- Metro Dynamic Navigation System (MDNS)
- Tehran Metro Map
- Video Clip of one of the Tehran Metro stations
- Network map (to scale)
- Tehran Metro Application for badaOS