Teide

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Teide
Teide año 2011.jpg
Teide seen from the north.
Elevation 3,718 m (12,198 ft)[1]
Prominence 3,718 m (12,198 ft)[1]
Ranked 40th
Listing Country high point
Ultra
Location
Teide is located in Canary Islands
Teide
Teide
Location of Teide in the Canary Islands
Location Tenerife (Canary Islands), Spain
Coordinates 28°16′23″N 16°38′22″W / 28.27306°N 16.63944°W / 28.27306; -16.63944Coordinates: 28°16′23″N 16°38′22″W / 28.27306°N 16.63944°W / 28.27306; -16.63944[1]
Geology
Type Stratovolcano atop basalt shield volcano
Last eruption November 1909
Climbing
First ascent 1582 by Sir Edmund Scory[citation needed]
Easiest route Scramble

Mount Teide (Spanish: Pico del Teide, IPA: [ˈpiko ðel ˈteiðe], "Teide Peak") is a volcano on Tenerife in the Canary Islands. Its 3,718-metre (12,198 ft) summit is the highest point in Spain and the highest point above sea level in the islands of the Atlantic. At 7,500 m (24,600 ft) from its base on the ocean floor, it is the third highest volcano on a volcanic ocean island, in the world, after Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa in Hawaii.[2] Its elevation makes Tenerife the tenth highest island in the world. It remains active: its most recent eruption occurred in 1909 from the El Chinyero vent on the northwestern Santiago rift. The United Nations Committee for Disaster Mitigation designated Teide a Decade Volcano[3] because of its history of destructive eruptions and its proximity to several large towns, of which the closest are Garachico, Icod de los Vinos and Puerto de la Cruz. Teide, Pico Viejo and Montaña Blanca form the Central Volcanic Complex of Tenerife.

The volcano and its surroundings comprise Teide National Park, which has an area of 18,900 hectares (73 sq mi) and was named a World Heritage Site by UNESCO on June 29, 2007.[4] It is one of the most visited National Parks in the world, with a total of 2.8 million visitors, according to the Instituto Canario de Estadística (ISTAC).[5][6] In 2013 it was the ninth most visited national park in the world.[7] The Teide is therefore, the most visited natural wonder of Spain, and one of the most visited in the world.

Name[edit]

Before the 1495 Spanish colonization of Tenerife, the native Guanches called the volcano Echeyde, which in their legends referred to a powerful figure leaving the volcano, which could turn into hell. El Pico del Teide is the modern Spanish name.

Legends[edit]

3D panoramic view of Mount Teide, created using SRTM data (160% elevation).

Teide was a sacred mountain to the aboriginal Guanches, so it was considered a mythological mountain, as Mount Olympus was to the ancient Greeks. According to legend, Guayota (the devil) kidnapped Magec (the god of light and the sun) and imprisoned him inside the volcano, plunging the world into darkness. The Guanches asked their supreme god Achamán for clemency, so Achamán fought Guayota, freed Magec from the bowels of the mountain, and plugged the crater with Guayota. It is said that since then, Guayota has remained locked inside Teide. When going on to Teide during an eruption, it was customary for the Guanches to light bonfires to scare Guayota. Guayota is often represented as a black dog, accompanied by his host of demons (Tibicenas).

The Guanches also believed that Teide held up the sky. Many hiding places found in the mountains contain the remains of stone tools and pottery. These have been interpreted as being ritual deposits to counter the influence of evil spirits, like those made by the Berbers of Kabylie. The Guanches believed the mountain to be the place that housed the forces of evil and the most evil figure, Guayota.[8]

Guayota shares features similar to other malevolent deities inhabiting volcanoes, such as the goddess Pele of Hawaiian mythology, who lived in the Kīlauea volcano and was regarded by the native Hawaiians as responsible for the eruptions of the volcano.[9]

Formation[edit]

Satellite image of Tenerife with different volcanic massifs labeled.
Summary diagram for formation of Tenerife through to current Teide volcano.

The stratovolcanoes Teide and Pico Viejo (Old Peak, although it is in fact younger than Teide) are the most recent centres of activity on the volcanic island of Tenerife, which is the largest (2,058 km2 or 795 sq mi) and highest (3,718 m or 12,198 ft) island in the Canaries. It has a complex volcanic history. The formation of the island and the development of the current Teide volcano took place in the five stages shown in the diagram on the right.

Stage one[edit]

Like the other Canary Islands, and volcanic ocean islands in general, Tenerife was built by accretion of three large shield volcanoes, which developed in a relatively short period of time.[10] This early shield stage volcanism formed the bulk of the emerged part of Tenerife. The shield volcanoes date back to the Miocene and early Pliocene[11] and are preserved in three isolated and deeply eroded massifs: Anaga (to the northeast), Teno (to the northwest) and Roque del Conde (to the south).[12] Each individual shield was apparently constructed in less than three million years, and the entire island in about eight million years.[13]

Stages two and three[edit]

The initial juvenile stage was followed by a period of 2–3 million years of eruptive quiescence and erosion. This cessation of activity is typical of the Canaries; La Gomera, for example, is currently at this stage.[14] After this period of quiescence, the volcanic activity became concentrated within two large edifices: the central volcano of Las Cañadas, and the Anaga massif. The Las Cañadas volcano developed over the Miocene shield volcanoes and may have reached 40 km (25 mi) in diameter and 4,500 m (14,800 ft) in height.[15]

Stage four[edit]

Around 160–220 thousand years ago the summit of the Las Cañadas I volcano collapsed, creating the Las Cañadas (Ucanca) caldera.[13] Later a fresh stratovolcano, Las Cañadas II, re-formed and underwent catastrophic collapse. Detailed mapping indicates that the site of this volcano was in the vicinity of Guajara. The Las Cañadas III volcano formed in the Diego Hernandez sector of the caldera. Detailed mapping indicates that all the Las Cañadas volcanoes attained a maximum altitude similar to that of Teide (which is also referred to as the Las Cañadas IV volcano).

Two theories on the formation of the 16 km × 9 km (9.9 mi × 5.6 mi) caldera exist.[16] The first states that the depression is the result of a vertical collapse of the volcano triggered by the emptying of shallow magma chambers at around sea level under the Las Cañadas volcano after large-volume explosive eruptions.[13][17][18] The second theory is that the caldera was formed by a series of lateral gravitational collapses similar to those described in Hawaii.[19] Evidence for the latter theory has been found in both onshore observations[20][21][22] and marine geology studies.[13][23]

Stage five[edit]

From around 160 thousand years ago until the present day, the statovolcanoes of Teide and Pico Viejo formed within the Las Cañadas caldera.

Historical eruptions[edit]

Teide is currently dormant; the last eruption occurred in 1909 from the El Chinyero vent.[13] El Chinyero a vent on the Santiago Ridge. Historical volcanic activity on the island is associated with vents on the Santiago or northwest rift (Boca Cangrejo in 1492, Montañas Negras in 1706,[13] Narices del Teide or Chahorra in 1798 and El Chinyero in 1909) and the Cordillera Dorsal or northeast rift (Fasnia in 1704, Siete Fuentes and Arafo in 1705). The 1706 Montañas Negras eruption destroyed the town and principal port of Garachico, as well as several smaller villages.

Historical activity associated with the Teide and Pico Viejo stratovolcanoes [13] occurred in 1798 from the Narices del Teide on the western flank of Pico Viejo. Eruptive material from Pico Viejo, Montaña Teide and Montaña Blanca partially fills the Las Cañadas caldera.[12] The last explosive eruption involving the central volcanic centre was from Montaña Blanca around 2000 years ago. The last eruption within the Las Cañadas caldera occurred in 1798 from the Narices del Teide or Chahorra (Teides Nostrils) on the western flank of Pico Viejo. The eruption was predominantly strombolian in style and most of the lava was ʻAʻā. This lava is visible beside the Vilaflor–Chio road.

Christopher Columbus reported seeing "a great fire in the Orotava Valley" as he sailed past Tenerife on his voyage to discover the New World in 1492. This was interpreted as indicating that he had witnessed an eruption there. Radiometric dating of possible lavas indicates that in 1492 no eruption occurred in the Orotava Valley, but one did occur from the Boca Cangrejo vent.[13]

The last summit eruption from Teide occurred about the year 850 CE, and this eruption produced the "Lavas Negras" or "Black Lavas" that cover much of the flanks of the volcano.[13]

About 150,000 years ago, a much larger explosive eruption occurred, probably of Volcanic Explosivity Index 5. It created the Las Cañadas caldera, a large caldera at about 2,000 m above sea level, around 16 km (9.9 mi) from east to west and 9 km (5.6 mi) from north to south. At Guajara, on the south side of the structure, the internal walls rise as almost sheer cliffs from 2,100 m (6,900 ft) to 2,715 m (8,907 ft). The 3,718 m (12,198 ft) summit of Teide itself, and its sister stratovolcano Pico Viejo (3,134 m (10,282 ft)), are both situated in the northern half of the caldera and are derived from eruptions later than this prehistoric explosion.

Future eruptions[edit]

Future eruptions may include pyroclastic flows and surges similar to those that occurred at Mount Pelée, Merapi, Vesuvius, Etna, Soufrière Hills, Mount Unzen and elsewhere. During 2003, there was an increase in seismic activity at the volcano. Such activity indicate magma rising into the edifice, but is not always a precursor to an eruption.

Teide additionally is considered structurally unstable and its northern flank has a distinctive bulge. This bulge is not believed to be associated with an influx of magma, but stems from a slow northwards collapse of the edifice. The collapse could, in the long term, potentially accelerate into a cataclysmic landslide. Seismic evidence suggests that Teide is constructed over the headwall scarp of the infilled Icod Valley, a massive landslide valley formed by an edifice failure similar to those that produced the Güímar and Orotava Valleys. The summit of the volcano has a number of small active fumaroles emitting sulfur dioxide and other gases, including low levels of hydrogen sulfide.

A recent study showed that Teide will probably erupt violently in the future, and that its structure is similar to that of Vesuvius and Etna.[24]

Major climbs[edit]

The first known ascent of Mount Teide by a European was in 1646 or 1650[contradiction] by the Englishmen Philips Ward, John Webber, John Cowling, Thomas Bridges, George Cove and a friend named Clappham.[citation needed] In 1715 the English traveler J. Edens and his party made the ascent and reported their observations in the journal of the Royal Society in London.[25]

After the Enlightenment, most of the expeditions that went to East Africa and the Pacific had Teide as one of the most rewarding targets. The expedition of Lord George Macartney, George Staunton and John Barrow in 1792 almost ended in tragedy, as a major snowstorm and rain swept over them and they failed to reach the peak of Teide, just barely getting past Montaña Blanca.[25]

During an expedition to Kilimanjaro, the German adventurer Hans Heinrich Joseph Meyer visited Teide in 1894 to observe ice conditions on the volcano. He described the two mountains as "two kings, one rising in the ocean and the other in the desert and steppes".[25]

Flora and fauna[edit]

Echium wildpretii on Tenerife.
Southern Tenerife Lizard (Gallotia galloti galloti).
Teide and Roque Cinchado.

The lava flows on the flanks of Teide weather to a very thin but nutrient- and mineral-rich soil that supports a wide variety of plant species. Vascular flora consists of 168 plant species, 33 of which are endemic to Tenerife.[26]

Forests of Canary Island Pine (Pinus canariensis) with Canary Island juniper (Juniperus cedrus) occur from 1,000 to 2,100 metres (3,300–6,900 ft), covering the middle slopes of the volcano and reaching an alpine tree line 1,000 m (3,300 ft) lower than that of continental mountains at similar latitudes.[27][28] Within the Las Cañadas caldera and at higher altitudes, plant species endemic to the Teide National Park include: the Teide white broom (Spartocytisus supranubius), which has white flowers; Descurainia bourgaeana, a shrubby crucifer with yellow flowers; the Canary Island wallflower (Erysimum scoparium), which has violet flowers; and the Teide bugloss (Echium wildpretii), whose red flowers form a pyramid up to 3 m (9.8 ft) in height.[29] The Teide daisy (Argyranthemum teneriffae) can be found at altitudes close to 3,600 m (11,800 ft) above sea level, and the Teide violet (Viola cheiranthifolia) can be found right up to the summit, making it the highest flowering plant in Spain.[30]

These plants are adapted to the tough environmental conditions on the volcano, such as high altitude, intense sunlight, extreme temperature variations, and lack of moisture. Adaptations include hemispherical forms, a downy or waxy cover, a reduction of the exposed leaf area, and a high flower production.[28][31] Flowering takes place in the late spring or early summer, in May and June.[26]

Teide National Park contains a large number of invertebrate species, over 40% of which are endemic species, and 70 of which are found only in the National Park. The invertebrate fauna includes spiders, beetles, dipterans, hemipterans, and hymenopterae.[32]

In contrast, Teide National Park has only a limited variety of vertebrate fauna.[33] Ten species of bird nest there, including the Blue Chaffinch (Fringilla teydea teydea), Berthelot's Pipit (Anthus berthelotii berthelotii), the Atlantic Canary (Serinus canaria) and a subspecies of kestrel (Falco tinnunculus canariensis).[34][35]

Three endemic reptile species are found in the park: the Canary Island lizard (Gallotia galloti galloti), the Canary Island wall gecko (Tarentola delalandii), and the Canary Island skink (Chalcides viridanus viridanus).[33][36] The only mammals native to the park are bats, the most common of which is Leisler’s bat (Nyctalus leisleri). Other mammals, such as the mouflon, the rabbit, the house mouse, the black rat, the feral cat, and the Algerian Hedgehog, have all been introduced to the park.[37]

Scientific use[edit]

Teide National Park is a useful volcanic reference point for studies related to Mars because of the similarities in their environmental conditions and geological formations.[38] In 2010 a research team tested the Raman instrument at Las Cañadas del Teide in anticipation of its use in the 2016–2018 ESA-NASA ExoMars expedition.[38] In June 2011 a team of researchers from the UK visited the park to test a method for looking for life on Mars and to search for suitable places to test new robotic vehicles in 2012.[39]

Access[edit]

The volcano and its surroundings, including the whole of the Las Cañadas caldera, are protected in the Teide National Park. Access is by a public road running from northeast to southwest across the caldera. TITSA runs a return service to Teide once a day from both Puerto de la Cruz and Playa de las Americas. The park has a parador (hotel) and a small chapel. A cable car goes from the roadside at 2,356 m (7,730 ft) most of the way to the summit, reaching 3,555 m (11,663 ft), carrying up to 38 passengers (34 in a high wind) and taking eight minutes to reach the summit. Queues can exceed two hours in peak season. Access to the summit itself is restricted; a free permit is required to climb the last 200 m (660 ft). Numbers are normally restricted to 200 per day.

Mount Teide (Spanish: Pico del Teide, IPA: [ˈpiko ðel ˈteiðe], "Teide Peak") from a distance with a cloud at the top.

Several footpaths take hikers to the upper cable car terminal, and then onto the summit (with the permit). The most popular route is via the Refugio de Altavista, however these are demanding hikes requiring at least 4–5 hours of ascent.

Because of the altitude, the air is significantly thinner than at sea level. This can cause people (especially with heart or lung conditions) to become light-headed or dizzy, to develop altitude sickness, and in extreme cases to lose consciousness. The only treatment is to return to lower altitudes and acclimatise.

Symbol[edit]

Teide is the main symbol of Tenerife and the most emblematic natural monument of the Canary Islands. An image of Teide appears gushing flames at the centre of Tenerife's coat of arms. Above the volcano appears St. Michael, the patron saint of Tenerife. The flag colors of the island are dark blue, traditionally identified with the sea that surrounds the island, and white for the whiteness of the snow-covered peaks of Mount Teide during winter.

Teide has been depicted frequestly throughout history, from the earliest engravings made by European conquerors to typical Canarian craft objects, on the back of 1000-peseta notes, in oil paintings and on postcards.

Mountain of the Moon[edit]

Mons Pico, one of the Montes Teneriffe range of lunar mountains in the inner ring of the Mare Imbrium, was named by Johann Hieronymus Schröter after the Pico von Teneriffe, an 18th-century name for Teide.[8][40]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Europe: Atlantic Islands – Ultra Pominences" on peaklist.org as "Pico de Teide". Retrieved October 16, 2011.
  2. ^ Parque Nacional del Teide en todo sobre España
  3. ^ http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Volcanoes/DecadeVolcanoes/ Decade Volcanoes – USGS
  4. ^ "Teide National Park". World Heritage List. UNESCO. Retrieved January 18, 2009. 
  5. ^ El Teide (Tenerife) es el parque nacional más visitado de Canarias con 2,8 millones de visitantes en 2008
  6. ^ Official Website of Tenerife Tourism Corporation
  7. ^ Un parque nacional español se cuela entre los 10 más visitados del mundo
  8. ^ a b Sheehan, William & Baum, Richard, Observation and inference: Johann Hieronymous Schroeter, 1745–1816, JBAA 105 (1995), 171
  9. ^ Ethnografia y anales de la conquista de las Islas Canarias
  10. ^ Guillou, H., Carracedo, J. C., Paris R. and Pérez Torrado, F.J., 2004a. K/Ar ages and magnetic stratigraphy of the Miocene-Pliocene shield volcanoes of Tenerife, Canary Islands: Implications for the early evolution of Tenerife and the Canarian Hotspot age progression. Earth & Planet. Sci. Letts., 222, 599–614.
  11. ^ Fúster, J.M., Araña, V., Brandle, J.L., Navarro, J.M., Alonso, U., Aparicio, A., 1968. Geology and volcanology of the Canary Islands: Tenerife. Instituto Lucas Mallada, CSIC, Madrid, 218 pp
  12. ^ a b Carracedo, Juan Carlos; Day, Simon (2002). Canary Islands (Classic Geology in Europe 4). Terra Publishing, 208 pp. ISBN 1-903544-07-6
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i Carracedo, J. C., Rodríguez Badioloa, E., Guillou, H., Paterne, M., Scaillet, S., Pérez Torrado, F. J., Paris, R., Fra-Paleo, U., Hansen, A., 2007. "Eruptive and structural history of Teide Volcano and rift zones of Tenerife, Canary Islands." Bulletin of the Geological Society of America, 119(9–10). 1027–1051
  14. ^ Paris, R, Guillou, H., Carracedo, JC and Perez Torrado, F.J., Volcanic and morphological evolution of La Gomera (Canary Islands), based on new K-Ar ages and magnetic stratigraphy:implications for oceanic island evolution, Journal of the Geological Society, May 2005, v.162; no.3; p.501-512
  15. ^ Carracedo, J.C., Pérez Torrado, F.J., Ancochea, E., Meco, J., Hernán, F., Cubas, C.R., Casillas, R., Rodríguez Badiola, E. and Ahijado, A., 2002. In: Cenozoic Volcanism II: the Canary Islands. The Geology of Spain (W. Gibbons and T. Moreno, eds), pp. 439–472. Geological Society, London
  16. ^ "Tenerife". Global Volcanism Program, Smithsonian Institution. http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=1803-03-. Retrieved December 12, 2007.
  17. ^ Martí, J., Mitjavila, J., Araña, V., 1994. Stratigraphy, structure and geochronology of the Las Cañadas Caldera (Tenerife, Canary Islands). Geol. Mag. 131: 715–727
  18. ^ Martí. J. and Gudmudsson, A., 2000. The Las Cañadas caldera (Tenerife, Canary Islands): an overlapping collapse caldera generated by magma-chamber migration. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 103: 167–173
  19. ^ Moore, J. G., 1964. Giant submarine landslides on the Hawaiian Ridge. U.S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap., 501-D, D95-D98
  20. ^ Carracedo, J.C., 1994. The Canary Islands: an example of structural control on the growth of large oceanic island volcanoes. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 60: 225–242
  21. ^ Guillou, H., Carracedo, J.C., Pérez Torrado, F. and Rodríguez Badiola, E., 1996. K-Ar ages and magnetic stratigraphy of a hotspot-induced, fast grown oceanic island : El Hierro, Canary Islands. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 73: 141–155
  22. ^ Stillman, C.J., 1999. Giant Miocene Landslides and the evolution of Fuerteventura, Canary Islands J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 94, pp. 89–104
  23. ^ Masson, D.G., Watts, A.B., Gee, M.J.R., Urgelés, R., Mitchell, N.C., Le Bas, T.P., Canals, M., 2002. Slope failures on the flanks of the western Canaested in the embayment itself.
  24. ^ Un estudio prevé que el Teide sufriría erupciones violentas (La Opinión.es)
  25. ^ a b c El Parque Nacional del Teide: Patrimonio Mundial de la Unesco
  26. ^ a b Dupont, Yoko L., Dennis M., Olesen, Jens M., Structure of a plant-flower-visitor network in the high altitude sub-alpine desert of Tenerife, Canary Islands, Ecography. 26(3), 2003, pp. 301–310.
  27. ^ Gieger, Thomas and Leuschner, Christoph. Altitudinal change in needle water relations of the Canary pine (Pinus Canariensis) and possible evidence of a drought-induced alpine timberline on Mt. Teide, Tenerife, Flora – Morphology, Distribution, Functional Ecology of Plants, 199(2), 2004, Pages 100-109y
  28. ^ a b J.M. Fernandez-Palacios, Climatic response of plant species on Tenerife, the Canary islands, J. Veg. Sci. 3, 1992, pp. 595–602
  29. ^ "Tenerife National Park – Flora". Tenerife Tourism Corporation. Retrieved December 12, 2007. 
  30. ^ J.M. Fernandez-Palacios and J.P de Nicolas, Altitudinal pattern of vegetation variation on Tenerife, J. Veg. Sci. 6, 1995, pp. 183–190
  31. ^ C. Leuschner, Timberline and alpine vegetation on the tropical and warm-temperate oceanic islands of the world: elevation, structure and floristics, Vegetatio 123, 1996, pp. 193–206.
  32. ^ Ashmole, M. and Ashmole, P. (1989) Natural History Excursions in Tenerife. Kidston Mill Press, Scotland. ISBN 0 9514544 0 4.
  33. ^ a b Thorpe, R.S., McGregor, D.P., Cumming, A.M., and Jordan, W.C., DNA evolution and colonisation sequence of island lizards in relation to geological history: MTDNA RFLP, cytochrome B, cytochrome oxidase, 123 RRNA sequence, and nuclear RAPD analysis, evolution, 48(2), 1994, pp. 230–240
  34. ^ Lack, D., and H.N. Southern. 1949. Birds of Tenerife. Ibis, 91:607–626
  35. ^ P.R. Grant, "Ecological compatibility of bird species on islands", Amer. Nat., 100(914) , 1966, pp. 451–462.
  36. ^ Lever, Christopher (2003). Naturalized Reptiles and Amphibians of the World (First ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-850771-0. .
  37. ^ Nogales, M., Rodríguez-Luengo, J.L. & Marrero, P. (2006) "Ecological effects and distribution of invasive non-native mammals on the Canary Islands" Mammal Review, 36, 49–65
  38. ^ a b Tenerife se convierte en un laboratorio marciano
  39. ^ Buscando "marcianos" en el Teide
  40. ^ Schroeter, Johann Hieronymous, Selenotopographische Fragmente sur genauern Kenntniss der Mondfläche [vol. 1]. – Lilienthal: auf Kosten des Verfassers, 1791

External links[edit]