Telšiai

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Telšiai
City
Telšiai city centre
Telšiai city centre
Flag of Telšiai
Flag
Coat of arms of Telšiai
Coat of arms
Telšiai is located in Lithuania
Telšiai
Telšiai
Location of Telšiai
Coordinates: 55°59′0″N 22°15′0″E / 55.98333°N 22.25000°E / 55.98333; 22.25000Coordinates: 55°59′0″N 22°15′0″E / 55.98333°N 22.25000°E / 55.98333; 22.25000
Country  Lithuania
Ethnographic region Samogitia
County Telšiai County
Municipality Telšiai district municipality
Eldership Telšiai town eldership
Capital of Samogitia (unofficial)
Telšiai County
Telšiai district municipality
Telšiai town eldership
Telšiai rural eldership
First mentioned 1450
Granted city rights 1791
Area
 • City 17 km2 (7 sq mi)
Elevation 128 m (420 ft)
Population (2010)
 • City 29,764
 • Density 1,800/km2 (4,500/sq mi)
 • Metro 55,230
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 • Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Postal code 87xxx
Website www.telsiai.lt

Telšiai (About this sound pronunciation , known also by several alternative names), is a city in Lithuania with about 30,000 inhabitants. It is the capital of Telšiai County and Samogitia region, and it is located on the shores of Lake Mastis.

Telšiai is one of the oldest cities in Lithuania, probably dating earlier than the 14th century. Between the 15th and 20th centuries, Telšiai became a district capital and between 1795 and 1802 it was included in the Vilnius region. In 1873, Telšiai was transferred to the Kaunas region.

Names[edit]

Cathedral square at night

The name of Telšiai has been recorded in different forms and different languages throughout its history. Most of them are derived from Telšē in Samogitian dialect. Some foreign names for the city include German: Telsche, Telschi; Polish: Telsze; Russian: Тельшяй, Тельши, Тяльшяй. In Yiddish, formerly a primary language of the city, the name is טעלז (Telz).

History[edit]

Orthodox church
Telšiai clock-tower with a bear, the symbol of Samogitia and Telšiai
Telšiai Cathedral

Lake Mastis is mentioned in various legends and myths. The city was named after a small rivulet, the Telšė, which flows into Lake Mastis. A legend has it that a knight named Džiugas founded the city. Telšiai was first mentioned in written sources around 1450, but the oldest archeological findings in the area of the city are from the Stone Age.

In the 15th century, Telšiai already had a state-owned manor. It and the parish were governed by Samogitian elders. Telšiai was at the centre of an uprising of Samogitian peasants.

At the end of the 17th century Telšiai became the centre of culture and politics of Samogitia. Local parliaments known as Sejmiks composed of noblemen were organised in the city and a court was established. Magdeburg rights were granted to Telšiai in the 17th century.

During the November Uprising of 1831 Telšiai became a sanctuary for Polish–Lithuanian partisans fighting the Russians. A revolutionary government of insurrectionists was formed and schools for the preparation of military officers and noncommissioned officers were opened. During the Uprising of 1863, Telšiai was one of the main centres of uprise in Samogitia since insurrectionist forces massed there.

At the end of the 19th century Telšiai started to grow. A team of firemen formed, and a pharmacy and a theater were opened. In 1908 the very first Lithuanian concert–performance was organised.[1]

The city survived two Polish revolutions, was conquered by the Germans in World War I, and occupied by the Red Army for a short time in 1918.

During the years of Lithuanian independence, 1918 to 1940, Telšiai grew rapidly. Several girls' and boys' high schools, a crafts school and a teacher's seminary were established. The Alka museum was built, and several cultural societies were operated.[2] In 1935, Telšiai became the centre of country administration.

During the first Soviet occupation, as a result of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, Telšiai became infamous for the nearby Rainiai massacre, a mass murder of 76 Lithuanian political prisoners perpetrated by the Red Army during the night of 24–25 June 1941.

Nowadays Telšiai is the 12th largest city in Lithuania. It is the centre of Telšiai County and Telšiai district municipality. The city has four gymnasiums, four secondary schools, and five primary schools. Faculties of Vilnius Academy of Art, College of Social Sciences and College of Samogitia are also established in Telšiai.

On 22 January 2013 The Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Lithuania officially announced that Telšiai will be named the Lithuanian Capital of Culture in 2016.[3]

Doors of Telšiai Cathedral built in 2009 and a witness to the history of Christianity in Samogitia

Jews in Telšiai[edit]

In 1897, the Jewish population numbered 3088, 51% of the total population. Jews were expelled during World War I, but by 1939, 2800 had returned, out of a general population of 8000. Many were involved in trade which included produce, wood, and crafts.

A major source of income was the famous Telšiai Yeshiva, (a school for Talmudic study, sometimes called a rabbinical college). It was the largest and most famous yeshiva in Lithuania between 1875 and 1941, establishing Telšiai as a center of Torah studies (the entire body of religious law and learning, including both sacred literature and oral tradition). There was also an Orthodox Jewish rabbinical seminary and a Jewish day school providing secular and religious instruction for younger children.

Following World War I and the expulsion of the Jews—which decimated the Telšiai Jewish community—the city again became a center of traditional Jewish learning. There were also charitable institutions, including a Chevra Kadisha (burial society), a hospital, a loan society, a public kitchen, a clinic, special summer camps, and a women’s association for support of the sick and poor. There were also two Jewish newspapers, published in Yiddish.

In 1931, Telšiai became a city of the first order. During the Holocaust in 1939 when the Russians enter Lithuania they eventually closed down the yeshiva. Most of the students dispersed with only about a hundred students remaining in Telshe. Learning was done in groups of 20-25 students studying in various batai medrashim ("small synagogues") led by the rosh yeshivas.

In 1940, after the Soviets captured Lithuania, the yeshiva and all religious schools were closed. As young students were fleeing the yeshiva, trying to save the Torahs (scrolls of the law) by carrying them in their hands, they were shot dead in the streets. During the subsequent occupation of Lithuania by Nazi Germany during World War II, the large Jewish population of Telšiai was almost completely annihilated.

Telšiai has a rare, surviving wooden synagogue.[4]

The original yeshiva building still stands in Telšiai; it is now occupied by an electrical company.

The yeshiva was transplanted to the United States in 1941, during World War II, when two of its roshei yeshiva ("deans") who had escaped the Holocaust chose to re-establish it in Cleveland, Ohio, where it still remains. The yeshiva was opened in the house of Yitzchak & Sarah Feigenbaum on 20 Cheshvan 5702 (1941). This yeshiva again became a well-respected center of Talmudic study, incorporating the distinct methods of the historic institution, and it is still going strong today.

Centre of Roman Catholic Diocese[edit]

A Roman Catholic Diocese of Telšiai was established in 1926 with its centre in Telšiai. Justinas Staugaitis, one of the twenty signatories to the Act of Independence of Lithuania, became the first bishop of the diocese.[5]

In 1927, a Priest Seminary was established. It was closed in 1946 after the occupation of Lithuania by the Soviet Union but re-established at the end of the Cold War.[6]

Present day architectural monuments include Telšiai Cathedral and the Church of The Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary into Heaven, Telšiai.

Culture[edit]

Windmill in the Museum of Rural Life of Samogitia
Palace of the Curia of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Telšiai

Samogitian Museum Alka was established in 1932 by the Society of Ancient Samogitians' Fans Alka. The museum operated in a house specially rented for it until the current museum palace was built in 1938. Currently, Museum Alka is famous in Samogitia for its accumulation of over 62 thousand showpieces, 70 thousand pieces of estate archives, a 12 thousand book scientific library, and 15 thousand film negatives.[7] The museum has a large historical exposition of Samogitia as well as a large collection of paintings of famous Lithuanian and foreign artists.[8]

In the southern part of the city close to the Lake Mastis there is a city park with the Open-Air Museum of Rural Life of Samogitia. It opened in 1983 and has an exposition of typical homesteads of 19th century Samogitia. Currently there are 16 authentic buildings. The museum exhibition is arranged in homestead sections: a rich farmer’s grange; a barn; a poor farmer’s grange, and a simple peasant’s grange. Museum visitors can also get acquainted with a windmill, smithy, threshing barn and associated equipment.[7]

The Drama Theater of Žemaitė, named in honor of famous Lithuanian author Žemaitė, is one of the oldest theaters in Lithuania. Nowadays it has two troupes of actors: adult actors (director K. Brazauskas) and youth Savi actors (director L. Pocevičienė).[9] The head of the theater is Artūras Butkus.

A Centre of Culture also operates in Telšiai.

Media in Telšiai[edit]

The main newspaper in the city and the region of Telšiai is Kalvotoji Žemaitija (Hilly Samogitia), which was established on 19 April 1941. It is published three times a week and is available online.[10] The second largest newspaper of Telšiai is Telšių žinios (The News of Telšiai) established on 1 October 1999. It is published twice a week and is also available online.[11]

The main online portal for the city is www.telsiai.info, which is part of the group of portals miestunaujienos.info.

Library[edit]

The main library is the Telšiai Karolina Praniauskaitė Regional Public Library, located in the city centre. It was established in 1922. In 1967 it was named as the best district library in Lithuania. In 1997, the library was named after Karolina Praniauskaitė, the first poetess of Samogitia.[12]

Tourism[edit]

Samogitia tourism information center in Telšiai

The old town of the city of Telšiai is one of seven protected old towns in Lithuania. Additionally to the Samogitian museum Alka and Open-Air Museum of Rural Life of Samogitia mentioned above, the main tourist attractions in Telšiai are A. Jonušo Samogitian-Japanese-Chinese Homestead-Museum, Telšiai Cathedral and Telšiai Bishop Vincentas Borisevičius Priest Seminary (on the top floor of the Priest Seminary it is possible to see a panorama of the city), Telšiai yeshiva, the Church of The Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary into Heaven, Telšiai (known as the "Little Church"), and the Orthodox Church of St. Nicolaus.

A Tourist Information Center can be found in the centre of the town.[13]

Telšiai was announced as tourists destination by EDEN in 2013.[14]

Geography[edit]

Telšiai is located in the middle of the Samogitian Heights. The city was built on seven hills on the shores of Lake Mastis. The nearby Šatrija hill (227 m) is a nature preserve.[15]

Government of Telšiai[edit]

Landmark of Telšiai in Samogitian dialect

According to the Law on the Territorial Administrative Units and Their Boundaries of the Republic of Lithuania, Telšiai is the centre of Telšiai County as well as the centre of Telšiai district municipality.[16]

The city of Telšiai is also the centre of Telšiai town eldership. It was established in 1997. Its area is 16.4 km2 (6.33 sq mi). According to 2006 statistics, the density of the eldership is 1862 žm./km². Telšiai city eldership has six sub-elderships, whose purpose is to represent communities of inhabited places. The sub-elderships are: Germantas; Karalius Mindaugas (King Mindaugas), Luokė, Mastis, Naujamiestis and Senamiestis.[17]

Economy[edit]

Telšiai is an important economic centre of Samogitia. Affiliates of major Lithuanian banks, shopping centers, etc. operate there, and some industrial companies have also been established. The largest company operating in the city is AB Žemaitijos pienas, one of the largest milk processing companies in Lithuania.[18]

In Telšiai the "Incubator of Business of Telšiai County" was established in order to help new businessmen who want to start their own business as well as to stimulate the establishment of new workplaces.[19]

In September 2012 it was announced that according to the data of the Lithuanian Department of Statistics the average salary of Lithuania grew the most rapidly in Telšiai in the second quarter of 2012.[20]

Education[edit]

Telšiai is one of three Lithuanian cities where a Roman Catholic Priest Seminary operates (the other two cities are Vilnius and Kaunas).

Universities and colleges[edit]

Gymnasiums and secondary schools[edit]

  • Žemaitė High School
  • Vincentas Borisevičius High School
  • Džiugas High School
  • Germantas Secondary School
  • Krantas Secondary School
  • Ateitis Secondary School
  • Secondary School of Adults

Sport[edit]

The football club FK Mastis Telšiai played in the Lithuanian Football Fedration's II league's western zone. The team won silver medals in 2012 and qualified for the 1 Lyga. In 2014 team was renamed FK Džiugas. The same year the team finished second in the LFF II league's western zone. Telšiai has a football stadium with a capacity of about 3000. It has been under reconstruction since 2010 in order to meet international requirements.[21]

The Telšiai basketball club "Telšiai" plays in the Regional Basketball League, in Telšiai Center of Sports and Recreation, which has a capacity of about 500. The center was built in 2010. The team finished third in 2013-2014 Regional Basketball League season.

Since 1992 until 1998 Telšiai also had men's ice hockey team Germantas which played in the Lithuania Hockey League which is the premier men's ice hockey league in Lithuania. In 1996 the team finished first in the regular season but lost in the playoff finals.

Transport[edit]

Telšiai Railway Station

An important highway passing through Telšiai is the route A11 highway from Šiauliai to Palanga.[22] Trains going on the routes VilniusKlaipėda and RadviliškisKlaipėda pass through the Telšiai railway station. Telšiai can also be reached by bus from many Lithuanian cities and smaller towns in Telšiai county. Telšiai bus station is located near the city centre.[23]

Telšiai has a municipal public bus system with six routes. Buses run from 4 AM until 11 PM and tickets are sold directly in buses, although there is also an opportunity to buy monthly tickets.[23] Telšiai also has shuttle taxis.

Twin cities[edit]

Board with the list of Telšiai twin cities in the Nepriklausomybės square

Telšiai has signed ten cooperation agreements with other cities:[24]

Famous people[edit]

Former President and Prime Minister of Lithuania and current Member of the European Parliament Rolandas Paksas was born in Telšiai

References[edit]

  1. ^ zam.mch.mii.lt. zam.mch.mii.lt (15 May 2003).
  2. ^ Travel.lt
  3. ^ (Lithuanian) Lietuvos Respublikos kultūros ministerija – straipsniai :Lietuvos kultūros sostinės titulu pasipuoš Panevėžys, Joniškis ir Telšiai. Lrkm.lt (22 January 2013).
  4. ^ Center for Jewish Art (2004). "Preserved Wooden Synagogues in Lithuania". The Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Retrieved 17 December 2008. http://cja.huji.ac.il/Architecture/Wooden-synagogues-Lithuania.htm
  5. ^ telsiuvyskupija.lt. telsiuvyskupija.lt.
  6. ^ tks.lt. tks.lt.
  7. ^ a b Telšių apskrities turizmo informacijos centras – Muziejai – Muziejai. Telsiaitic.lt.
  8. ^ telsiaitic.lt. telsiaitic.lt.
  9. ^ http://telsiuteatras.lt/istorija/
  10. ^ Hostingas už 1 Lt! – Puslapiai.lt. Kalzem.visiems.lt.
  11. ^ Kontaktai. Tzinios.lt.
  12. ^ Istorija – Telšių rajono savivaldybės Karolinos Praniauskaitės viešoji biblioteka. Kpbiblioteka.lt (21 May 2012).
  13. ^ telsiaitic.lt. telsiaitic.lt.
  14. ^ http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/sectors/tourism/eden/destinations-2013/index_en.htm
  15. ^ Lithuanian Home Page. Neris.mii.lt.
  16. ^ Lietuvos Respublikos Seimas – Dokumento tekstas. .
  17. ^ Telšių rajono savivaldybė. Telsiai.lt (20 May 2005).
  18. ^ Company history | Žemaitijos pienas. Zpienas.lt.
  19. ^ Inovacijų portalas – Verslo inkubatoriai. Inovacijos.lt.
  20. ^ Sparčiausiai atlyginimai augo Telšiuose | Ekonomika.lt mobili versija. Ekonomika.lt (6 September 2012).
  21. ^ (Lithuanian) Prasidėjo Telšių miesto stadiono rekonstrukcija – Naujienų portalas. Alfa.lt (26 October 2010).
  22. ^ Lietuvos Respublikos Seimas – Dokumento tekstas.
  23. ^ a b Telšių rajono savivaldybė. Telsiai.lt (20 May 2005).
  24. ^ Telšių rajono savivaldybė. Telsiai.lt (20 May 2005).

External links[edit]