Tel Aviv Metropolitan Area

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Tel Aviv Metropolitan Area
מטרופולין תל אביב
Metropolitan area
From top left: Tel Aviv, Herzliya, Bat Yam, Netanya, Ashdod, Rishon Letzion, Southern Suburbs of Tel Aviv.
From top left: Tel Aviv, Herzliya, Bat Yam, Netanya, Ashdod, Rishon Letzion, Southern Suburbs of Tel Aviv.
Nickname(s): Dan Bloc
Country  Israel
Metropolitan Area Gush Dan
Area
 • Total 1,516 km2 (585 sq mi)
Population (31 January 2012)[1][2]
 • Total 3,484,100.
42.1% of Israel's Population
 • Metro density 2,291/km2 (5,930/sq mi)
  Israeli Jews: 94.9%
Israeli Arabs: 5.1%
Time zone IST (UTC+2)
 • Summer (DST) IDT (UTC+3)
Postal code 61999
Area code +972 (Israel) 3 (City)
Website tel-aviv.gov.il

The Tel Aviv Metropolitan Area[3] (Hebrew: מֶטְרוֹפּוֹלִין תֵּל אָבִיב), or Gush Dan (Hebrew: גּוּשׁ דָּן), is a metropolitan area including areas from both the Tel Aviv and the Central Districts of Israel. The area is closely linked to the city of Tel Aviv through social, economic, and cultural ties. It is located along the Israeli Mediterranean coastline. The Tel Aviv metropolitan area is the largest metropolitan area in Israel and has an estimated population of 3,464,100 residents, 95% of whom (3,286,500) are Israeli Jews. It houses about 42% of Israel's population.

Cities in the Gush Dan[edit]

Population in cities of the Middle Ring as of the end of 2012:[4]

Over 400,000

Over 200,000

Over 100,000

Over 50,000

Over 10,000

Hod HaSharon, Modi'in Illit, Rosh HaAyin, Ramat HaSharon, Ness Ziona, El'ad, Yavne, Kiryat Ono, Yehud-Monosson, Tira, Giv'at Shmuel, Kafr Qasim, Qalansawe, Be'er Ya'akov, Even Yehuda, Gan Yavne, Ganei Tikva, Gedera, Giv'at Shmuel, Jaljulia, Kfar Yona, Kiryat Ekron, Kokhav Ya'ir, Mazkeret Batya, Shoham, Tel Mond, Tzoran-Kadima

Metropolitan rings[edit]

Israel Central Bureau of Statistics divides the Tel Aviv metropolitan area into four:

Metropolitan rings in the Tel Aviv metropolitan area[3]
Metropolitan ring Localities Population (2012 census) Population density
(per km²)
Annual Population
growth rate
Total Jews and others1 Thereof: Jews Arabs
Core2 1 414,600 397,300 378,700 17,200 8,148.3 1.4%
Inner Ring3 13 903,700 902,500 853,200 1,300 7,504.4 1.0%
  Northern Section 4 134,500 134,400 130,700 100 3,155.9 0.8%
  Eastern Section 5 442,400 442,000 430,200 400 11,009.3 1.4%
  Southern Section 4 326,800 326,100 292,300 800 8,688.0 0.7%
Middle Ring4 31 1,083,000 1,046,500 991,800 36,500 3,723.6 2.0%
  Northern Section 6 211,800 211,600 206,200 200 4,046.4 1.8%
  Eastern Section 8 285,300 285,000 267,800 300 4,183.3 2.0%
  Southern Section 17 586,000 550,000 517,800 36,000 3,440.5 2.1%
Outer Ring5 209 1,062,800 940,200 898,600 122,600 1,012.6 2.1%
  Northern Section 97 442,000 352,800 336,800 89,100 1,143.4 1.8%
  Eastern Section 47 254,900 222,000 219,500 33,000 906.9 3.1%
  Southern Section 65 365,900 365,400 342,200 500 957.9 1.9%
Total 254 3,464,100 3,286,500 3,122,200 177,700 2,291.4 1.7%

Notes

History[edit]

The name Gush Dan means "Dan Bloc", and is so named because the area was the territory of the tribe of Dan in the ancient Kingdom of Israel. According to the biblical narrative, the tribe had originally tried to settle in the central coastal area of Canaan, but due to enmity with the Philistines who had already settled there, were only able to camp in the hill country overlooking the Sorek Valley. The camp location became known as Mahaneh Dan ("Camps of Dan"). The region they attempted to settle included the area as far north as Joppa and as far south as Shephelah in the area of Timnah. As a result of the pressure from the Philistines, the tribe abandoned hopes of settling near the central coast, instead migrating to the north of the country. After conquering Laish, the tribe refounded it as their capital and renamed it Dan. In remembrance of the original territory assignments, this coastal region is referred to as Gush Dan.

The modern city of Tel Aviv was founded in 1909 as a suburb of the Arab coastal city of Jaffa.[5] The city grew rapidly in the ensuing decades thanks to European immigration, with the population reaching 150,000 in 1934, and 230,000 14 years later when Israel gained its independence. Before the establishment of the state, other towns in the Gush Dan were founded as well, such as Petah Tikva in 1878, Rishon LeZion in 1882, Ness Ziona in 1883, Rehovot in 1890, and the majority of other Gush Dan cities were established before 1948.

In 1947, the Jewish population of the Gush Dan was nearly 400,000, comprising the majority of the Jewish population of Mandate Palestine. As such almost all of it was included in the Jewish state proposed by the 1947 United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine. After the 1948 Arab–Israeli War the Arab population of the region, which had been nearly 150,000 before the war,[5] was reduced to around 10,000. They were quickly replaced by a larger number of Jews fleeing from postwar Europe and persecution in Arab countries. However, at this time many new immigrants did not come to Tel Aviv. In the 1950s towns were built on the edges of the Gush Dan, including Ashdod, Rosh HaAyin and Yavne. The nation's sole port at the time was located in the northern city of Haifa and its evolving metropolitan area making that city at least as important as Tel Aviv. At the same time the new government was trying to disperse the nation's population to the periphery, discouraging settlement in the already populated Gush Dan. This slowed the growth of the Gush Dan, but the area still more than doubled in population within 20 years of the establishment of the state. The opening of the Port of Ashdod in the southern Gush Dan also increased the area's importance, with Haifa's importance diminishing, and Tel Aviv's increasing due to its proximity to the Port of Ashdod. Tel Aviv itself witnessed population decreases in the 1970s, and 80s with outer regions of the Gush Dan with lower costs of living absorbing many people who left Tel Aviv. Only in the 1990s with the immigration of 1 million Russians, 40,000 Ethiopian Jews, and many others to Israel, as well as a boom in the religious population, did Tel Aviv begin to grow again. The demand for housing increased dramatically, with new cities such as Modiin, El'ad being built, and cities like Ashdod more than doubling in population, from 83,000 in 1990, to 175,000 in 2000. In the 2000s the area continued to grow, attracting many immigrants from the Haifa metropolitan area. In 2010 the Gush Dan is home to 3,200,000 people and is the commercial, economical, cultural, and industrial center of Israel. Despite some successes in ongoing attempts by the Israeli government to encourage migration to the Galilee and the Negev, the Gush Dan retains its position as the heart of the State of Israel.

Economy[edit]

The Gush Dan is the economic center of the state of Israel. It is responsible for a large proportion of the nation's economy and contains numerous commercial centers.

Major business and commercial districts[edit]

Diamond Exchange District
Azrieli Center
Tel Aviv Stock Exchange
Herzliya Pituah strip from the Marina
  • Azrieli Center – Tel Aviv – Azrieli Center is a complex of skyscrapers in Tel Aviv. At the base of the center lies a large shopping mall. The center was originally designed by Israeli-American architect Eli Attia, and after he fell out with the developer of the center David Azrieli (after whom it is named), completion of the design was passed on to the Tel Aviv firm of Moore Yaski Sivan Architects.
  • Tel Aviv Stock Exchange – Tel Aviv – The Tel Aviv Stock Exchange (TASE; Hebrew: הבורסה לניירות ערך בתל אביב‎; colloquially known as the Boursa) is Israel's only stock exchange. The TASE is the only public market for trading securities in Israel. It plays a major role in the Israeli economy. TASE lists some 622 companies, about 60 of which are also listed on stock exchanges in other countries. TASE also lists some 180 exchange-traded funds (ETFs), 60 government bonds, 500 corporate bonds, and more than 1000 mutual funds. There are 29 members that make up TASE. The list of members indicates that one of the members is a candidate.
  • Tel Aviv Promenade - Tel Aviv - The Tel Aviv promenade is running along its beaches, and is an integral part of the city's lifestyle, as well as a major tourist attraction. Most of the city's bathing beaches and hiking paths are concentrated in the central part of its 14 kilometers of Mediterranean shore. It contains numerous hotels, and commercial buildings.
  • Kiryat Atidim - Tel Aviv - high tech center in eastern Ramat Aviv. The district is known for its ultra modern architecture.
  • Bat Yam coastal strip - Bat Yam - southward extension of the Tel Aviv Promenade
  • Herzliya Pituah coastal strip and industrial area - Herzliya - northward extension of the Tel Aviv Promenade
  • Netanya Eastern Industrial Zones - Netanya
  • Petah Tikva Kiryat Aryeh, Kiryat Matalon, and Segula Industrial Zones - (These three form the second largest industrial zone in the country after Haifa) - Petah Tikva
  • Ben Gurion Airport Industrial Zone - Lod
  • Holon Eastern Industrial Sector - Holon
  • Poleg industrial area - Netanya

Institutes of higher education[edit]

Tel Aviv University
Open University of Israel
Weizmann Institute of Science

Universities

Colleges

Shopping centers[edit]

A view from the sixth floor of the mall at Tel Aviv Central Bus Station
Carmel Market
G Cinema City in Rishon LeZion

Tel Aviv

Giv'atayim

Herzliya

  • Arena Mall
  • The Outlet
  • Seven Stars Mall (Shivat Hakokhavim)

Ramat Gan

Ramat HaSharon

Holon

Or Yehuda

Rishon LeZion

Netanya

Yehud

Bat Yam

Petah Tikva

Rehovot

Ra'anana

Kfar Saba

Ramla

Lod

Transportation[edit]

Ayalon Highway separates Tel Aviv and Ramat Gan

The Dan Bus Company is primarily focused on serving the Gush Dan, although it is being replaced by the Kavim company in many of the Gush Dan's cities. Much of Israel's national highway network feeds into the area, such as Highway 1, Highway 2, Highway 4, and Highway 5. Gush Dan is also served by the local Ayalon Highway. Israel Railways, the state owned, national rail network provider, also feeds most traffic into or within the Gush Dan region. The Tel Aviv Light Rail, currently under construction, will also be a major feature in the regions future transport, as will thehigh speed service to Jerusalem. Two airports are located in the Gush Dan; Sde Dov Airport located in Tel Aviv which sees an average of 700,000 passenger movements a year, is located north of the Yarkon River hosts flights to Rosh Pina, and Haifa in the north as well as to Ein Yahav, Ovda International Airport, and Eilat in the south as well as to nearby Cyprus, Rhodes in Greece, and Aqaba in Jordan. Meanwhile Ben Gurion International Airport in Lod which is Israel's largest airport handles over 12 million passengers a year and offers flights to destinations in Europe, Africa, Asia, and The Americas.

Major highways[edit]

Some of the major freeways/expressways carrying commuter traffic in and out of the Tel Aviv Metropolitan Area are:

Panoramas[edit]

Skyline of Tel Aviv, Ramat Gan, Bnei Brak, and Herzliyya taken from the Azrieli Center
Skyline of Tel Aviv taken from the Azrieli Center
Skyline of Tel Aviv, Bat Yam, Holon, Givatayim, and Ramat Gan taken from the Azrieli Center
Tel Aviv and Ramat Gan, looking from Tel Aviv University
Tel Aviv eastern looking

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Coordinates: 32°2′N 34°46′E / 32.033°N 34.767°E / 32.033; 34.767