Psychokinesis (Greek ψυχή κίνησις, "mind movement"), or telekinesis, is an alleged psychic ability allowing a person to influence a physical system without physical interaction. Psychokinesis and telekinesis are sometimes abbreviated as PK and TK respectively. Examples of psychokinesis could include moving an object, levitating and teleporting.
The study of supposed psychokinetic phenomena is part of parapsychology. Some parapsychologists claim psychokinesis exists and deserves further study. Current research has shifted focus away from large-scale phenomena to attempts to influence dice and random number generators.
There is no scientific evidence that psychokinesis or telekinesis are real phenomena. PK experiments have historically been criticized for lack of proper controls and repeatability. Furthermore, some experiments have created illusions of PK where none exists, and these illusions depend to an extent on the subject's prior belief in PK.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 Reports of psychokinesis
- 3 Belief
- 4 Scientific research
- 5 In religion, mythology and popular culture
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 Further reading
- 9 External links
|This section requires expansion with: examples of individual psychokinetic and telekinetic abilities. (March 2014)|
The term telekinesis was coined in 1890 by Russian psychical researcher Alexander N. Aksakof (also spelled Aksakov). The term psychokinesis was coined in 1914 by American author-publisher Henry Holt in his book On the Cosmic Relations and was adopted by American parapsychologist J. B. Rhine in 1934 in connection with experiments that were conducted to determine if a person could influence the outcome of falling dice.
Both concepts have been described by other terms, such as "remote influencing", "distant influencing", "remote mental influence", "distant mental influence", "directed conscious intention", "anomalous perturbation", and "mind over matter." Originally, telekinesis was coined to refer to the movement of objects thought to be caused by ghosts of deceased persons, mischievous spirits, angels, demons, or other supernatural forces.
Later, the terms began to refer to an ability allegedly possessed by living people. It was speculated that certain people could cause movement without any connection to a spiritualistic setting, such as in a darkened séance room, and psychokinesis was added to the lexicon. Eventually, psychokinesis became the term preferred by the parapsychological community.
Reports of psychokinesis
Parapsychologists describe two types of psychokinetic effects: Micro-PK and Macro-PK. Micro-PK refers to a very small effect, such as the manipulation of molecules, atoms, or subatomic particles which can only be observed with equipment such as a microscope. Macro-PK is a large effect that can be seen with the unaided eye.
Parapsychologist William G. Roll coined the term "recurrent spontaneous psychokinesis" (RSPK) in 1958 to refer to reports of spontaneous movement of objects. The sudden movement of objects without deliberate intention is thought by some parapsychologists to be related to PK/TK processes of the subconscious mind. Parapsychologists use the term "PK agent", especially in spontaneous cases, to describe someone who they suspect of being the source of the psychokinesis. Spontaneous movement, especially involving violent or physiological effects, such as objects hitting people or scratches appearing on the body, are sometimes investigated by parapsychologists as poltergeists.
In September 2006, a survey about belief in various religious and paranormal topics conducted by phone and mail-in questionnaire polled 1,721 Americans on their belief in telekinesis. Of these participants, 28% of male participants and 31% of female participants selected "agree" or "strongly agree" with the statement "It is possible to influence the world through the mind alone".
In April 2008, British psychologist and skeptic Richard Wiseman published the results of an online survey he conducted entitled "Magicians and the Paranormal: A Survey", in which 400 magicians worldwide participated. For the question Do you believe that psychokinesis exists (i.e., that some people can, by paranormal means, apply a noticeable force to an object or alter its physical characteristics)?, the results were as follows: No 83.5%, Yes 9%, Uncertain 7.5%.
Notable claimants of psychokinetic ability
- Martin Caidin (1927–1997), the author whose 1972 novel Cyborg was used as the basis for the television series The Six Million Dollar Man and The Bionic Woman, claimed to be able to cause movement by means of telekinesis in one or multiple small tabletop "energy wheels", also known as psi wheels beginning in the mid-1980s. Parapsychologist Loyd Auerbach, a friend of Caidin's who sometimes accompanied him in demonstrations and workshops, reiterated a strong endorsement of him in his June 2004 Fate magazine column: "Martin Caidin was capable of moving things with his mind." James Randi offered to test Caidin's claimed abilities in 1994. In September 2004, Randi wrote: "He frantically avoided accepting my challenge by refusing even the simplest of proposed control protocols, but he never tired of running on about how I would not test him."
- Uri Geller (1946 – ), the Israeli famous for his spoon bending demonstrations, allegedly by PK. Geller has been caught many times using sleight of hand and according to science writer Terence Hines, all his effects have been recreated using conjuring tricks.
- Many of India's "godmen" have claimed macro-PK abilities and demonstrated apparently miraculous phenomena in public, although as more controls are put in place to prevent trickery, fewer phenomena are produced. Perhaps the most notable is the spectacular allegation of Mahaavatar Babaji's materialization of an entire palace, mentioned in Paramahamsa Yogananda's classic Autobiography of a Yogi.
- Nina Kulagina (1926–1990), who came to wide public attention following the publication of Sheila Ostrander and Lynn Schroeder's best seller, Psychic Discoveries Behind The Iron Curtain. The alleged Soviet psychic of the late 1960s and early 1970s was filmed apparently performing telekinesis while seated in numerous black-and-white short films, mentioned in the U.S. Defense Intelligence Agency report from 1978.
- Matthew Manning (1955 – ) of the United Kingdom was the subject of laboratory research in the United States and England involving PK in the late 1970s and today claims healing powers.
- Eusapia Palladino (1854–1918; alternate spelling: Eusapia Paladino) was an Italian medium who allegedly could cause objects to move during seances and was endorsed by world famous magician Howard Thurston (1869–1936), who said he witnessed her levitation of a table.
- Swami Rama (1925–1996), a yogi skilled in controlling his heart functions who was studied at the Menninger Foundation in the spring and fall of 1970, and was alleged by some observers at the foundation to have telekinetically moved a knitting needle twice from a distance of five feet. Although Swami Rama wore a face-mask and gown to prevent allegations that he moved the needle with his breath or body movements, and air vents in the room had been covered, at least one physician observer who was present at the time was not convinced and expressed the opinion that air movement was somehow the cause.
- Stanisława Tomczyk was a Polish Spiritualist Medium active in the early 20th century who claimed to be able to perform various acts of telekinesis, such as levitating objects, by way of an entity she called "Little Stasia". A famous 1909 photograph of her with a pair of scissors "floating" in front of her seemingly unconnected hands is often found in books and other publications as an example of telekinesis. Scientists suspected Tomczyk performed her feats by the use of a fine thread or hair, running between her hands to lift and suspend the objects in the air. This was confirmed when psychical researchers who tested Tomczyk occasionally observed the thread.
Robert M. Schoch has written "I do believe that some psychokinesis is real" referring to the evidence for micro-psychokinesis obtained by the Princeton Engineering Anomalies Research (PEAR) Lab experiments and similar studies and some reports of macro-RSPK observed in poltergeist cases. He reports once seeing a book "jumping off a shelf" while in a room where a female psychokinesis agent was also present. Michael Crichton described what he termed a "successful experience" with psychokinesis at a "spoon bending party" in his 1988 book Travels. Dean Radin has reported that he, like Michael Crichton, was able to bend the bowl of a spoon over with unexplained ease of force with witnesses present at a different informal PK experiment gathering. He described his experience in his 2006 book Entangled Minds: Extrasensory Experiences in a Quantum Reality. Michael Talbot described a variety of spontaneous psychokinetic events he claimed to experience in two of his books, Beyond the Quantum and The Holographic Universe.
Remy Chauvin carried out a number of experiments to test psychokinesis. Chauvin's experiment involved using a uranium isotope, a Geiger counter and several assistants. Some parapsychologists have written that ordinary people may be able to influence biological organisms from distance such as the growth rates of fungi and bacteria. Carroll Nash reported that human subjects could use their psychokinetic ability to influence the rate at which bacterial genes mutate.
Anecdotes such as these, stories by eyewitnesses outside of controlled conditions, are considered insufficient evidence by the scientific community to demonstrate psychokinesis, and properly controlled experiments performed by scientists and parapsychologists have not shown the existence of any psychic ability.
"PK Parties" were a cultural fad in the 1980s, begun by Jack Houck, where groups of people were guided through rituals and chants to awaken metal-bending powers. They were encouraged to shout at the items of cutlery they had brought and to jump and scream to create an atmosphere of pandemonium (or what scientific investigators called heightened suggestibility). Critics were excluded and participants were told to avoid looking at their hands. Thousands of people attended these emotionally charged parties, and many became convinced that they had bent silverware by paranormal means. Two of those who claimed to have folded over the bowls of spoons while attending one of these events were author Michael Crichton and parapsychologist Dean Radin.
Some early researchers who studied psychokinesis speculated that an unidentified fluid, termed the "psychode", "psychic force" or "ectenic force", existed within the human body and was capable of being released to influence matter. This view was held by Camille Flammarion and William Crookes, however a later psychical researcher Hereward Carrington pointed out that the fluid was hypothetical and has never been discovered.
A panel commissioned by the United States National Research Council to study paranormal claims concluded that "despite a 130-year record of scientiﬁc research on such matters, our committee could ﬁnd no scientiﬁc justiﬁcation for the existence of phenomena such as extrasensory perception, mental telepathy or ‘mind over matter’ exercises... Evaluation of a large body of the best available evidence simply does not support the contention that these phenomena exist."
The ideas of psychokinesis and telekinesis violate well-established laws of physics, including the inverse square law, the second law of thermodynamics, and the conservation of momentum. Hence scientists have demanded a high standard of evidence for PK, in line with Marcello Truzzi's dictum "Extraordinary claims require extraordinary proof". When apparent PK can be produced in ordinary ways—by trickery, special effects or by poor experimental design—scientists accept that explanation as more parsimonious than to accept that the laws of physics should be rewritten.
Carl Sagan included telekinesis in a long list of "offerings of pseudoscience and superstition" which "it would be foolish to accept (...) without solid scientific data". Nobel Prize laureate Richard Feynman advocated a similar position.
In 1984, the United States National Academy of Sciences, at the request of the US Army Research Institute, formed a scientific panel to assess the best evidence from 130 years of parapsychology. Part of its purpose was to investigate military applications of PK, for example to remotely jam or disrupt enemy weaponry. The panel heard from a variety of military staff who believed in PK and made visits to the PEAR laboratory and two other laboratories that had claimed positive results from micro-PK experiments. The panel criticized macro-PK experiments for being open to deception by conjurors, and said that virtually all micro-PK experiments "depart from good scientific practice in a variety of ways". Their conclusion, published in a 1987 report, was that there was no scientific evidence for the existence of psychokinesis.
Some proponents of psychokinesis have used signal detection theory to posit that the effect of PK is a weak but real signal hidden in the noise of experimental results. If true, an effect too weak to be demonstrated in a replicable experiment could still show up as a statistically significant effect in a large set of data. Parapsychologists carried out meta-analyses of large data sets, with apparently impressive positive results, but since the original studies are too dissimilar, the resulting statistics were not meaningful. A 2006 meta-analysis of 380 studies found a small positive effect that can be explained by publication bias.
Physicist Robert L. Park finds it suspicious that a phenomenon should only ever appear at the limits of detectability of questionable statistical techniques. He cites this feature as one of Irving Langmuir's indicators of pathological science. Park argues that if PK really existed it would be easily and unambiguously detectable, for example using modern microbalances which can detect tiny amounts of force.
PK hypotheses have also been considered in a number of contexts outside parapsychological experiments. C. E. M. Hansel has written a general objection against the claim for the existence of psychokinesis is that, if it were a real process, its effects would be expected to manifest in situations in everyday life but no such effects have been observed.
Martin Gardner has written that if psychokinesis existed then one would expect players to be able to influence the outcome of gambling games. He gives the example of the "26" dice game played in bars and cabarets in Chicago but year after year the house takings are exactly those predicted by chance. Casino owners have not noted any decrease in profits. Terence Hines has written if psychokinesis was possible, then surely one would expect casino incomes to be affected but the earnings are exactly as the laws of chance predict.
Psychologist Nicholas Humphrey argues that many experiments in psychology, biology or physics assume that the intentions of the subjects or experimenter do not physically distort the apparatus. Humphrey counts them as implicit replications of PK experiments in which PK fails to appear.
Explanations in terms of bias
Cognitive bias research has suggested that people are susceptible to illusions of PK. These include both the illusion that they themselves have the power, and that events they witness are real demonstrations of PK. For example, Illusion of control is an illusory correlation between intention and external events, and believers in the paranormal have been shown to be more susceptible to this illusion than others. Psychologist Thomas Gilovich explains this as a biased interpretation of personal experience. For example, to someone in a dice game willing for a high score, high numbers can be interpreted as "success" and low numbers as "not enough concentration." Bias towards belief in PK may be an example of the human tendency to see patterns where none exist, called the Clustering illusion, which believers are also more susceptible to.
A 1952 study tested for experimenter's bias with respect to psychokinesis. Richard Kaufman of Yale University gave subjects the task of trying to influence eight dice and allowed them to record their own scores. They were secretly filmed, so their records could be checked for errors. Believers in psychokinesis made errors that favored its existence, while disbelievers made opposite errors. A similar pattern of errors was found in J. B. Rhine's dice experiments, which at that time were considered the strongest evidence for PK.
In 1995, Wiseman and Morris showed subjects an unedited videotape of a magician's performance in which a fork bent and eventually broke. Believers in the paranormal were significantly more likely to misinterpret the tape as a demonstration of PK, and were more likely to misremember crucial details of the presentation. This suggests that confirmation bias affects people's interpretation of PK demonstrations. Psychologist Robert Sternberg cites confirmation bias as an explanation of why belief in psychic phenomena persists, despite the lack of evidence:
"Some of the worst examples of confirmation bias are in research on parapsychology (...) Arguably, there is a whole field here with no powerful confirming data at all. But people want to believe, and so they find ways to believe."
Psychologist Daniel Wegner has argued that an introspection illusion contributes to belief in psychokinesis. He observes that in everyday experience, intention (such as wanting to turn on a light) is followed by action (such as flicking a light switch) in a reliable way, but the underlying neural mechanisms are outside awareness. Hence, though subjects may feel that they directly introspect their own free will, the experience of control is actually inferred from relations between the thought and the action. This theory of apparent mental causation acknowledges the influence of David Hume's view of the mind. This process for detecting when one is responsible for an action is not totally reliable, and when it goes wrong there can be an illusion of control. This could happen when an external event follows, and is congruent with, a thought in someone's mind, without an actual causal link.
As evidence, Wegner cites a series of experiments on magical thinking in which subjects were induced to think they had influenced external events. In one experiment, subjects watched a basketball player taking a series of free throws. When they were instructed to visualize him making his shots, they felt that they had contributed to his success.
Magic and special effects
Magicians have successfully simulated some of the specialized abilities of psychokinesis, such as object movement, spoon bending, levitation and teleportation. According to Robert Todd Carroll, there are many impressive magic tricks available to amateurs and professionals to simulate psychokinetic powers. Metal objects such as keys or cutlery can be bent using a number of different techniques, even if the performer has not had access to the items beforehand. Amateur videos alleging to show feats of psychokinesis, particularly spoon bending and the telekinetic movement of objects, can be found on video-sharing websites such as YouTube. Due to the advent of the internet and video editing, it is now possible for the average person to fake psychokinetic events.
Between 1979 and 1981, the McDonnell Laboratory for Psychical Research at Washington University reported a series of experiments they named Project Alpha, in which two teenaged male subjects had demonstrated PK phenomena (including metal-bending and causing images to appear on film) under less than stringent laboratory conditions. James Randi eventually revealed that the subjects were two of his associates, amateur conjurers Steve Shaw and Michael Edwards. The pair had created the effects by standard trickery, but the researchers, being unfamiliar with magic techniques, interpreted them as proof of PK.
Prize money for proof of psychokinesis
Internationally, there are several individual skeptics of the paranormal and skeptics' organizations who offer cash prize money for demonstration of the existence of an extraordinary psychic power, such as psychokinesis. Experimental design must be agreed upon prior to execution, and additional conditions, such as a minimum level of fame, may be imposed. Prizes have been offered specifically for PK demonstrations, for example businessman Gerald Fleming's offer of £250,000 to Uri Geller if he can bend a spoon under controlled conditions. These prizes remain uncollected by people claiming to possess paranormal abilities.
The James Randi Educational Foundation offers the One Million Dollar Paranormal Challenge to anyone who claims to be able to produce a paranormal event in a controlled, mutually agreed upon experiment. Over a thousand people have applied to take the challenge, but to date no one has been able to demonstrate their claimed abilities under the testing conditions.
In religion, mythology and popular culture
There are written accounts and oral legends of events fitting the description of psychokinesis dating back to early history, most notably in the stories found in various religions and mythology.
In the Indian epic Mahabharata, Shakuni uses his power to manipulate dice in a game between Bhishma's grandchildren. Using his power, Shakuni makes sure that Pandavas lose to Kauravas.
In the Bible, Jesus is described as performing various miracles that have been described as psychokinesis, including turning water into wine, healing the sick, and multiplying food.
Mythological beings throughout history, such as witches, have been described as being able to levitate people, animals, and objects. The wizard Merlin of the King Arthur legend is portrayed in stories as having numerous powers, including telekinesis, invisibility, and shapeshifting.
Psychokinesis has been an aspect in movies, television, computer games, literature, and other forms of popular culture, often presented as a superpower. An early example is the 1952 novella Telek by Jack Vance. Notable portrayals of psychokinetic characters include Sissy Spacek as the titular character in the 1976 film Carrie, based on the Stephen King novel of the same name; Ellen Burstyn in the healer-themed film Resurrection (1980); the Jedi and Sith in Star Wars; the Scanners in the film Scanners; and three high school seniors in the 2012 film Chronicle. Psychokinesis is also commonly used as a power in a number of video games and role-playing games.
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- "MichaelCrichton.com | Travels | Spoonbending". Crichton-official.com. Retrieved 2014-01-21.
- Znanie-Sila magazine, No 9, 1967 U.S.S.R.
- Barry, J. (1968). General and comparative study of the psychokinetic effect on fungus culture. Journal of Parapsychology, 32, 237–243 also see Barry, J. (1968). PK on fungus growth. Journal of Parapsychology, 32, 55. (Abstract.)
- Nash, C. B. (1984). Test of psychokinetic control of bacterial mutation. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 78, 145–152.
- Hennacy Powell, M.D., Diane (2009-01-13). The ESP Enigma: The Scientific Case for Psychic Phenomena. New York: Walker & Company. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-8027-1606-4.
- "Obituary: George Brandt (Jack) Houck". Retrieved May 16, 2013. Published in the Los Angeles Times, March 31, 2013.
- Frazier, Kendrick (1990-12-31). "Improving Human Performance: What About Parapsychology?". In Kendrick Frazier. The Hundredth Monkey and Other Paradigms of the Paranormal. Prometheus Books. pp. 156–157. ISBN 978-0-87975-655-0.
- Gilovich, Thomas (1993). How We Know What Isn't So: The fallibility of human reason in everyday life. Simon & Schuster. pp. 160, 169. ISBN 978-0-02-911706-4.
- Park, Robert L. (July 2002). Voodoo Science: The road from foolishness to fraud. Oxford University Press. pp. 198–200. ISBN 978-0-19-860443-3.
- Hamlin Garland Forty years of psychic research: a plain narrative of fact 1936, pp. 127-128
- H. F. Prevost Battersby Psychic Certainties Kessinger Reprint Edition, 1988, pp. 125-126
- Hereward Carrington Eusapia Palladino and Her Phenomena Kessinger Reprint Edition, 2003, p. 267
- Thomas Gilovich. (1993). How We Know What Isn't So: The Fallibility of Human Reason in Everyday Life. Free Press. p. 160
- Gardner, Martin (September 1981). "Einstein and ESP". In Kendrick Frazier. Paranormal Borderlands of Science. Prometheus. pp. 60–65. ISBN 978-0-87975-148-7.
- Gilovich, Thomas (1993). How We Know What Isn't So: The fallibility of human reason in everyday life. Simon & Schuster. pp. 174–175. ISBN 978-0-02-911706-4.
- Sutherland, Stuart (1994). Irrationality: the enemy within. Penguin books. p. 309. ISBN 978-0-14-016726-9. "[T]he movement of objects without the application of physical force would, if proven, require a complete revision of the laws of physics. (...) [T]he more improbable something is, the better the evidence needed to accept it"
- Sagan, Carl (1995). The Demon-Haunted World: Science as a candle in the dark. Headline. pp. 208–212. ISBN 978-0-7472-7745-3.
- Feynman, Richard P. (1999-02-01). The Meaning of It All. Penguin. pp. 68–71. ISBN 978-0-14-027635-0.
- Frazier, Kendrick (1990-12-31). "Improving Human Performance: What About Parapsychology?". In Kendrick Frazier. The Hundredth Monkey and Other Paradigms of the Paranormal. Prometheus Books. pp. 149–161. ISBN 978-0-87975-655-0.
- Radin, Dean (1997). The Conscious Universe: The Scientific Truth of Psychic Phenomena. HarperEdge.
- C. E. M. Hansel. (1980). ESP and Parapsychology: A Critical Re-Evaluation. Prometheus Books. pp. 196-198. ISBN 0-87975-119-3
- Andrew Neher. (2011). Paranormal and Transcendental Experience: A Psychological Examination. Dover Publications. p. 171. ISBN 0-486-26167-0
- Gardner, Martin (1957). Fads & Fallacies in the Name of Science. Dover. p. 307. ISBN 978-0-486-20394-2.
- Robert Scharff. (1968). The Las Vegas Experts' Gambling Guide. Grosset & Dunlap. p. 26
- Patrick Hurley. (2012). Concise Introduction to Logic. (11th ed. ed.). Belmont: Wadsworth. p. 635. ISBN 0840034172.
- Blackmore, Susan J. (1992). "Psychic Experiences: Psychic Illusions". Skeptical Inquirer 16: 367–376.
- Blackmore, Susan J.; Tom Trościanko (1985). "Belief in the paranormal Probability judgements, illusory control, and the "chance baseline shift."". British Journal of Psychology 76 (4): 459–468. doi:10.1111/j.2044-8295.1985.tb01969.x. Retrieved 2008-11-16.
- Gardner, Martin (1957). Fads & Fallacies in the Name of Science. Dover. p. 306. ISBN 978-0-486-20394-2.
- Sternberg, Robert J. (2007). "Critical Thinking in Psychology: It really is critical". In Robert J. Sternberg, Henry L. Roediger, Diane F. Halpern. Critical Thinking in Psychology. Henry L. Roediger, Diane F. Halpern. Cambridge University Press. p. 292. ISBN 978-0-521-60834-3. "Some of the worst examples of confirmation bias are in research on parapsychology (...) Arguably, there is a whole field here with no powerful confirming data at all. But people want to believe, and so they find ways to believe."
- John Baer; Wegner, Daniel M. (2008). "Self is Magic". In John Baer, James C. Kaufman, Roy F. Baumeister. Are we free?: psychology and free will. James C. Kaufman, Roy F. Baumeister. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-518963-6. Retrieved 2008-07-02.
- Pronin, Emily (2006). "Everyday Magical Powers: The Role of Apparent Mental Causation in the Overestimation of Personal Influence". Daniel M. Wegner, Kimberly McCarthy, Sylvia Rodriguez. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (American Psychological Association) 91 (2): 218–231. doi:10.1037/0022-3522.214.171.124. ISSN 0022-3514. PMID 16881760. Retrieved 2009-07-03.
- Carroll, Robert Todd (2003-07-17). "Psychokinesis". The Skeptic's Dictionary: a collection of strange beliefs, amusing deceptions, and dangerous delusions. Wiley. p. 316. ISBN 978-0-471-27242-7.
- Hines, Terence (2003). Pseudoscience and the Paranormal (2nd ed.). Prometheus. pp. 127–131. ISBN 978-1-57392-979-0.
- Genzmer, Herbert; Hellenbrand, Ulrich (March 2007). "Psychokinesis". Mysteries of the World: Unexplained Wonders and Mysterious Phenomena. Bath, United Kingdom: Parragon Books Ltd. p. 194. ISBN 978-1-4054-9022-1. Republished in 2012 as Myths and Mysteries of the World, same publisher and cited page number, new ISBN 978-1-4454-9026-7. The 2012 version is a boxed set that includes a DVD documentary. Page 194 (parenthetical material appears in the original): "One of the most puzzling categories within the parasciences is telekinesis or psychokinesis, an ability demonstrated by certain people who, using solely mental power and concentration, can move and change objects or leave them suspended in space and time. . . . Other related phenomena are the changing of particulars of the past (retropsychokinesis), starting fires using mental powers (pyrokinesis), transforming water into ice (cryokinesis) and manipulating wind (aerokinesis)." Page 195: "Unfortunately, in our day, a tidal wave of fraud has inundated psychokinesis. The perpetrators use methods similar to those of magicians and trick artists in variety shows. This ensures that the existence of telekinesis remains controversial."
- Colman, Andrew M. (1987). Facts, Fallacies and Frauds in Psychology. Unwin Hyman. pp. 195–6. ISBN 978-0-09-173041-3.
- Hutchinson, Mike (1988). "A Thorn in Geller's Side". British and Irish Skeptic (July/August): 2–4.
- Brian, Denis (November 2000). The Voice of Genius: Conversations with Nobel Scientists and Other Luminaries. New York: Basic Books, imprint of Perseus Books. p. 288. ISBN 978-0-7382-0447-5. ". . . parapsychologists are studying some of the unusual events recorded in the Bible: changing water into wine could be called psychokinesis; ... People have spoken of such things from early times and they seem to occur in every civilization."
- Heath, Pamela Rae, M.D., Psy.D. (July 2003). The PK Zone: A Cross-Cultural review of Psychokinesis. Bloomington, Indiana: iUniverse. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-595-27658-5. "Religion has seemed to provide fertile ground for both spontaneous and intentional PK. Every great religious tract of mankind includes stories of people with the ability to heal and to multiply food, such as the Bible says were performed by Jesus Christ."
- Guiley, Rosemary Ellen (1989). The Encyclopedia of Witches and Witchcraft. New York: Facts On File. p. 201. ISBN 0-8160-1793X. "In hauntings, witches, poltergeists, and fairies have been blamed for levitating people, animals, and objects."
- Sklar, Elizabeth Sherr; Hoffman, Donald L., eds. (2002). King Aurthur in Popular Culture. Mcfarland & Co Inc. Retrieved November 16, 2013. Page 226: "Such examples of Merlin's all-encompassing expertise overlap the most prolific category of all: that of wizard, through which the figure of Merlin has historically accreted new knowledge and skills as they are discovered. . . . oracular divination, levitation and telekinesis, invisibility, and shape-shifting."
- "Twenty Technologies That Can Give You Super Powers". Retrieved August 27, 2013. Toy description: "Super Power: Psychokinesis. Superhero with this power: Jean Grey. . . . Mattel's Mindflex allows players to move a ball around an obstacle course with their minds by reading brain waves, . . ."
- Gresh, Lois H.; Weinberg, Robert (2002). The Science of Superheroes. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wile & Sons, Inc. ISBN 978-0471024606. Page 131: "Every member of the X-Men had a code name that matched his or her super power. Thus, Archangel, Warren Worthington III, had wings and could fly. Cyclops, Scott Summers, shot deadly power beams from his eyes. Jean Grey, Marvel Girl, was a telekinetic and also a telepath. . . ."
- "Sony Playstation CellFactor®: Psychokinetic Wars". Retrieved August 27, 2013. Computer game description: "Manipulate your environment and kill your enemies with your choice of gunfire and/or telekinetic superpowers."
- Vance, Jack (January 1952). "Telek". Astounding Science Fiction.
- "Carrie:Overview". Retrieved September 30, 2011.
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- Windham, Ryder (2005, 2007, 2012). Star Wars: The Ultimate Visual Guide. New York City: Dorling Kindersley. ISBN 978-0-7566-9248-3. Page 19 "Object Movement": "Although such ability is commonly known as a Jedi's 'object movement' power, it is more accurately described as a manipulation of the Force — the energy field that surrounds and binds everything — to control the direction of objects through space. Jedi utilize this talent not only to push, pull, and lift objects, but also to redirect projectiles and guide their starships through combat." Page 21 "Sith Powers" [illustration caption]: "Levitating his adversary and choking him in a telekinetic stranglehold, Dooku simultaneously relieves Vos of his lightsaber."
- "Scanners (1981) - Rotten Tomatoes". Retrieved August 9, 2013. Quote: "The title of this David Cronenberg sci-fi horror film refers to a group of people who have telekinetic powers that allow them to read minds and give them the ability to make other people's heads explode."
- "Review: 'Chronicle' is smart about its telekinetic teens". Retrieved August 9, 2013. Los Angeles Times, February 3, 2012, by Betsy Sharkey, film critic.
- Minds and motion: the riddle of psychokinesis, D. Scott Rogo, Taplinger Pub. Co., 1978.
- To stretch a plank: a survey of psychokinesis, Diana Robinson, Nelson-Hall, 1981.
- Richard Wiseman (1997). Deception & self-deception: investigating psychics. ISBN 978-1-57392-121-3.
- James Randi (1982-06-01). Flim-flam!: psychics, ESP, unicorns, and other delusions. Pyr Books. ISBN 978-0-87975-198-2.
- James Houran; Rense Lange (2001-06-30). Hauntings and poltergeists: multidisciplinary perspectives. McFarland & Company. ISBN 978-0-7864-0984-6.
- Thomas Gilovich (1993). How we know what isn't so: the fallibility of human reason in everyday life. Free Press. ISBN 978-0-02-911706-4.
- The Global Consciousness Project hosted at Princeton University in the United States.
- "The Princeton Engineering Anomalies Research (PEAR)" entry in the online edition of the Skeptic's Dictionary by philosopher Robert Todd Carroll.
- Psychokinesis on the Open Directory Project