Telephone numbers in Russia
Telephone numbers in Russia are under a unified numbering plan with Kazakhstan, both of which share the international code +7. Historically, +7 was used as the country calling code for all of the Soviet Union. Following the Soviet break-up, all of its former republics, save for Russia and Kazakhstan, switched to new country codes. Following Abkhazia's unilateral secession from Georgia and recognition by Russia, Abkhazia switched to the Russian telephone codes +7 840 for landlines and +7 940 for mobile phones, though it still can be reached via the Georgian telephone code +995 44. 
Russia uses a four-level (local, zone, country, international) open dialing plan. Local telecommunications regulators had planned to abandon this system and change to a closed dialing plan at all levels by 2009, but postponed the changeover until 2010, and later pushed once more until 2012. Currently, all national subscriber numbers consist of 10 digits (excluding any prefixes), with 3 digits for an area code and a 7-digit individual number which includes a zone code.
- 1 Long distance and international prefixes
- 2 Placing long distance and international calls
- 3 Dialing pattern
- 4 Area codes
- 5 Toll-free & pay-line codes
- 6 Special numbers (emergencies)
- 7 Perspectives
- 8 See also
- 9 References
Long distance and international prefixes
The international dialing prefix in Russia is "8~10"—callers dial "8", wait for a tone, and then dial "10", followed by the country code, area code, and number. The long distance prefix is "8~". There are plans to change those prefixes to "0" for national and "00" for international dialing, but they are not yet implemented.
Placing long distance and international calls
When making long distance or international calls, a subscriber may choose either of two providers: Pre-Select or Hot-Choice. If a subscriber prefers Pre-Select, he calls a prescribed free number (8-800-333-0990 for MTT or 8-800-100-2525 RT) and signs up initially for service. He may also sign a statement at the phone company indicating his choice of provider. With this provider, the prefixes and dialing procedures for non-local calls are the ones currently in use. The default regulation in Moscow is Hot-Choice (not available yet on all exchanges; regional operators apply their own regulation depending on availability). Available operators are:
- Rostelekom (RT)
- Mezhregionalnyi TranzitTelekom (MTT)
- Golden Telecom (Sovintel (GT))—not active on consumer market
- TransTelekom (TTK)—not active on consumer market
- Orange—not active on consumer market
- Comstar—only active in Moscow
- Arctel—not active on consumer market
- Synterra—not active on consumer market
The dialing pattern for Hot-Choice subscribers is different. After dialing "8", the subscriber waits for a tone and then dials the operator code (OC) either for a long distance call or an international call.
|Operator||Long distance call code||International call code|
Note: the tone signal after dialing "8" is compulsory on old analog (with pulse mode dialing) exchanges and optional on digital (tone mode dialing) exchanges.
Calls within a city or region
xxx-xx-xx (exception: Moscow—see below), e.g.:
Local phone numbers in Russia may be made up of five (x-xx-xx), six (xx-xx-xx), or seven (xxx-xx-xx) digits.
Moscow City has two area codes assigned: 495 and 499.
- when calling from 495 and 499 to 499: 8.499.xxx-xx-xx
- when calling from 499 and 495 to 495: 8.495.xxx-xx-xx
Calls between these two codes are local calls and are not charged at long distance rates.
Calls between cities/regions within Russia
Pre-Selected Operator: 8-tone-ABC xxx-xx-xx (where ABC is the area code)
- e.g. 8.812.234-56-78 (to St. Petersburg)
Hot-Choice Operator selection: 8-tone-OC ABC xxx-xx-xx (where OC is the Operator Code and ABC is the area code)
- e.g. 8.53.812.234-56-78 (to St. Petersburg via MTT)
International calls from Russia
Pre-Selected Operator: 8-tone-10 International number
- e.g. 8.10.44 20 3456-6789 (to London/UK)
Hot-Choice Operator selection: 8-tone-OC International number where OC is the Operator Code
- e.g. 8.58.44 20 3456-6789 (to London/UK via MTT)
Calls from outside Russia
+7 ABC xxx-xx-xx (where ABC is the area code)
|First digit of code||Routed to|
|0||Not used (long distance and international prefix)|
|1||Not used (for special services)|
|2||Reserved (for common usage with Kazakhstan)|
|6||Used for numbers in Kazakhstan|
|7||Used for numbers in Kazakhstan.|
|8||Geographic codes, Toll-Free, and Pay-Line (for common usage with Kazakhstan and Abkhazia)|
|9||Mobile, GSM, & Pay-Line (code 940 is for Abkhazia mobiles)|
List of area codes in Russia
The dialing code 495 was introduced on 1 December 2005 to replace 095, in order to make it possible to adopt the ITU convention of 0 and 00 dialing prefixes for local and international dialing respectively. The old '095' dialing code, along with 19 other Russian area codes starting with '0', expired on 31 January 2006.
Toll-free & pay-line codes
|801||AAB: Automatic alternative billing|
|802||CCC: Credit card calling|
|804||UAN: Universal access number|
|805||PCC: Prepaid card calling|
|806||ACC: Account card calling|
|807||VPN: Virtual private network|
|808||UPT: Universal personal Telecommunication|
|809||PRM: Premium rate|
|970||Data transfer services|
Special numbers (emergencies)
|01||Fire & Rescue|
|07||Directory assistance, Rostelecom|
|09||Directory assistance (free, limited info)|
|009||Directory assistance (pay service, 35 rubles/min.) in Moscow|
|100||Talking clock in Moscow|
The telecommunications infrastructure in Russia is being reformed and modernized; this project is expected to be finished in 2012. Prior to completion, all cities and settlements in the Russian Federation will have a modern landline-telephone infrastructure. Use of "0" and "00" as the long-distance call and international call prefixes will become standard (this was scheduled for 2008, but authorities are first introducing the soon-to-be-universal emergency "112" number and canceling special numbers starting with "0"). Domestic regulators plan to have this scheme in place by early 2012. Their intent is to increase the number of regions connected to 112 year by year: two in 2007, six in 2008, 24 in 2009, 44 in 2010, etc. These changes are aimed at bringing local regulations into compliance with ITU and EU recommendations.
- Abkhazia remains available by Georgian phone codes, today.az, 2010-01-06, retrieved 2010-01-20
- К 2010 г. Россия дойдет до нулей
- Выход по телефону на межгород через «8» сохранится до конца 2012 г.
- Russian numbering plan (in Russian), approved on 17 November 2006
- Mezhregionalnyi TranzitTelekom
- Golden Telecom