All-Russia State Television and Radio Broadcasting Company
|Federal State Unitary Enterprise "All-Russia State Television and Radio Broadcasting Company"
|Type||Broadcast radio and television,
online and printing
|Owner||wholly owned by Federal Government (as unitary enterprise)|
|Russian Television and Radio Broadcasting Company (RTR)|
The All-Russia State Television and Radio Broadcasting Company (Russian: Всероссийская государственная телевизионная и радиовещательная компания, Vserossiyskaya gosudarstvennaya televizionnaya i radioveshchatelnaya kompaniya), shortly VGTRK (Russian: ВГТРК) is a Russian state-owned unitary enterprise which operates a large number of television and radio channels founded in 1990. As of 2010 VGTRK broadcasts its own programs in 53 of the languages of Russia.
The broadcasting of the All-Russia TV and radio channels is organised by the Federal Center for TV/Radio Programme Distribution, located in Moscow, and also via the regional transmitting centres of the Russian Television and Radio Broadcasting Network forming the terrestrial transmitting network. TV and radio channels from Moscow are delivered to the regions via satellite and terrestrial communication channels.
On June 21, 1990 the 1st Congress of People's Deputies adopts a resolution on RSFSR media ascribing the RSFSR Council of Ministers take measures to establish the Committee for Television and Radio Broadcasting of the RSFSR. On July 14, 1990 the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR's decree establishes the Russian State Television and Radio Broadcasting Company.
The first chairman of the All-Russian State Television and Radio Company was appointed the former deputy editor of the newspaper Moscow News, Oleg Poptsov Maksimovic.
On December 10, 1990 Radio Rossii began broadcasting. It first began broadcasting on a radio channel with the first program of All-Union Radio, as well as with "Mayak" radio channel and the third with the Third All-Union Radio program. Since the beginning of 1991 "Radio Russia" was broadcast only on the third radio channel with the radio channel "Youth". In the August of 1991, Radio Rossii started broadcasting on the main radio channel "Radio 1" while "Youth" moves to a radio frequency.
On May 13, 1991 the VGTRK began broadcasting television to Russia (originally scheduled to begin broadcasting in March 1991 but constantly postponed) and broadcasts with the Second Central Television program. On September 16, 1991 the Second Program of USSR Central Television closed and airtime on the second VHF channel had started.
On July 6, 1992, the fourth channel started broadcasting to Russian universities, and broadcast with the 4th channel, Ostankino, until January 16, 1994, and from January 17, 1994, with the NTV channel, and as a part RTR state television which had created the "Russian Universities" feed.
In February 1996, by Presidential decree of Boris Yeltsin, Oleg Poptsov stepped down from the post of RTR Chairman despite the protests of the creative team. Edward Sagalev was appointed president of RTR's "Moscow Independent Broadcasting Corporation (MIBC)" TV6 Moscow.
On November 11, 1996, the "Russian Universities" feed stopped broadcasting, and its airtime passed to NTV. The first satellite TV networks "The RTR TV network", "Meteor Sports"and "Meteor Cinema" were launched. According to the magazine "Ogonek", it was a worthy competition to satellite operator NTV Plus, then part of a holding known in English as Media Bridge.
On November 1, 1997 the VGTRK began broadcasting an educational channel called "Culture". It began broadcasting on a VHF channel.
On May 8, 1998, the presidential decree "On Improvement of Public Electronic Media" was created by information holding RTR. On the basis of the decree of the All-Russian State Television and Radio Company became the All-Russian radio station "Mayak" and the Russian State Radio Company Voice of Russia.
In 2000, VGTRK became one of the leading members of Euronews and organized the Russian service of this organization. In 2002, VGTRK acquired a share in Euronews' stock.
On 26 February 2004, the Russian government issued a decree №111 "On the Russian State Television and Radio Broadcasting Company" which ordered the reorganization of VGTRK through affiliation of subsidiaries, including regional vGTRK companies which were converted into branches, and RTRS derived from the holding as an independent organization. By the end of 2004, the scale of the reorganization became obvious. Local news programs were organized on network principles and local companies turned into "retransmitters" of the Moscow-produced content. VGTRK management had decided to cut all types of broadcasting in the regions, except news. This decision caused an inevitable reduction of VGTRK broadcasting volume from 900-1,200 to 590 hours, the closure of whole subdivisions and departments and the dismissal of hundreds of employees in each of the 89 companies.
After a request sent to the State Duma, at a meeting in February 2005 of VGTRK Chairmen and VGTRK management with the participation of Oleg Dobrodeyev and the President’s representative Dmitry Kozak, several companies (especially republic wide channels like Kalmyk VGTRK) were allowed to increase the volume of their broadcasting, and agreements on the more rational use of the Second Channel were reached.
On December 3, 2012, the VGTRK began test broadcasts of the first Russian cinema TV channel, "Kino-TV". On December 17, 2012, the VGTRK began test broadcasts in high definition with the high definition TV channel Rossiya HD. On December 29, 2012 at 20:00 GMT, Rossiya HD started regular broadcasting. On January 29, 2013 at the Annual Exhibition and Forum of Television and Telecommunications (CSTB-2013), RTR announced the merger of nine digital channels under a single brand, called "Digital TV". It includes cognitive, sports, entertainment and movie channels, of which are "Russian-HD", "My Planet", "Science 2.0", "Sport", "Sport-1-HD", "Fight Club", "The Russian Novel", "Russian Bestseller", and "Dress". On May 9, 2013 at 15:00 GMT, the channel began broadcasting a documentary about Russian history "History", of which had also entered the TV package "Digital TV". On April 4, 2014 the VGTRK officially began broadcasting a channel dedicated to domestic detective films and TV series under the name of "Russian Detective". April 15, 2014 saw the launch of the official international cognitive entertainment channel IQ HD.
VGTRK currently owns and operates five national television stations, two international networks, five radio stations, and over 80 regional TV and radio networks. It also runs the information agency RIA Novosti.
The All-Russian State Television and Radio Broadcasting Company (VGTRK) is Russia's largest media corporation. At present, the All-Russian State Television and Radio Broadcasting Company comprises three national TV channels: "Rossiya 1", "Rossiya K", and "Rossiya 2" and also broadcasts "Bibigon",the first public state television channel for children and youth, 89 regional TV and radio channels broadcasting in all regions of the Russian Federation, "Rossiya 24", Russia's first 24/7 news channel, "RTR Planeta", a TV channel operating worldwide since 2002; a Russian-language version of the "Euronews" TV channel; five radio channels: "Radio Rossiyi", "Mayak" (Lighthouse), "Kultura", "Vesti FM", "Yunost", and "Rossiya", and a public Internet channel combining dozens of online resources.
In early 1993, the All-Russian State Television and Radio Broadcasting Company acquired the status of a national broadcasting company. That same year, the VGTRK became a full member of the European Broadcasting Union, entitled to key decisions in the EBU operation.
"Rossiya 1", the main TV channel, traces its history back to May 1991. Today, Rossiya 1 is a leading national channel that broadcasts over most of the country. The channel's audience comprises 98.5 per cent of Russia's population and more than 50 million viewers in the CIS and Baltic countries. The "RTR Planeta" channel, an international version of "Rossiya 1", is watched in the U.S., Europe, Middle East, North Africa and China.
Rossiya TV is a developing company whose broadcasts carry such genres as information programs, TV miniseries and series, political journalism, talk shows, game shows, comedies and other game formats, full-length feature films and documentaries, sporting and political events along with other entertainment. In the past few years, Rossiya TV has become an active player in film production.
Apart from acquiring broadcasting rights, Rossiya TV Channel was the first among the Russian TV channels to launch its own large-scale production of TV films, both full-length and miniseries. A distinguishing feature of the series broadcast by the TV channel is its focus on classics. Screen adaptations of classic works by Russian writers have drawn large audiences and established new standards in TV film production. Films represent about 35% of the total broadcasts by the Rossiya TV channel. The channel purchases film broadcasting rights in cooperation with 50 major production and distributor companies. The main news program, Vesti, is the leading information program in Russia. During the previous TV season, Vesti adopted a 24/7 production cycle with two-hour intervals, which allows for the news to be broadcast live across all Russian time zones. The VGTRK has been licensed rights to broadcast the World Cup, Winter and Summer Olympic Games, Russian Football Championship and other major Russian and international sporting events.
- Russia-1 (Россия-1) — entertainment, news (formerly Russia, RTR-1 & RTR)
- Russia-2 (Россия-2) — sports, entertainment (formerly Sport)
- Russia-24 (Россия-24) — news channel (formerly Vesti)
- Russia-K (Россия-К) — culture channel (formerly Culture, RTR-2)
- Carousel (Карусель) — children & teenager channel (jointly with Channel One Russia)
- RTR-Planeta (РТР-планета) — internationally broadcasting channel
- My Planet (Моя планета) – documentary channel
- Nauka 2.0 (Наука 2.0) – documentary channel
- Strana (Страна) – documentary channel
- Sarafan (Сарафaн) – entertainment channel
- Fight Club – sports channel, boxing
- Sport —all-Russian sports channel
- Sport-1 – first pay-TV sports channel
- Moscow 24 (Москва 24) — News channel broadcasting in Moscow (formerly Stolitsa)
- The Russian-language edition of Euronews named "Euronews-Russia"(Euronews-Россия) or "Евроновости"
- Russia HD (Россия HD) — The best of the VGTRK in HD
- History (История) — channel on Russian and World History
- At least 90 regional TV channels in Russia
- Radio Kultura – cultural radio
- Radio Mayak – general entertainment, current affairs, and adult contemporary music
- Radio Rossii – talk radio and regional programming
- Radio Yunost – mostly European and American pop music
- Vesti FM – news radio
- Oleg Poptsov (1990—96)
- Eduard Sagalayev (1996—97)
- Nikolay Svanidze (1997—98)
- Mikhail Shvydkoy (1998—2000)
- Oleg Dobrodeev (since 2000)
- VGTRK Official website (Russian)