Television New Zealand
||The neutrality of this article is disputed. (September 2012)|
|Country||Auckland, New Zealand|
|Availability||Nationally (New Zealand) and some Pacific Island nations such as the Cook Islands, Fiji, and the Solomon Islands.|
|Slogan||Our Nation Our Voice.|
|Key people||Rick Ellis, Anton Vassilenko|
Television New Zealand, more commonly referred to and stylized as TVNZ, is a government-owned national broadcaster broadcasting in New Zealand and parts of the Pacific region. Although the network identifies as a national, part-public broadcaster, it is essentially fully commercially funded, and is constantly in ratings battles with its main rival MediaWorks New Zealand, which currently operates channels TV3, Four, and C4.
TVNZ operates playout services from its Auckland studio via Kordia's fibre and microwave network for TV One, TV2, TVNZ Heartland, TVNZ U and TVNZ Kidzone24 with new media video services via the US owned Brightcove which is streamed on the US owned Akamai RTMP network. Its former channels include TVNZ 7 (closed June 2012), TVNZ 6 (closed 2011), and TVNZ Sport Extra (closed 2009, but a re-launch is possible).
The TVNZ board is appointed by Minister of Broadcasting Craig Foss. Members are: the chairman Sir John Anderson KBE (Wellington), Anne Blackburn (Auckland), Bryan Gould CNZM (Opotiki), Sir John Goulter, KNZM, JP (Paihia), June McCabe (Auckland) and Joan Withers (Auckland).
TVNZ was created in 1980, through the merger of Television One and TV2 (formerly South Pacific Television). Until 1988 it was paired with Radio New Zealand as the Broadcasting Corporation of New Zealand (BCNZ).
The Labour-led government under Helen Clark from 1999 to 2008 pursued a programme of public broadcasting reforms. New Zealand’s wide-ranging adoption of neoliberal policies in the mid-1980s and 1990s had large sections of the state sector privatised. As a state owned enterprise, TVNZ enjoyed enormous commercial success (sustaining two thirds of the overall audience share) and paid the Crown substantial dividends (over $250 million between 1989 and 1999). However, the commercial success had been achieved through an unabashed pursuit of ratings through populist and tabloid content, and prior to the 1999 election the National-led government was evidently positioning TVNZ for privatisation Labour-led administrations since 1999 explicitly recognised the market failures of a wholly commercial broadcasting sector (e.g. saturation-level advertising, low levels of local content, heavy reliance on cheap imports and a disregard for quality genres and in-depth news and current affairs) and re-emphasised television’s cultural and democratic functions in their policy thinking.
The Clark government’s highest profile broadcasting reform to date was the restructuring of TVNZ as a Crown Entity in 2003. This introduced a dual remit whereby the broadcaster had to maintain its commercial performance (continuing dividend payments to the Crown) while simultaneously implementing a new public service Charter.
The TVNZ Charter would require the negotiation and reconciliation of potentially contradictory commercial and public service imperatives. The final version of the TVNZ Charter included a range of public service objectives and expectations.
However, this dual remit precluded any transformation of TVNZ into fully-fledged public service broadcaster, and TVNZ’s efforts to balance its pursuit of commercial performance and Charter objectives were soon being criticised. Despite some investment in local content, including new documentaries and discussion programmes, the content on TV One and TV2 remained similar to the pre-charter schedules, with a continuing high proportion of light entertainment and reality-TV shows.
TVNZ continues to pay dividends to the Crown. However from 2006 until 2009 TVNZ received $15.11 million each year from Government to assist it with fulfilling Charter obligations. There was much debate about the initial secrecy surrounding funding allocations and the programmes supported. The allocation of $5 million toward coverage of the 2008 Olympics, the rights for which are secured by a competitive tender between broadcasters, was possibly the most controversial. In 2009 the Government gave control of that funding to funding agency NZ On Air. NZ On Air announced the creation of the contestable "Platinum Fund" in April 2009, setting aside the $15.11 million for high quality drama, documentary and other programme types. Following the election of a National Party-led government under John Key in 2008, the Charter was abolished in favour of a return to the 1990s model of a full commercial broadcaster. 
There is much debate on the future of TVNZ, which focuses on the nature of public service broadcasting and its commercial role. An example was in a memo called A More Public Broadcaster written by outgoing Chief Executive Ian Fraser to the board of TVNZ in October 2005, was obtained and released by Green MP Sue Kedgley. The memo outlined three options.
- TV One as a fully non-commercial network, like ABC in Australia, charged with delivering Charter values, and possibly merging with Radio New Zealand and Maori Television
- TV One a semi-commercial broadcaster with no more than six minutes of advertisements an hour like SBS in Australia
- TV One and TV2 remaining unchanged, but two new public service channels being broadcast via digital television. 
- TV One and TV2 are now fully commercial with 15 – 20 minutes of ads per hour, plus ads overplayed over programs.
On 15 February 2006, a group of 31 prominent New Zealanders signed an open letter, published as a full-page newspaper advertisement, calling for better quality programmes and less advertising on TVNZ. These included mountaineer Sir Edmund Hillary, and former Governors-General Sir Michael Hardie Boys and Dame Catherine Tizard. However, they were accused of being out of touch and nostalgic for local programmes from the 1970s, when New Zealand had only one or two TV channels.
While the Broadcasting Minister, Steve Maharey ruled out turning TVNZ into an entirely non-commercial broadcaster, on 25 February, he stated that the Labour Government was "pretty much settled" on the introduction of two new free-to-air, non-commercial channels available via digital television. One channel could show high-end international documentaries, re-runs of One News and minority programmes with a high local content, and another, primarily for children, screening serious drama and arts at night. 
On 14 November 2006, TVNZ announced plans to launch two commercial-free digital channels. The first, with the working title TVNZ News 24, would feature news, sport and special interest content, and be launched in late 2007. This would be followed by a channel featuring children's, families', arts and documentary programming, with the working title of TVNZ Home, in early 2008.  While 80 per cent of the programming would be local content, 70 per cent of this would consist of repeats from TVNZ's existing channels or its archive.
In April 2008, TVNZ made another purchase of even more expensive Harmonic branded H.264 encoding equipment for the upcoming Freeview HD DTT service, which are the Electra 7000 for HD and Electra 5400 for SD on-the-fly video re-encoders.
The proposal was criticised by TV3, which accused the Government of "bailing out" TVNZ and argued that the money would be better spent on new programming  Although Sue Kedgely welcomed the decision to make the channels (including children's programming) commercial-free, she accused the Government of tight-fistedness.
In late 2011, TVNZ and its pay-TV rival Sky Network Television announced the joint venture Igloo, which is to provide a low-cost pay-TV service for households not currently covered by Freeview or SKY.
In addition to debates over whether TVNZ should be a public broadcaster or a commercial one, there have been other controversies.
For 3 weeks in January–February 1999, John Hawkesby became a weekday newsreader for One News, replacing Richard Long (who moved to presenting weekend bulletins alongside Liz Gunn). The change was short-lived, and Hawkesby received a $5.2m payout.
In 2000, the Broadcasting Standards Authority ruled against TVNZ over inaccuracies in a news story about the drug Lyprinol, which was erroneously touted as a cure for cancer. .
In 2004 current affairs veteran of 15 years Paul Holmes sparked a public outcry after he referred to United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan as a "cheeky darkie" on his radio show on Newstalk ZB and subsequently chose not to renew his contract at TVNZ.
Also in 2004 there was the public outcry over newsreader Judy Bailey's $800,000 salary package, negotiated with head of news and current affairs at TVNZ Bill Ralston, she finished her final 12-month contract the following year after 34 years working at the broadcaster.
In late 2010, TVNZ garnered criticism over various comments made by Breakfast host Paul Henry. Henry had referred to Delhi Commonwealth Games organiser Sheila Dikshit as "the dip shit woman" and "Dick Shit", going on to state that "it's so appropriate, because she's Indian, so she'd be dick-in-shit wouldn't she, do you know what I mean? Walking along the street... she's just so funny, isn't she?" Henry also questioned whether the Governor-General of New Zealand Anand Satyanand was "even a New Zealander", going on to ask, "Are you going to choose a New Zealander who looks and sounds like a New Zealander this time ... are we going to go for someone who is more like a New Zealander this time?" Following widespread public complaints and official criticism, Henry was suspended from TVNZ for 2 weeks without pay, eventually resigning from the broadcaster. Henry's resignation polarised the New Zealand public, with supporters claiming he was a victim of political correctness, and critics accusing him of pandering to the lowest common denominator.
In mid-2011 New Zealand National Party announced a new charter for Television New Zealand. Since then, TVNZ's main goal is to "showcase a national identity". For 3 years in the early 2000s, much like its radio counterpart Radio New Zealand and ABC TV in Australia, TVNZ became a fully public service network. This was abolished under new TVNZ management in 2005. In 2008 New Zealand Labour Party-led government announced to TVNZ stuff they must strive to become "more public-service" like. TVNZ obeyed by launching two commercial free channels; TVNZ 6 and TVNZ 7. By 2011 New Zealand prime minister John Key announced the closure of these channels. 6 in 2011, and 7 in mid-2012, with much of their content put into TVNZ Heartland and TVNZ Kidzone24 which are only available behind a SKY TV paywall. Prior to the 21st century TVNZ was seen as a public service, as it was originally designed to be. TVNZ still holds public service responsibilities — albeit much diminished — broadcasting such shows, mainly on TV One, in the late hours of the night, and on Sunday mornings. New Zealanders have campaigned for a stronger public service system, like that of the one in the United Kingdom, where all networks are permitted to be public service.
TV One 
- Launched: 1 June 1960
- Total audience share: 58%
- Programming: Food, Public, News, Sport, Information, drama and comedy.
The channel, once the traditional home of television sport, has since lost the rights to most of the world's main sporting events, including the Olympics, the Commonwealth Games and All Blacks test matches to pay television competitor Sky. TV One also broadcasts rural focused programmes such as Country Calender and Rural Delivery, Maori community presentations such as Waka Huia, Marae Investigates and Te Karere, a daily Te Reo news bulletin, and shows for minorities, such as Attitude, Neighbourhood, A Taste of Home and Tagata Pasifika. Elsewhere TV One specializes in food shows, including the locally produced Masterchef, and international shows, mostly from the BBC and Network Ten Australia.
TV One Plus 1 
TV One Plus 1 was launched on 1 July 2012, a time shift channel, screening TV One programming one hour behind. This channel replaced TVNZ 7
- Launched: 30 June 1975
- Audience share: n/a
- Programming: Drama, Kids, Comedy and Youth.
TV2 targets a younger audience than TV One. TV2's line up consists of dramas, sitcoms, and reality shows, most of which are produced in New Zealand or imported from the United States.
Locally produced content includes Shortland Street, Motorway Patrol and What Now?, and international shows (which are predominantly American) include Two and a Half Men, Grey's Anatomy, Desperate Housewives and Gossip Girl. TV2 is sold by TVNZ as the "home of entertainment". It is marketed as the first to air local drama and kids programmes.
TVNZ U 
- Launched: 13 March 2011
- Programming: Youth, Music, Gaming, Fashion and Informative.
TVNZ launched U in March 2011. U is a 24-hour youth orientated channel available via both Freeview and SKY. TVNZ U was launched to fill the gap when TVNZ6 closed in 2011. However, TVNZ U has almost no New Zealand made programmes. U LIVE and IAMTV are the only local productions on the channel. As apposed to TVNZ 6, which had over 12 hours a day of New Zealand made, public television. TVNZ U specializes in musical tastes, reality, gaming, fashion and informative youth orientated documentaries.
TVNZ Heartland 
- Launched: 1 June 2010
- Programming: Kiwiana, Classical, Drama, Comedy, Informative.
TVNZ Heartland is a pay-TV channel that launched on the SKY Television platform on 1 June 2010. It is TVNZ's first channel available exclusively on a pay-TV platform and features 100% New Zealand made programming, mostly sourced from the TVNZ archives.
TVNZ Kidzone 24 
- Launched: 1 May 2011
- Programming: Kids, Educational.
Other services 
Internationally, TVNZ has helped provide television services in Pacific Island nations such as the Cook Islands, Fiji, and the Solomon Islands. While TVNZ provides much of the programming, scheduling and continuity are done locally.
Because of its history TVNZ has inherited and developed its own services in the production and broadcasting services area. These include The New Zealand Television Archive, production facilities, television school.
TVNZ also operated the website nzoom.com for a number of years. The site was an internet portal with news purchased from Radio New Zealand its own content and also content produced by its own staff. It was rebranded in 2004 as tvnz.co.nz.
TVNZ ondemand 
TVNZ have a large variety of both New Zealand and international shows on TVNZ ondemand, however they are unavailable to watch three months after airing, and the service is not suited for dialup use.
TVNZ ondemand is Television New Zealand's online television viewing and downloading website, launched in March 2007. Although the content on this site is only available from within New Zealand, a selection is made available to an international audience via their YouTube channel.
TVNZ began a Teletext service in 1984 originally with the intention to help New Zealand's deaf community get improved access to news and information. A captioning service was available for certain television shows and could be accessed by browsing to page 801. The TVNZ Teletext service could be received on all TVNZ channels and the TVNZ service could be received on TV3 including captioning of some TV3 shows. Trackside also operated a Teletext service called TAB Text which only displayed the racing pages of Teletext.
A Teletext capable television was usually required to receive Teletext. With the arrival of digital television services such as Freeview, Teletext could be received through a Freeview decoder. In this case captions were normally accessed by subtitle button on a Freeview remote.
In December 2012 TVNZ announced the closure of their Teletext service from the 3rd of April 2013. The captioning service will however continue to be available. TVNZ cited the reasons for the closure due to a decline in use particularly since most services are now available from the TVNZ website or other websites. 
On 26 March 2009 TVNZ announced that it had acquired a 33% stake in Hybrid Television Services (67% owned by Australia's Seven Media Group). Hybrid TV is the exclusive licensee of TiVo products in Australia and New Zealand. On the same day it was announced that TiVo would be arriving in New Zealand by Christmas 2009 (Hybrid launched it in Australia in July 2008).
Discontinued services 
Between 1995 and 1997, TVNZ operated a network of regional TV stations under the 'Horizon Pacific' name and through a subsidiary called Horizon Pacific Television. Its broadcasted content included BBC World and NZ documentary programming. The network consisted of newly formed stations in Hamilton, Wellington and Dunedin and CTV, a station they purchased based in Christchurch. CTV is still broadcasting, but is no longer owned by TVNZ.
Horizon Pacific was replaced by a local 'free to air' version of the music video channel MTV, based on MTV's UK service and local programming, although the channel was dropped in 1998. Prior to MTV's demise, TVNZ had bought the channel's competitor, MaxTV.
TVNZ also operated a satellite services division organising and downlink facilities and across the globe, but this service was wound down in 2005.
TVNZ operated TVNZ 6 from 2007 to 2011. TVNZ 6 was a digital-only, commercial-free television channel. It was available in 60.3% of New Zealand homes on the Freeview and SKY Television Digital platforms. TVNZ 6 was on air daily from 6 am to midnight.
TVNZ 7, launched in March 2008, was a commercial-free news and information channel. It was available via the Freeview and SKY platforms. The New Zealand Government, under Prime Minister John Key and Broadcasting Minister Jonathan Coleman decided to discontinue funding for TVNZ 7. The final broadcast ended at midnight on June 30, 2012. TVNZ 7 was replaced with time shift channel TVOne plus 1.
Transmission network 
Technical notes 
- While Australia also uses PAL B on VHF, the frequency allocations of NZ differ somewhat from Australia.
- Australia uses PAL B (7 MHz channel spacing) for UHF, so most UHF channels are on different frequencies.
- For stereo sound New Zealand uses NICAM, but Australia uses Zweiton
- Because of these differences, some Australian TV sets (when taken to NZ) are only be capable of mono sound reproduction, and many VHF channels may not be received (properly) or come in at all.
- TVNZ (for historical and technical reasons) uses the greatest number of VHF frequencies in New Zealand.
NICAM stereo 
New Zealand has a near nationwide implementation of NICAM stereo sound for TV One and TV2. NICAM stereo was first made available on TV2 in the Auckland region in 1989, also during the early 1990s Simulated Stereo was available in Wellington on TV2. NICAM stereo was not rolled out to the rest of the country or onto TV One until 1996 and for some regions (such as Southland) NICAM was not available until 2001. Rival networks TV3 has offered NICAM stereo in all available regions since its launch in 1989 this is also the case with Prime TV. Stereo sound is available on all TVNZ channels if accessed through Sky Digital or Freeview.
High Definition 
TVNZ has offered HD broadcasts since July/August 2008, when the 2008 Summer Olympics were broadcast in High Definition. The service is offered on the Freeview|HD platform, using DVB-T transmission. Only TV One and TV2 are offered in HD, and the majority of programming is still up-converted from Standard Definition. From 1 July 2009 the HD versions of TV One and TV2 became available to Sky TV subscribers who have the MySky HDi decoders. Content on the HD versions of TV One and 2 are the same as the Standard Definition versions however when watching certain shows that broadcast in High Definition the HD logo is displayed next to the channel logo, this logo is not seen when watching the same show on the Standard Definition versions of TV1 and 2.
TVNZ has adopted 1080i as their HD broadcast format.
Kordia, formerly BCL, TVNZ's transmission partner 
TVNZ's transmission network is operated by Kordia, formerly a subsidiary of TVNZ known as Broadcast Communications Limited until 2006. The company owns and operates the terrestrial transmission network used for broadcast of all major terrestrial television networks in New Zealand, including TV3 and Prime Television - TVNZ's major competitors, along with other voice and data telecommunications services.
TVNZ's current television networks TV1 and TV2 are fed as distinct feeds to viewers based on defined regions though this is only for the purpose of targeted regional advertising as the company discontinued regional news programming in the late 1980s. TVNZ's predecessor, NZBC started as distinct stations in the major metropolitan centres. Nationwide networked services were first introduced in 1969 to broadcast a tape of the moon landing flown specially from Australia simultaneously across all stations. TVNZ also used to run telethons up until 1990 at locations around the country, viewers would be shown full coverage of the Telethon nearest their location. Originally when TVNZ began broadcasting TV1 and TV2 on Sky Digital at the end of 2001 viewers would see only nationwide or Auckland advertisements when watching these channels through the Sky Digital service. In 2004 this was changed to show advertisements from either Auckland, Wellington or Christchurch with viewers outside of these regions seeing advertisements from the closest region. This was again dropped in March 2007 with a return to only nationwide advertising on TVNZ channels on Sky Digital. Today TVNZ only produces regional advertising for TV One, TV2 shows the same advertising across all of New Zealand. Regional advertising is shown on TV One on both Digital and Analogue platforms however those that receive the HD version of TV One through mySky HD will see Auckland advertisements.
Wellington-based Avalon Studios, long a nucleus of TV production in New Zealand, was finally put up for sale by TVNZ in 2011, with most of its remaining shows relocating to Auckland, completing a trend of northward drift by the broadcaster. TV production was spread evenly around the country in the 1970s, but according to Wellington-based TV personalities, the drift to Auckland began in 1980 with the formation of TVNZ, and the subsequent relocation of the TV One newsroom and headquarters to Auckland under then Prime Minister Robert Muldoon.
In Christchurch the original TVNZ studios were located at Gloucester Street in the NZBC owned building used to broadcast 3YA and 3ZB. A 14 storey building was also built on Worcester Street as studios for various TVNZ shows, notable shows to be filmed here included What Now, and The Son of a Gunn Show. In 1998 TVNZ closed their Christchurch studios. What Now was moved north for a few years however moved back to Christchurch to be filmed at the privately owned Whitebait studios. Prior to the 2011 Christchurch earthquake on 22 February the Worcester Street building continued to house Christchurch radio stations previously owned by Radio New Zealand and now owned by The Radio Network, stations included Newstalk ZB, Classic Hits 97.7 and 91ZM. The Gloucester Street building remained as Christchurch based newsroom for TVNZ until the building was badly damaged in the quake, and has since been demolished. The Worcester Street building was demolished on 5 August 2012 by implosion.
The Dunedin studios were used to film many iconic shows, such as Play School, University Challenge, Beauty and the Beast, and Spot On. When TVNZ scaled back its Dunedin studios in 1989, they were purchased by Ian Taylor, the founder of Animation Research and Taylormade Media.
DVB-S availability 
Civil Defence 
TVNZ's functions are subject to lifeline utility requirements under NZ civil defence legislation. In practice, this status as a lifeline utility requires TVNZ to be able to function at least to a reduced level after an emergency, and to provide advice to civil defence authorities when requested.
TVNZ's major competitors in the television market are
New Zealand shows 
See also 
- TVNZ Board, TVNZ website
- "Dikshit giggles: New Henry drama". Stuff. 6 October 2010. Retrieved 6 October 2010.
- "TVNZ’s Paul Henry slammed over Governor-General remarks". The Spy Report (Media Spy). 4 October 2010. Retrieved 4 October 2010.
- "Henry causes a stir - again". Stuff. 4 October 2010. Retrieved 4 October 2010.
- Vass, Beck (15 January 2011). "Henry foes, fans evenly split". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 19 November 2011.
- Scoop - Opinion by Peter Thompson
- "Teletext service to end next year". 13 December, 2012. Retrieved 10 March, 2013.
- "TVNZ brings TiVo to the nation". One News. 26 March 2009. Retrieved 19 November 2011.
- Cardno, James. History never repeats New Zealand Listener. 27 September - 3 October 2003 Vol 190 No 3307
- "TVNZ moving Good Morning, selling Avalon studio". The Dominion Post. 5 April 2011. Retrieved 17 September 2011.
- Tom Hunt and Paul Easton (11 April 2011). "The rise and fall of Avalon". The Dominion Post. Retrieved 17 September 2011.
- Drinnan, John (17 December 2010). "Mallard sees red over Avalon Studios". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 17 September 2011.
- Christchurch building to be imploded
- Otago Daily Times, 31 Dec 2011 - Taylor credits staff, partners, wife for success