Television in Canada
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Television in Canada officially began with the opening of the nation's first television stations in Montreal and Toronto in 1952. As with most media in Canada, the television industry, and the television programming available in that country, are strongly influenced by the American media, perhaps to an extent not seen in any other major industrialized nation outside the U.S. itself. As a result, the government institutes quotas for "Canadian content". Nonetheless, new content is often aimed at a broader North American audience, although the similarities may be less pronounced in the predominantly French-language province of Quebec.
Development of television 
Television in Canada actually pre-dates any telecasts originating in the country, since thousands of television sets capable of receiving U.S.-based signals were installed in homes near the U.S. border between 1946 and 1952. Homes in southern and southwestern Ontario and portions of British Columbia, including the Toronto, Hamilton, London, Windsor, Victoria and Vancouver areas, were able to receive TV broadcasts from Buffalo, Cleveland, Detroit or Seattle with the help of elevated outdoor antennas and amplifiers. U.S. television programs, and the networks that originated them, thus became popular in those Canadian cities within range of their signals—and those cities represented a sizable proportion of the total Canadian population. This helped spur development of a specifically Canadian television programming and transmission system during the late 1940s and early 1950s, but at the same time, caused it to develop within American technical standards previously mandated by the FCC between 1941 and 1946.
Since the first Canadian stations (CBFT in Montreal and CBLT in Toronto) signed on in September 1952, television developed differently in Canada than in the United States because it was introduced and developed in a different context. The distinct social, political, and economic situation of Canada shaped the historic development of mass communication and television in the country. There are mainly three factors that have made the historical development of television in Canada a unique one: The threat of American influence, the language divide and the government's response to both of these.
American influence, and the fear of it, greatly affected television's development in Canada. The first decades of the twentieth century saw a change towards industrialization. During this time both the materials and products manufactured as well as the investors and consumers were American. The Canadian dependency on American capital and markets persisted through the Great Depression and its aftermath. This situation remained during the emergence of television and affected its development in Canada. Even with the emergence of radio, Canada was already trying to keep foreign ownership and programming at a minimum, to avoid American Imperialism to be caused by this dependency on the United States, which had already been created. The issue of economy of scale plays a big role here. "Americans [we]re pushing smaller cultural communication aside with their dominating programming, not because they [we]re based on a policy but because they ha[d] the money—the poorer the country, the more American productions." English Canadian broadcasting is easy to see how this was problematic for some Anglophone Canadians as well as the Canadian Government. How can any sense of "Canadianism" come out of such an attractive and rich American world? There was a fear of communicating ideas and opinions that were not Canadian, to Canadians, especially the youth. After all, it was the first time, with the exception of maybe radio, that such a wide audience could be reached at the same time. By 1954, a million TV sets had been sold in Canada. Even though they were very expensive, the great majority (9 of 10) of Canadian households owned a TV set by the end of the 1950s. People were so excited and obsessed with this novelty. "It was all we talked about at school. We literally raced home to watch TV", says TV performer and producer Lorne Michaels. It became important to Canada that it would be Canadian values projected to this huge audience and soon the whole nation. Though many were attracted to the American television programs, some feared that Canada would get stuck in this rut of American popular culture. This was a time when Canadian national identity was very vague. Canada was not only made up of Francophones and Anglophones, but also immigrants from around the world, mostly from Europe. This fear of American influence convinced the Canadian Government that their involvement was necessary in order for Canadian broadcasting to express and encourage Canadian identity and national unity.
Though French Canadians had this fear of expansion of American influence and the difficulties that might arise in protecting the French language, the concern was not the same as the English Canadians'. They did not have the option of purchasing U.S. programming and profitably filling their schedules with cheap, attractive foreign products, mostly because they were not attractive to the French audience. In this way, society affected the division in the Canadian broadcasting industry as much as the division affected society. The key issue here is language. The intensity of fears of "continentalism" was as strong as its opposing force of attractiveness of American Television to Canadian viewers. Most Anglophone viewers could relate easily to the American programs, as much as they did to their Canadian programs, since the people looked the same as they did and they spoke in the same language as they did. For example, in 1957 the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation presented its audience with American programs such as The Ed Sullivan Show. However, the ten most popular programs on French Television were made in Quebec, like La Famille Plouffe. Year after year, French Canadians showed a strong preference for Quebec-made TV. This is significant considering the fierce American competition English Canada was and still is dealing with. French Television was distinct from English television, in more ways than just language. "Perhaps one of its most distinctive aspects was the bringing together of international and local influences, American and European television styles and programming ideas and merging them with the cultural idioms of rapidly modernizing and assertive Quebec." The merging of local and foreign ideas and techniques was a novelty in North American Television. Since English and French Television developed separately, as they went down their separate roads, English and French Canadians were exposed to different ideas and images. In essence, French-language broadcasting strengthened a distinct popular culture.
With the fear of the United States stunting the growth of a Canadian nation as well as the country being even more divided by language, the government showed huge concern in what television was doing to Canada and how they would fix it. As Graham Spry, the founder and spokesperson of the Canadian Radio broadcasting, had said about the Radio system, "The question is the State or the United States." According to the Canadian government, survival of Canada depended on public funding for Canadian programs, which would be produced, broadcast and controlled by a public corporation. The Broadcasting Act of 1932 was the beginning of government involvement. Its main aim was the "Canadianization of mass media". In other words, it wanted to create a Canadian broadcasting system to replace the American system that had infiltrated itself into Canada, as well as to unite Canadians in creating a national identity. The Act of 1932 created a national network for each electronic medium in the two official languages of French and English. When it was created, the Act referred mostly to radio broadcasting but it also included television once it appeared, in 1952. The most important thing this Act did was create the CRBC, which would be replaced by the Canadian Broadcast Corporation (CBC) in a later revision. This corporation, created by the government had two main responsibilities. First, it was to be an establishment of national service. Secondly, it would monitor the entire broadcast system. Evidently, this was a huge responsibility, and a very difficult one to fulfill. Canada is a very vast country, which makes it very difficult for one corporation to control the broadcasting system from coast to coast, all while establishing a network to almost compete in this system and in the American system. Before 1958, the Canadian law prohibited the creation of private television networks. Private stations did emerge but they could not exist independently. They were obliged to be affiliated with the French national network or the English national network. The Act of 1958 as well as its revised version in 1968 allowed for the existence of private television networks. The private stations were now recognized as direct competitors to CBC, which maintained its role as national broadcaster but lost its regulatory power. The 1968 Broadcasting Act created the CRTC, The Canadian Radio-Television Commission, which later became the Canadian Radio-Television and Telecommunications Commission. The government's involvement through law and creation of national commissions was seen as a necessity in order to survive as a nation. Also, the government still referred to the Canadian broadcasting system as the "single system". Amongst other things, this implied that both private and public networks were working toward the same goals, notably the national objective of unity and Canadian content and ownership. Government intervention did help the Canadian broadcasting industry economically, but failed in creating a distinct Canadian culture in contrast to American popular culture. It did however, allow for Quebec to run its own broadcasting, which in turn led to a distinct Quebec identity. Economically, it helped out the Canadian broadcasters, particularly thanks to the Canadian Association of Broadcasters (CAB). Thanks to their protests, Bill C-58 was passed. Amongst many changes, Bill C-58 removed tax deductibility benefits for Canadian Corporations advertising on American stations. The 1968 Act had also given priority carriage for Canadian broadcast services. Policies such as these produced important economic benefits for Canadian broadcasters. Economic prosperity for Canadian broadcasters took priority over Canadian identity, in that it was not compromised for the latter. This can be inferred through the vagueness and ineffective policies passed in the aim of protecting Canadian culture. For example, Canadian content regulations were introduced in 1959 and revised again in 1978. However, "Canadian Content" is broadly defined as programs of "general interest to Canadians". Since Canadians can so easily identify with Americans and their popular culture as well as the two countries being tied so closely economically, it seems that almost anything made in the U.S. can be of general interest to Canadians. The late 1980s saw some attempts to change this, but it is so difficult to police such a huge system. Still, if it weren't for the involvement of the Canadian government, would media outlets in Canada belong to Canadians, or would Americans own them? Though North American society seems to believe that the government's involvement in television and news outlets is wrong, this might be an example of how the government saved Canadian Television. Government intervention throughout the development of television in Canada affected the way it developed in the country. It did not develop in a free market but through laws and policies. Television was destroying the already vague Canadian identity and the Canadian government responded in the attempt of using television as a tool to gain a national identity that was overshadowed by American identity.
Broadcast television 
While American television stations, including affiliates of ABC, NBC and CBS, near the Canadian border were available to view for several years prior, and gained a sizable audience in cities like Toronto, within range of U.S. signals, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) was the first entity to broadcast television from Canada, in September 1952 in both Montreal and Toronto. Private CBC affiliates began operating late in 1953 to supplement the Corporation's own stations; the first private CBC affiliate in Canada was CKSO in Sudbury, Ontario in October of that year. At the time all stations were required to be CBC affiliates, as the CBC was the only television network operating in Canada.
In 1948, there were 325 television sets in Canada, but thousands more were sold in the years from 1948 to 1952, most of them tuned to a single Buffalo channel, a single Seattle channel, one of three broadcasting from Cleveland or one of three broadcasting from Detroit. When Canadian television began, the Radio-Television Manufacturers Association of Canada estimated that 85,000 sets were expected to be sold in 1952. 95% of these were concentrated in Ontario, with 57.4% in the Golden Horseshoe region (40.2% Toronto and Hamilton, 17.2% Niagara Peninsula) and 34.6% in the Windsor region near Detroit. Television watching outside Ontario was limited to British Columbia's Lower Mainland with access to American programming from Seattle and some sets in Montreal. Television sales were promoted not only by the arrival of CBC Television, but by revised credit practices at that time, which allowed purchases without requiring an initial cash deposit.
Following a review by the Diefenbaker government in the late 1950s, a number of new, "second" stations were licensed in many major markets, many of which began operating before the end of 1960. CTV, the first private network, which grew out of the inevitable association of these new stations, began operating in October 1961. About the same time, CHCH Hamilton disaffiliated from the CBC and became the first station not affiliated with either network, not counting the initial launch period of most of the to-be-CTV stations.
Over the next 25 years or so, many more new stations were launched, primarily CBC stations in major markets replacing private affiliates (which subsequently joined with CTV or became independent) and new independent stations in the largest centres, such as CITY-TV Toronto, CITV-TV Edmonton, and CKND-TV Winnipeg. During this time cable television also began to take hold, securing the fortunes of individuals such as Ted Rogers, who secured the licences for much of Toronto.
The 1980s and 1990s saw exponential growth in the multichannel universe, beginning with pay-TV services and later continuing with various waves of specialty services, usually launched in one fell swoop. The launch of direct-to-home satellite television services in the mid-1990s accelerated this growth.
The early- to mid-1990s in particular also saw further growth and consolidation of broadcast TV. Baton Broadcasting, owner of the CTV affiliate in Toronto and already seen as the network's dominant player, bought or replaced most of the network's other affiliates and ultimately acquired the network itself. Izzy Asper slowly built up a string of stations across the country and created the Canwest Global System, later taking the brand name of its most significant asset, the heretofore Ontario-based Global Television Network.
Additional groups also sprouted up in the form of Western International Communications, CHUM Limited and Craig Media. In 2000, CanWest bought WIC, which had itself grown from the CTV affiliate-owner in British Columbia to include many of the stations of Allarcom and Maclean Hunter, in order to satisfy its long-held desire to enter Alberta, but also giving it a second network. CHUM secured two regional services in Ontario before expanding to British Columbia and merging with Craig, its equivalent in the Prairie provinces.
The early 2000s, aside from the completion of the consolidation described above, brought an apparent convergence craze among the major media conglomerates. CanWest bought the Southam newspaper chain, including the leading broadsheet papers in several major cities, raising new concerns on media concentration. Telecom giant BCE, believing it needed control over content to fuel its new media strategy, formed Bell Globemedia, essentially CTV and its specialty services put together with a single, if influential, newspaper, The Globe and Mail. Canwest continues to pursue its strategy; in late 2005 BCE announced it would sell most of its interests in Globemedia to a consortium of investors including the Thomson family and Torstar, although it still retains a minority stake in the company.
In many respects, particularly since the consolidation phase of the late 1990s and early 2000s the television industry in Canada now more closely resembles the British or Australian models, in which the vast majority of stations are directly owned by their networks and offer only slight variance in local scheduling apart from local or regional newscasts, rather than the American network affiliate model that formerly predominated. In some cases, in fact, a single station serves an entire province (or even multiple provinces, in the case of the Maritimes) through a network of rebroadcasters rather than through multiple licensed stations. Some privately owned network affiliates do still exist, although these are now relatively rare and exist only in smaller television markets.
Recent developments 
- The proposed acquisitions outlined in the following section are all pending Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC) approval. See also: 2007 Canada broadcast TV realignment.
Bell Globemedia (soon after renamed CTVglobemedia and then Bell Media) announced plans to acquire CHUM, in a deal that would place Canada's four largest private English-language broadcast services under just two owners (in CTVgm's case, CTV and Citytv). The enlarged CTVgm would also own interests in nearly 40 specialty channels and pay services. As part of the proposal, CTVgm would sell several of CHUM's less valuable properties, such as the smaller A-Channel system, to Rogers Communications, Canada's largest cable provider and already a major media company in its own right. This sparked another round of media consolidation. In early 2007, CanWest, in partnership with Goldman Sachs, announced an agreement to buy Alliance Atlantis, another major specialty channel operator, and more deals are expected in the near future. Other major specialty operators include Corus Entertainment (owned by the Shaw family) and Astral Media.
On June 8, 2007, however, the CRTC approved the CHUM merger, conditional on CTV divesting itself of Citytv rather than A-Channel.
Consolidation has also continued between cable companies (see Multichannel television in Canada) and between specialty channel operators. There are now few of the small family-owned television groups that dominated the formative era of Canadian television, the most notable perhaps being the Stirling family, which owns CJON in St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador. The twinstick model of broadcasting, in which a single locally owned company operated both CTV and CBC affiliates in a community, is also now rare—within English Canada, only the cities of Thunder Bay and Lloydminster still receive television service from a twinstick operation, and of those two, only Thunder Bay's Thunder Bay Television is still locally owned.
See also: fee-for-carriage
Television programming 
As outlined below, Canadian regulations ensure that the majority of programming aired by Canadian stations are of domestic origin. However, thanks to domestic newscasts and daytime programming, a very large percentage of the airtime in peak viewing hours (in most areas, 7:00 p.m. to 11:00 p.m.) can be devoted to programs of foreign origin, in large part due to the significant amount of programming available from the U.S., not to mention the availability of the major U.S. broadcast networks themselves via cable or satellite, or even as terrestrial signals in border markets.
A Canadian network is allowed to override the cable/satellite feed of an American broadcast signal when they air the same program simultaneously, ensuring that the Canadian broadcaster, not the American broadcaster, is able to benefit from the advertising revenue associated with broadcasting to the Canadian audience. Arguably this right has led to an even greater glut of American programming on Canadian stations, including programs of little relevance to Canadian audiences, or poorly received series that may never be seen outside North America. In addition, high rated American shows cannot be seen if the Canadian network overriding the signal interrupts the program for a news bulletin, unless the cable company switches the signal back to the original.
Many Canadian broadcasters broadcast on a 24-hour schedule. Daily programming begins at about 6:00 a.m., usually with a local or national morning show. Daytime programming, including talk shows and soap operas, follows, although some Canadian stations may air "brokered-time" religious or charitable programming as well, which unlike traditional infomercials can count towards Canadian content requirements.
Most Canadian television stations are required to carry some news programming as per their license. As opposed to the U.S. model, most stations, even in major markets like Toronto, carry a single newscast during the late-afternoon/early-evening period, specifically from 6:00 to 7:00 p.m. However, as in the U.S., "strip" programming fills the following hour, at least in the Eastern and Pacific time zones, and is followed by prime time programming. One or more newscasts follow, usually beginning at 11:00 p.m.; the main exception is The National, which airs at 10:00 on CBC. However, there is a growing trend of some television stations adopting a newscast schedule similar to the American television model, with locally-produced newscasts in the mornings (usually lasting about 3 to 3½ hours and airing only on weekdays, though a few stations do carry weekend morning newscasts) and during the lunch hour, in addition to early and late-evening newscasts; most owned-and-operated stations of Global nationwide and most CTV O&Os located west of the Ontario/Manitoba border have adopted this scheduling format for their local news programming. In contrast, some stations carry locally-produced morning news programs even if they do not carry evening newscasts at all (such as Citytv's owned-and-operated stations, all of which produce a weekday morning news/talk program using the title Breakfast Television; the television system's Toronto flagship CITY-DT is the only Citytv O&O, as well as one of only three stations affiliated with the system, to carry nightly locally-produced evening newscasts).
To maximize simultaneous substitution opportunities, in the Eastern and Pacific time zones, prime time programming airs from 8:00 to 11:00 p.m., while in the Central zone it generally airs from 7:00 to 10:00, in both cases mirroring the U.S. networks. However, viewers in the Mountain time zone—i.e. Alberta—have historically received U.S. network feeds from the Pacific zone, not from the Mountain zone. Similarly, those in Atlantic Canada receive U.S. feeds from the Eastern time zone. Local stations in those regions also use 8:00 to 11:00 (8:00 or 8:30 to 11:30 in Newfoundland) as prime time, but with most programming advanced by an hour, and 10:00 p.m. programming either aired earlier in the evening or on another day.
CBC Television airs all programming at local time, except for a 30-minute delay in the Newfoundland time zone.
Overnight programming varies from broadcaster to broadcaster, and may consist of purchased programming or infomercials.
Canadian content 
While under Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission regulations at least 60% of program has to be Canadian-produced, and 50% on prime time, English-language private broadcasters such as CTV and Global have always had difficulty airing more than a bare minimum of indigenous programming in primetime. Among the most successful recent series are the comedies Corner Gas and Little Mosque on the Prairie, the drama Da Vinci's Inquest, and the mockumentary Trailer Park Boys.
Scripted television programming in Canada tends toward the shorter runs more typical of British television rather than the longer seasons that predominate in the United States. A typical Canadian drama or comedy series will produce between six and thirteen episodes in its first season, although an exceptionally popular series such as Corner Gas may produce up to 20 episodes in later seasons. Less expensive forms of programming, such as news and sketch comedy programs, will usually produce many more episodes each year, coming closer to the American model.
The French commercial networks air significantly more Canadian content than their English counterparts.
While the majority of services operate in English, there are a growing number of similar services in the French language, serving primarily Quebec. Télévision de Radio-Canada, the French-language equivalent of CBC Television, broadcasts terrestrially across Canada, while TVA, one of Quebec's two commercial French-language networks, is available across Canada on cable.
RDI, the French equivalent of CBC Newsworld, also has cross-Canada cable carriage rights, as does TV5 Québec Canada. Most other French-language networks are available only in Quebec, although some have optional cable carriage status in the rest of Canada. V, for instance, is carried on cable in New Brunswick and parts of Ontario and is available nationally by satellite.
Other ethnic and multicultural services, serving one or more cultural groups outside of these two official languages, are also growing in strength. Six terrestrial TV stations, CFMT and CJMT in Toronto, CJNT in Montreal, CJEO in Edmonton, CJCO in Calgary and CHNM in Vancouver, air multicultural programming in a variety of languages, while Telelatino airs programming in Italian and Spanish on basic cable. Numerous third-language channels have been licensed as Category 2 services on digital cable.
The business and regulation of television 
The Canadian broadcasting industry, including all programming services (over-the-air or otherwise) and all distributors, is regulated in regards to ownership and content by the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC), which in most cases issues licences for each such operation. The CRTC issues licences pursuant to Canadian laws and the Commission's own regulations and conditions of licence, which regulate such matters as Canadian content, Canadian ownership, and accessibility issues such as closed captioning.
Among other regulations, all Canadian broadcasters and distributors must be at least two-thirds owned and controlled by Canadian citizens; also, all conventional stations, and most established specialty services, are required to air a majority of Canadian content, both throughout its schedule and in its primetime schedule.
Industry Canada regulates the technical aspects of broadcast stations and certain aspects of other licensed undertakings.
Broadcast television 
Unlike specialty services, conventional (or over-the-air) broadcast stations are permitted to air a wide variety of news, information, entertainment, sports and other programming without any restriction as to theme or content, and none restrict themselves in that regard. Religious television stations are an exception to the previous statement but must provide a variety of programs reflecting different points of view. CRTC regulations have so far prevented a large number of the infomercial- or religious-based stations now frequently found in major centres in the U.S. from operating in Canada; infomercials, even those made in Canada, are not considered Canadian content.
Nearly all broadcast stations have now been aligned, in one form or another, into national groups based on ownership and/or content. Many of these groups are designated as "networks", in the colloquial sense, below, although in the regulatory sense they may or may not be licensed networks. However, they are often treated very differently from U.S. networks. For instance, most networks provide a full slate of programming, often, but not always, buying the national rights to "syndicated" programs that air across affiliates of multiple American networks. Hence Dr. Phil only airs on CTV stations and Entertainment Tonight only on Global stations. However, for historical reasons, The Oprah Winfrey Show airs on a mixture of stations, albeit one dominated by CTV.
Also, it is not uncommon to find multiple affiliates of one network, and no affiliates of another network, available in the same market on basic cable, particularly in smaller markets. For instance, in Kingston, Ontario, two CBC affiliates are available, a local privately owned station and a CBC-owned station from Ottawa, while CTV Two is not available. In many markets, including some major cities, there is only a handful of local stations, with other network services provided by an affiliate based hundreds of kilometres away. For instance, in Ottawa, only three English networks/systems—CBC, CTV and CTV Two—have stations based in the market; the "local" Global and Citytv stations are in fact rebroadcasters of Toronto-area stations. Such a scenario would be virtually unheard of in a major American market.
Despite a general CRTC policy that limits station ownership to one station per market per language per company, several exceptions have led to twinstick operations in several markets. In some cases this allows multiple stations to serve a small market that could otherwise support only one station.
In larger markets, however, CanWest and CHUM have justified several instances of twinsticks, generally two stations based in separate but neighbouring regions. This was allowed on the basis that, in another owner's hands, stations like CHCH in Hamilton, Ontario and CHEK in Victoria, British Columbia (both CanWest stations) would inevitably turn their focus to the larger Toronto and Vancouver markets respectively, leaving their cities of licence with little or no local news coverage. This has led to the development of the E! and A systems, respectively. Nonetheless, the local news coverage these stations provide do not prevent them from airing programs with mass appeal during the rest of their schedules, frequently promoted on their sister stations.
All stations have call signs beginning in "CB", "CF", "CH", "CI", "CJ" or "CK", but few now use them. While Industry Canada nominally maintains a requirement for stations to identify themselves every hour on the hour, in practice this is rarely enforced. Meanwhile the major networks have striven to minimize the costs associated with multiple brand names. Some newer call signs are rarely known outside the industry (i.e. CKXT for "Sun TV"), while the major networks have largely removed all traces of formerly well-known call signs on local stations or their websites. A notable if partial exception is CITY-TV Toronto, which, along with several sister stations, use the "Citytv" brand name.
Networks, systems and groups 
The publicly funded CBC operates two broadcast networks, CBC Television and la Télévision de Radio-Canada, operating in English and French respectively. Both are devoted primarily to domestic content, albeit with different results: The French-language service, which does not have significant foreign competition, has been considered a major success in recent years, while many have found much to be desired in its English counterpart over the same time. The English network in particular has suffered immensely due to various cuts to, and restructurings of, the CBC's budget, beginning in the late 1980s, as well as greater competition with private broadcasters, both domestic and foreign, in English Canada. Both networks are available over-the-air in most of the country.
The first tier of national private networks include CTV, Global, City, and TVA. CTV, the country's most-watched network, City, and Global are English networks, which generally split the most popular foreign programs between them, with significant local news programming in most areas but limited amounts of domestic content in primetime. Both are available over-the-air in most regions. Much like CTV and Global, City focuses on movies and niche-appeal programs in primetime, although gradually adding more broad-appeal series, despite lacking presence in Atlantic Canada. TVA, a French-language network available throughout Quebec over-the-air and elsewhere via cable and satellite, airs mostly programming made in Quebec, to great success in that province; see also Quebec television. CTV, Global, City, and TVA are owned by Bell Canada Enterprises through its Bell Media division, Shaw Communications, Rogers Communications and Quebecor Media respectively.
The remaining networks or systems have a more limited reach or audience appeal. As the CRTC is much more conservative in licensing individual stations than the FCC, they do not reach all markets; in fact A consist almost entirely of former CBC affiliates that disaffiliated and quickly turned their focus towards larger nearby markets.
These networks include:
- CTV Two, a secondary service owned by CTV.
- V, a French-language network owned by Remstar; availability in Quebec is roughly equal to that of TVA but availability outside of Quebec is limited.
- APTN - a non-profit Aboriginal service carried primarily via cable.
- Omni Television, a system of five multicultural stations owned by Rogers. These channels also air syndicated programming.
- Joytv, a system of two religious stations owned by S-VOX, which were sold by Rogers and formally part of the Omni Television system.
- CTS, a system of three religious-based stations owned by Crossroads Christian Communications.
Many smaller markets have stations that receive programming from more than one network. Most notably, NTV in Newfoundland and Labrador airs CTV's newscasts along with its own NTV Evening Newshour, but relies mainly on Global for entertainment programs in Newfoundland Standard Time.
Some markets have at least one provincial educational service available, namely TVOntario and TFO (Ontario), Télé-Québec and Canal SAVOIR (Quebec), Citytv Saskatchewan (Saskatchewan), Knowledge (British Columbia), and CTV Two Alberta (Alberta). Of these, all except CTV Two Alberta and Citytv Saskatchewan are owned by governmental or nonprofit agencies. CTV Two Alberta is owned by Bell Media and Citytv Saskatchewan by Rogers Communications.
Other major stations include NTV, an independent station in St. John's airing Global programming; The Miracle Channel (southern Alberta); and TVA/Sun Media-owned independent station Sun TV in Toronto.
A number of American stations, such as the Newport Television-owned independent station KVOS-TV in Bellingham, Washington, and the Fox affiliates in Buffalo, New York (WUTV) and Burlington, Vermont (WFFF), have also aggressively courted Canadian advertisers and are perceived by many viewers and advertisers as effectively Canadian stations.
Multichannel television 
Cable and satellite television services are available throughout Canada, delivering local and often regional stations, the major U.S. networks, and additional programming via specialty and other non-broadcast channels. The largest and best-known cable providers are Rogers Cable and Shaw Communications, while the two licensed satellite providers are Bell TV and Shaw-owned Shaw Direct.
Specialty channels, unlike cable networks in the U.S., must be licensed by the CRTC. They must be focused on a specific genre and cannot include general-interest services of the TNT or USA variety; as a result programs from these U.S. channels often end up on conventional stations, not cable. Specialty channels include such categories as sports (TSN), news (CBC Newsworld and CTV News Channel), music (MuchMusic), arts (Bravo!) and drama (Showcase). Anglophone premium television services include The Movie Network east of the Ontario–Manitoba border, Movie Central west of that border, Super Channel nationally, and Super Écran in French-speaking Canada.
Some U.S. channels are also available, although these are also subject to CRTC approval. Aside from the four main broadcast networks, they are generally prohibited if a similar Canadian channel has already launched at the time of the request for Canadian carriage. American cable networks have occasionally been removed outright if an equivalent Canadian channel is licensed, as in the case of CMT.
The CRTC set August 31, 2011 as the deadline for full power over-the-air television transmitters broadcasting in 28 mandatory markets to move to digital transmission.
Canada has not announced any further over-the-air digital conversion deadlines. Permits for new analog television transmitters are no longer being granted.
See also 
- List of television stations in Canada by call sign
- List of Canadian television channels
- Canadian science fiction television
- List of Canadian television series
- Canadian Television Sales
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Further reading 
- Druick, Zoë. Aspa Kotsopoulos (2008)Programming reality: perspectives on English-Canadian television, Wilfrid Laurier University Press ISBN 9781554580101