Television in Ukraine

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Television has a long history in Ukraine, with regular television broadcasting started during the former USSR years in 1951. However the first ever TV broadcast took place on the 1st February 1939 in Kiev. Since then TV broadcasting has expanded, particularly after the fall of Communism in 1989, and now there are many different channels and groups in the Ukrainian TV market.

History[edit]

The first official broadcast took place in Kiev on 1 February 1939.[1] It was 40 minutes long and showed the portrait of Sergo Ordzhonikidze.[1] After World War II, on 6 November 1951, a Kiev tele-centre made a debut with a live broadcasting of the patriotic movie "The Great Glow".[1] Next day the telecentre went on air again by broadcasting the solemn measures of celebrating the 34th anniversary of the October Revolution.[1]

On 1 May 1952, a concert went on air (shot in the small and only pavilion of the telecentre known as "Studio B") of Ukrainian singers, soloists of the Kiev Taras Shevchenko Opera Theater.[1] The anchorwoman of the concert was the Kiev Telecentre's first announcer - Novela Separionova.[citation needed] In 1953, the construction of the building of the Kiev Telecentre on Khreshchatyk was completed,[1] right after the finishing of the Moscow and Leningrad Telecentres.[citation needed] Regular programs started to go on air in 1956.[1] Until that year, the Telecentre went on air twice a day showing feature films or documentaries.[1] Live broadcasting was the only form of broadcasting.[1] Recording video became usual in the mid-1960s.[1]

The first regular national channel appeared on January 20, 1965 under the name UT-1 (Ukrainian television - 1, today - Pershyi National), while on March 6, 1972 a second channel, UT-2, was created.[1] In 1983, the new telecenter started to be built at the 42 Melnyk Street, which was opened after the fall of the Soviet Union in 1993.[1]

After the Orange Revolution, Ukrainian television became more free.[2] In February 2009 the National Council for Television and Radio Broadcasting claimed that "political pressure on mass media increased in recent times through amending laws and other normative acts to strengthen influence on mass media and regulatory bodies in this sphere".[3]

As of January 2009, Ukrainian Prime Minister, Yulia Tymoshenko refused to appear in Inter TV-programmes "until journalists, management and owners of the TV channel stop destroying the freedom of speech and until they remember the essence of their profession - honesty, objectiveness, and unbiased stand".[4]

In early March 2014, Crimea removed Kiev-based TV channels ahead of the referendum.[5] Later that month, the Ukrainian National Council for TV and Radio Broadcasting ordered measures against some Russian TV channels which were accused of broadcasting misleading information about Ukraine.[6][7]

Digital television[edit]

In 2007 and 2008, experimental DVB-T broadcasts of few channels started in Kiev and Odessa. Those turned out to be successful. Yet the DTT National Program is not approved by the government, thus the process is stuck. Because there are two versions of the program submitted: from the Ministry of Transport and Communications as well as from the State Committee of Television and Radio, there is no particular progress in 2008.

On 26 November 2008, the National Program of the Ministry was approved, but the final version and the public announcement of this fact is still on hold. Current version of the program does not take into notice any kind of Government financing, and the budget is to be private only, which will highly affect the TV industry and commercial broadcasters.

Besides there are 3rd parties, such as Television Industry Committee and National Association of Broadcasters which represent the communities of National and regional broadcasters respectively. Both organizations help the switchover not to affect the business of over 20 National and over 150 regional broadcasters.

The International Forum 'Digital Broadcasting in Ukraine' is the annual event that takes place in Kiev, Ukraine. Its mission is to gather the most of international consultants and Ukrainian specialists to solve industry's problems in the DTT field. In 2008 the 2nd International Forum took place in Kiev also. BBC, Deloitte and the Ministry of Communications of Finland representatives share the vision of possible plan of DTT implementation in Ukraine, delivering the best experiences from UK, Finland, France and US. Still none was taken into notice yet. It is now confirmed[8][9] that Ukraine's national terrestrial TV network, which is scheduled to be launched in September 2011, will use the DVB-T2 standard for all four nationwide FTA multiplexes, for both SD and HD broadcasts. Before settling for DVB-T2, Ukraine was testing both DVB-T/MPEG-2 and DVB-T/MPEG-4 options, and some experimental transmitters operating in those standards are still live.

Other technologies[edit]

Commercial MMDS digital TV services work in Kiev and some other cities.

DVB-C services delivering premium channels (in addition to standard analogue channels) launched in cable networks of Kiev, Odessa, Kremenchuk, Poltava, Donetsk and some other cities.

Most-viewed channels[edit]

As of March 2014 by ITK[disambiguation needed][10]

Place Channel Percent (rat%)
1 Inter 2,60
2 1+1 2,50
3 ICTV 1,68
4 STB 1,58
5 Kanal Ukrayina 1,44
6 Novyi Kanal 0,94
7 5 kanal 0,78
8 NTN 0,73
9 TET 0,65
10 Pershyi Natsionalnyi 0,53

List of channels[edit]

Terrestrial channels[edit]

MUX1
Channel Owner Established Website
Inter U.A. Inter Media Group 1996 http://inter.ua/
Kanal Ukrayina Media Group Ukraine 1993 http://kanalukraina.tv/
1+1 1+1 media 1995 http://www.1plus1.ua/
NTN U.A. Inter Media Group 2004 http://ntn.ua/
K1 U.A. Inter Media Group 2005 http://k1.ua/
Pershyi Natsionalnyi (version for DVB-T2) National Television Company of Ukraine 1956 http://1tv.com.ua/
ICTV StarLightMedia 1992 http://ictv.ua/
Enter-Film U.A. Inter Media Group 2001 http://enterfilm.com.ua/
MUX2
Channel Owner Established Website
Zoom U.A. Inter Media Group 2007 http://zoomua.tv/
Indigo TV[11] Media Group Ukraine 2014
STB StarLightMedia 1997 http://www.stb.ua/
TET 1+1 media 1992 http://tet.tv/
K2 U.A. Inter Media Group 2005 http://k2.ua/
Novyi kanal StarLightMedia 1998 http://www.novy.tv/
M1 StarLightMedia 2001 http://m1.tv/
5 kanal Petro Poroshenko 2003 http://www.5.ua/
MUX3
Channel Owner Established Website
Mega U.A. Inter Media Group 2005 http://megatv.ua/
Pixel TV U.A. Inter Media Group 2012 http://pixelua.tv/
XSPORT Borys Kolesnikov 2012 http://xsport.ua/
NLO TV Media Group Ukraine 2012 http://nlotv.com/
2+2 1+1 media 2006 http://2plus2.ua/
Dobro Atigo Media Group 2012 http://www.dobro-tv.com/
Business Atigo Media Group 2007 http://tv.business-tv.com.ua/
Tonis Alexander Yanukovich 1989 http://tonis.ua/
MUX5
Channel Owner Established Website
Espreso TV[12] Ludmila Knyazhitskaya 2013 http://espreso.tv
BTB National Bank of Ukraine 2012 http://btbtv.com.ua/
Vintage Roman Vorona 2012
Eskulap Irina Kropiva 2012
Regional State broadcasting (ODTRK) State Committee in TV & Radio-broadcasting
Local TV 1 /or/ 112 Ukrayina Andriy Podshchipkov 2013 http://112.ua/
Local TV 2
Local TV 3

Satellite and cable[edit]

Local[edit]

International[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]