Temescal Mountains

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Temescal Mountains
Gavilan Mountains, Gavilan Hills
Highest point
Peak Estelle Mountain
Elevation 2,762 ft (842 m) [1]
Coordinates 33°46′13″N 117°20′6″W / 33.77028°N 117.33500°W / 33.77028; -117.33500Coordinates: 33°46′13″N 117°20′6″W / 33.77028°N 117.33500°W / 33.77028; -117.33500
Dimensions
Length 25 mi (40 km) SE
Width 10 mi (16 km) E
Naming
Native name Sierra Temescal
Geography
Country United States
State California
Counties Riverside
Settlements
Borders on
Geology
Type of rock Fault-block, igneous, batholith

Temescal Mountains, formerly the Sierra Temescal, are one of the northernmost mountain ranges of the Peninsular Ranges in western Riverside County, in Southern California in the United States. They extend for approximately 25 mi (40 km) southeast of the Santa Ana River east of the Elsinore Fault Zone to the Temecula Basin and form the western edge of the Perris Block.

The Santa Ana Mountains lie to the west, the Elsinore Mountains to the south and the Perris Valley and Lakeview Mountains to the east.[2]

History[edit]

The Temescal Mountains were originally named by the Spanish, Sierra Temescal, (perhaps from the nearby Rancho Temescal), a name which appears on the Rail Road Route survey map made by the U. S. Army Pacific Railroad Surveys in 1854-55.[3] The Temescal Mountains are one of the northernmost of Peninsular Ranges of California, running from the south side of the Santa Anna River, southeast nearly parallel with the Santa Ana Mountains, from which it is separated by the Temescal Valley and Elsinore Valley sections of the Elsinore Trough. The Temescal Mountains were originally considered to be bounded on the south by the San Jacinto River, by J. D. Whitney in his 1865 Geological Survey of California.[4] A later study by Rene Engel, considers the Sedco Hills and the other mountains that extend to the southeast of the San Jacinto River east of Lake Elsinore and north of the Temecula Basin, in Murrieta to be part of the same range forming the natural continuation of the mountains.[5] The Murrieta Hogbacks are the southeastern-most heights of the range, overlooking the Warm Springs Creek Canyon.

Geology[edit]

As part of the Perris Block, the Temescal Mountains are part of its eroded mass of Cretaceous and older granitic rocks of the Peninsular Ranges Batholith and metasedimentary basement rocks. Most of this basement rock that once overlay the granitic plutons that rose up into it, has been eroded away, the remainder being found between the similarly eroded plutons of granitic rock.[6]

Natural resources[edit]

Flora
As part of the California Floristic Province, the Temescal Mountains host a diverse array of plant species within distinctive natural (plant) communities, including coastal sage scrub, chaparral, riparian woodland, southern oak woodland, rocky outcrop and valley grassland. Rare flowers like the intermediate Mariposa lily, grow there. Fragrant sages, evergreen shrubs and trees, perennial bunchgrasses, Dudleya species of succulents, fire-following flowers and other wildflowers adorn the terrain.

Fauna
Wildlife species found, include mountain lion, mule deer, bobcat, coyote, raccoon, gray fox, American badger, spotted skunk, kangaroo rat, bats, ravens, red tailed hawk, mountain quail, canyon wren, speckled rattlesnake, Pacific rattlesnake, common kingsnake, gopher snake, Rosy boa, arroyo toad, western spadefoot toad, various Aphonopelma species of tarantula, Quino Checkerspot butterfly and many more. Gray wolf, pronghorn, and California condor were also once found in the range.

Minerals
A number of minerals have been mined in the range. Commercial resources collected since the 1840s have included the metals tin, and gold, and the minerals clay, coal, and granite. Parts of the range have been used to graze domestic livestock from the early 19th century. The little water found in the range has become a particularly valued resource.

Geographic features[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Estelle Mountain". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. 1981-01-19. Retrieved 2012-07-09. 
  2. ^ Santa Ana, California, 30x60 Minute Topographic Quadrangle, USGS, 1983
  3. ^ The name Sierra Temescal, (Temescal Mountains) appears on the mountains shown east of the Santa Ana Mountains and Temescal Creek and north of the Laguna (Lake Elsinore) and Rio San Jacinto (San Jacinto River) on the 1861 Rail Road Route survey map, "From San Francisco Bay to the Plains of Los Angeles", from Explorations and Surveys made under the direction of The Hon. Jefferson Davis, Secretary of War by Lieut. John G. Parke, Topl. Engrs. assisted by Albert H. Campbell, Civil Engineer and N.H. Hutton, H. Custer and G.G. Garner. 1854 & 55. Map No. 1. Constructed and drawn by H. Custer. Explorations and Surveys for a Rail Road Route from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean. War Department. Coast Route, California.
  4. ^ "The expression "Temescal Range" was used in the Whitney report to define the hills lying on the northeast side of the Elsinore Valley. The range was described as follows: "The Temescal range of mountains commences on the south side of the Santa Ana River, and runs southeast in a direction nearly parallel with that chain of the same name [Santa Ana Mountains], from which it is separated by a narrow valley . . . The name Temescal seems to be limited in its application to the hills lying between the Santa Ana and the San Jacinto Creeks, and which cover an area of about 300 square miles." Rene Engel, GEOLOGY AND MINERAL DEPOSITS OF THE LAKE ELSINORE QUADRANGLE CALIFORNIA, CAIIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES, BULLETIN 146, DIVISION OF MINES, SAN FRANCISCO, 1959, p. 11-12, citing Whitney. J. D., 1865, Santa Ana and Temescal Ranges: Geol. Survey of California, 1860-64, vol. 1— Geology. p. 175-181
  5. ^ "To the northeast [of the Santa Ana Mountains] the Temescal Mountains form the southwestern edge of a broad plateau area, modified by medium relief forms, which now is known as the "Perris Block." This name is derived from the town of Perris, near the center of the Elsinore quadrangle. The term "Temescal Range" was first applied by J. D. Whitney (1865, p. 178) to the mountains that extend from the Santa Ana River to San Jacinto Creek. Under this definition are included Arlington Mountain (elevation 1851 feet), Estelle Mountain (elevation 2826 feet), and the hills immediately east of Elsinore (maximum elevation 1945 feet). The writer here proposes to include in the Temescal Mountains the hills that extend to the southeast and form the natural continuation of the mountains as the western edge of the Perris Block. Engel, GEOLOGY AND MINERAL DEPOSITS OF THE LAKE ELSINORE QUADRANGLE, p. 14
  6. ^ Douglas M. Morton, Fred K. Miller, Peninsular Ranges Batholith, Baja and Southern California, Geological Society of America, 2014
  7. ^ USGS Map Name: Corona North, CA, Hole benchmark, 1261 feet, 33°55′51″N 117°30′20″W / 33.93083°N 117.50556°W / 33.93083; -117.50556
  8. ^ USGS Map Name: Corona North, CA, Linn benchmark, 1495 feet, 33°54′38″N 117°30′52″W / 33.91056°N 117.51444°W / 33.91056; -117.51444
  9. ^ Rattlesnake Norco California, United States, from peakbagger.com accessed November 21, 2013, Rattlesnake Peak, 1421 feet, 33°55′05″N 117°31′50″W / 33.91806°N 117.53056°W / 33.91806; -117.53056
  10. ^ USGS Map Name: Corona North, CA, La Sierra Summit 1505 feet, 33°56′37″N 117°30′40″W / 33.94361°N 117.51111°W / 33.94361; -117.51111
  11. ^ USGS Map Name: Corona North, CA, Grape benchmark, 1084 feet, 33°53′34″N 117°32′01″W / 33.89278°N 117.53361°W / 33.89278; -117.53361
  12. ^ USGS Map Name: Riverside West, CA, Lake Evans, 778 feet, 33°59′46″N 117°22′46″W / 33.99611°N 117.37944°W / 33.99611; -117.37944
  13. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Spring Brook
  14. ^ USGS Map Name: Riverside East, CA, North Hill, 1084 feet, 33°59′34″N 117°22′21″W / 33.99278°N 117.37250°W / 33.99278; -117.37250
  15. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Tequesquito Arroyo
  16. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Box Springs Canyon
  17. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Sycamore Canyon
  18. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Pachappa Hill
  19. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Alessandro 1003-003 Dam
  20. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Quarry Hill
  21. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Prenda 1003-004 Dam
  22. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Woodcrest Dam
  23. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Mockingbird Canyon
  24. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Eagle Valley
  25. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Three Sisters
  26. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Cajalco Canyon
  27. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Mead Valley mouth: 33°50′13″N 117°18′55″W / 33.83694°N 117.31528°W / 33.83694; -117.31528 elevation: 1601, head: 33°52′19″N 117°17′52″W / 33.87194°N 117.29778°W / 33.87194; -117.29778, elevation: 1695
  28. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Olsen Canyon
  29. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Black Rocks
  30. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Monument Peak
  31. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Gavilan Peak
  32. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Gavilan Plateau
  33. ^ USGS Map: Steele Peak, CA, Temescal Mountain Summit 2557, Elevation: 2,557 feet, 33°47′53″N 117°19′23″W / 33.79806°N 117.32306°W / 33.79806; -117.32306
  34. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Santa Rosa Mine
  35. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Steele Peak, Elevation: 2520 feet
  36. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Steele Valley
  37. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Dawson Canyon
  38. ^ USGS Map: Lake Mathews, CA, Temescal Mountain Summit 2729, Elevation: 2,729 feet, 33°46′24″N 117°22′37″W / 33.77333°N 117.37694°W / 33.77333; -117.37694
  39. ^ USGS Map: Steele Peak, CA, Temescal Mountain Summit 2,615, Elevation: 2,6125 feet, 33°46′07″N 117°20′35″W / 33.76861°N 117.34306°W / 33.76861; -117.34306
  40. ^ USGS Map: Steele Peak, CA, Temescal Mountain Summit 2625, Elevation: 2,625 feet, 33°45′44″N 117°19′55″W / 33.76222°N 117.33194°W / 33.76222; -117.33194
  41. ^ USGS Map: Alberhill, CA, Ceramic Factory Canyon, Elevation: 1200 feet, Mouth33°43′48″N 117°24′08″W / 33.73000°N 117.40222°W / 33.73000; -117.40222, head 33°46′10″N 117°22′39″W / 33.76944°N 117.37750°W / 33.76944; -117.37750
  42. ^ USGS Map: Alberhill, CA, Alberhill Canyon, Elevation: 1214 feet, mouth, 33°43′45″N 117°23′39″W / 33.72917°N 117.39417°W / 33.72917; -117.39417
  43. ^ USGS Map: Alberhill, CA, Gavilan Wash (mouth), Elevation: approx. 1230 feet, 33°43′31″N 117°22′27″W / 33.72528°N 117.37417°W / 33.72528; -117.37417
  44. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Walker Canyon
  45. ^ USGS Map: Lake Elsinore, CA, Alber Hill, Elevation: 1741 feet, 33°42′51″N 117°22′16″W / 33.71417°N 117.37111°W / 33.71417; -117.37111
  46. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Warm Springs Valley
  47. ^ USGS Map: Lake Elsinore, CA, Stovepipe Canyon, head 33°44′30″N 117°20′38″W / 33.74167°N 117.34389°W / 33.74167; -117.34389, mouth 33°42′29″N 117°20′35″W / 33.70806°N 117.34306°W / 33.70806; -117.34306
  48. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Arroyo Del Toro
  49. ^ USGS Map: Lake Elsinore, CA, Rosetta Canyon 33°41′55″N 117°19′28″W / 33.69861°N 117.32444°W / 33.69861; -117.32444
  50. ^ USGS Map: Lake Elsinore, CA, Wasson Canyon 33°40′51″N 117°19′54″W / 33.68083°N 117.33167°W / 33.68083; -117.33167
  51. ^ Gripp Hill, California; from peakbagger.com accessed November 18, 2013, 2279 feet 33°43′0″N 117°14′0″W / 33.71667°N 117.23333°W / 33.71667; -117.23333
  52. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Cottonwood Canyon
  53. ^ Guadalupe Hill, California; from peakbagger.com accessed February 25, 2015, 2267 feet 33°39′09″N 117°15′56″W / 33.65250°N 117.26556°W / 33.65250; -117.26556
  54. ^ Wildomar Peak; from peakbagger.com accessed September 24, 2014, 2432 feet, 741 meters 33°38′18″N 117°15′2″W / 33.63833°N 117.25056°W / 33.63833; -117.25056
  55. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Bundy Canyon
  56. ^ USGS Map: Murrieta, CA, Iodine Spring Summit, Elevation: 2191 feet, 33°37′06″N 117°14′02″W / 33.61833°N 117.23389°W / 33.61833; -117.23389
  57. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Iodine Spring
  58. ^ Adelaide Peak, California; from peakbagger.com accessed November 18, 2013, 2279 feet, 33°37′23″N 117°12′7″W / 33.62306°N 117.20194°W / 33.62306; -117.20194
  59. ^ Hogbacks, California; from peakbagger.com accessed September 11, 2014, Elevation: 1781 feet, 543 meters, 33°35′9″N 117°9′14″W / 33.58583°N 117.15389°W / 33.58583; -117.15389
  60. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Hogbacks

External links[edit]