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For the[citation needed] template, see {{citation needed}}.

The Citation template generates a citation for a book, periodical, contribution in a collective work, patent, or a web page. It determines the citation type by examining which parameters are used.

If invoked with the right parameters, this template produces output identical to that of the Cite templates, such as {{Cite book}} and {{Cite web}}. The default behavior sometimes differs from that of the Cite templates; for example, this template by default generates anchors for Harvard references whereas the Cite templates do not (although they can be made to do so), and this template by default uses commas to separate some fields that the Cite templates separate with periods (full stops).

The template should be inserted after punctuation, such as a period or comma.

All parameter names are lowercase.

Simple citation[edit]

This template gives the most commonly used attributes. You can copy the horizontal form or vertical form below and then add in extra attributes from the full list. Spacing and ordering is irrelevant.

{{Citation |last= |first= |year= |title= |publisher= |publication-place= |page= |url= |accessdate= }}

| last       =
| first      =
| year       =
| title      =
| publisher  =
| publication-place =
| page       =
| url        =
| accessdate =
  • last: The author's surname or last name. Don't use with author.
  • first: The author's first or given name(s).
  • year: Year of authorship or publication. Mandatory for use with links from Template:Harvard citation, unless |date= specifies both month and year.
  • title: Title of the work. Mandatory for web references.
  • publisher: The name of the publisher. Omit terms such as Publishers, Co., Inc., Ltd., etc., but retain the words Books or Press. Not normally included where the publication is a periodical which has its own Wikipedia article (e.g. Newsweek, Billboard).
    • publication-place (or place or location): The city of publication. If more than one town/city is listed on the title page, give the first one or the location of the publisher's head office. Omit when the publication is a periodical whose name specifies the location (e.g. The New York Times, The Times of India)
  • page: For use when one page is cited. Adds "p." before the page number. Do not use with pages.
  • url: A url of an online location where the item can be found. If the url includes double quotes, these must be encoded as "%22".
    • accessdate: Date[n 1] when the url was accessed.


| last      = Turner
| first     = Orsamus
| title     = History of the pioneer settlement of
Phelps and Gorham's purchase, and Morris' reserve
| publisher = William Alling
| place     = Rochester, New York
| year      = 1851
| id        = {{OL|7120924W}}
Turner, Orsamus (1851), History of the pioneer settlement of Phelps and Gorham's purchase, and Morris' reserve, Rochester, New York: William Alling, OL7120924W 

Full citation parameters[edit]

These can be used for all types of publication except patents. All are optional and indentation is used simply to group related items — these may be mutually exclusive where indicated. Some hyphenated names can also be placed without hyphens.

| author  =
| last    =
| first   =
| author2 =
| last2   =
| first2  =
| author-link  =
| author2-link =
| author-separator =
| author-name-separator =
| author-mask =
| display-authors =
| editor        =
| editor-last   =
| editor-first  =
| editor2       =
| editor2-last  =
| editor2-first =
| editor-link   =
| editor2-link  =
| others   =
| publication-date =
| date     =
| year     =
| origyear =
| title    =
| chapter  =
| chapter-url  =
| chapter-format  =
| contribution =
| contribution-url =
| type    =
| journal =
| periodical =
| newspaper  =
| magazine   =
| work =
| edition =
| series  =
| volume  =
| issue   =
| publisher =
| publication-place =
| place    =
| language =
| page  =
| pages =
| nopp  =
| at   =
| id   =
| isbn =
| issn =
| oclc =
| pmid =
| pmc  =
| bibcode =
| doi =
| doi_inactivedate =
| zbl =
| url =
| accessdate  =
| format      =
| archiveurl  =
| archivedate =
| quote      =
| layurl =
| laysource  =
| laydate    =
| separator  = ,
| postscript =
| ref =



Nested parameters rely on their parent parameters:

  • parent
  • OR: parent2—may be used instead of parent
    • child—may be used with parent (and is ignored if parent is not used)
    • OR: child2—may be used instead of child (and is ignored if parent2 is not used)
Where aliases are listed, only one of the parameters may be defined; if multiple aliased parameters are defined, then only one will show.

By default, sets of fields are terminated with a comma (,).


This template embeds COinS metadata in the HTML output, allowing reference management software to retrieve bibliographic metadata. See: Wikipedia:COinS. As a general rule, only one data item per parameter. Do not include explanatory or alternate text:

  • Use |date=27 September 2007 not |date=27 September 2007 (print version 25 September)

Use of templates within the citation template, is discouraged because many of these templates will add extraneous HTML or CSS that will be rendered in the metadata. Also, HTML entities, for example  , –, etc, should not be used in parameters that contribute to the metadata. Do not include Wiki markup '' (italic font) or ''' (bold font) because these markup characters will contaminate the metadata.


The following parameters are deprecated. Their use will place the page into Category:Pages containing cite templates with deprecated parameters:

  • month: Use date to include the day, month and year.
  • coauthor · coauthors: Use last# / first# or author or authors
  • day: Use date to include the day, month and year.
  • dateformat · doilabel: These parameters are no longer supported.



  • last: Surname of author. Do not wikilink—use author-link instead. For corporate authors, simply use last to include the same format as the source. Aliases: last1, author, author1.
    • first: Given or first names of author, including title(s); for example: Firstname Middlename or Firstname M. or Dr. Firstname M., Sr. Do not wikilink—use author-link instead. Aliases: first1. Requires last; first name will not display if last is empty.
    • OR: for multiple authors, use last1, first1 through lastn, firstn where n is any consecutive number for an unlimited number of authors (each firstn requires a corresponding lastn). See the display parameters to change how many authors are displayed. Aliases: author1 through authorn.
  • author-link: Title of existing Wikipedia article about the author—not the author's website; do not wikilink. Aliases: authorlink1, authorlink, author1-link, author1link.
  • OR: for multiple authors, use author-link1 through author-linkn. Aliases: author1link through authornlink.
  • name-list-format: displays authors and editors in Vancouver style when set to vanc and when the list uses last/first parameters for the name list(s)
  • coauthors: (deprecated) Names of coauthors. Requires author, authors, or lastn Include coauthors in author or authors or use separate authorn or lastn/firstn to list coauthors.
  • others: To record other contributors to the work, including illustrators and translators. For the parameter value, write Illustrated by John Smith or Translated by John Smith.
  • authors: Free-form list of author names; not an alias of last
When using shortened footnotes or parenthetical referencing styles with templates, do not use multiple names in one field or else the anchor will not match the inline link.


  • editor-last: Surname of editor. Do not wikilink—use editor-link instead. Where the surname is usually written first—as in Chinese—or for corporate authors, simply use editor-last to include the same format as the source. Aliases: editor1-last, editor, editorn.
    • editor-first: Given or first names of editor, including title(s); example: Firstname Middlename or Firstname M. or Dr. Firstname M., Sr. Do not wikilink—use editor-link instead. Aliases: editor1-first.
    • OR: for multiple editors, use editor1-last, editor1-first through editorn-last, editorn-first.
  • editor-link: Title of existing Wikipedia article about the editor—not the editor's website; do not wikilink. Aliases: editor1-link.
  • OR: for multiple editors, use editor-link1 through editor-linkn.
  • name-list-format: displays authors and editors in Vancouver style when set to vanc and when the list uses last/first parameters for the name list(s)
  • editors: Free-form list of editor names; not an alias of editor-last
If authors: Authors are first, followed by the included work, then "In" and the editors, then the main work.
If no authors: Editors appear before the included work; a single editor is followed by "ed."; multiple editors are followed by "eds."; exactly four editors will show three editors followed by "et al., eds." unless display-editors is used.


  • title: Title of source. Can be wikilinked to an existing Wikipedia article or url may be used to add an external link, but not both. Displays in italics. If script-title is defined, title holds romanized transliteration of title in script-title.
    • script-title: Original title for languages that do not use a Latin-based alphabet (Arabic, Chinese, Hebrew, Japanese, etc); not italicized, follows italicized transliteration defined in title. May be prefixed with an ISO 639-1 two-character code to help browsers properly display the script:
      ... |title=Tōkyō tawā |script-title=ja:東京タワー |trans-title=Tokyo Tower ...
    • trans-title: English translation of the title if the source cited is in a foreign language. Displays in square brackets after title; if url is defined, then trans-title is included in the link. Use of the language parameter is recommended.
Titles containing certain characters will display and link incorrectly unless those characters are encoded.
newline [ ] |
space [ ] |
{{bracket|text}} {{pipe}} – see also: rendering vertical bars in tables
  • title-link: Title of existing Wikipedia article about the source named in title – do not use a web address; do not wikilink. Alias: titlelink.
  • chapter: The chapter heading of the source. May be wikilinked or may use chapter-url, but not both. Displays in quotes.
    • trans-chapter: English translation of the chapter heading, if the source cited is in a foreign language. Displays in square brackets after the chapter field; if chapter-url is defined, then trans-chapter is included in the link. Use of the language parameter is recommended.
  • type: Provides additional information about the media type of the source; format in sentence case. Displays in parentheses following the title. Examples: Thesis, Booklet, CD liner, Press release. Alias: medium.
  • language: The language in which the source is written, if not English. Displays in parentheses with "in" before the language name or names. Use the full language name or ISO 639-1 code. When the source uses more than one language, list them individually, separated by commas, e.g. |language=French, German. The use of language names or language codes recognized by Wikimedia adds the page to the appropriate subcategory of Category:CS1 foreign language sources; do not use templates or wikilinks.


  • date: Date of source being referenced. Can be full date (day, month, and year) or partial date (month and year, season and year, or year). Use same format as other publication dates in the citations.[date 1] Required when year is used to disambiguate {{sfn}} links to multiple-work citations by the same author in the same year.[more] Do not wikilink. Displays after the authors and is enclosed in parentheses. If there is no author, then displays after publisher. For acceptable date formats, see Help:Citation Style 1#Dates.
For approximate year, precede with "c. ", like this: |date=c. 1900; for no date, add as |date=n.d.
  • year: Year of source being referenced. Use of |date= is recommended unless all of the following conditions are met:
  1. The template uses |ref=harv, or the template is {{citation}}, or |mode=cs2
  2. The |date= format is YYYY-MM-DD.
  3. The citation requires a CITEREF disambiguator.
  • orig-year: Original publication year; displays after the date or year. For clarity, please supply specifics. For example: |orig-year=First published 1859 or |orig-year=Composed 1904.
  1. ^ Publication dates in references within an article should all have the same format. This may be a different format from that used for archive and access dates. See: MOS:DATEUNIFY.


  • work: Name of the source periodical; may be wikilinked if relevant. Displays in italics. Aliases: journal, newspaper, magazine, periodical.
    • issue: When the publication is one of a series that is published periodically. Alias: number.
When set, work changes the formatting of other parameters:
title is not italicized and is enclosed in quotes.
chapter does not display in this citation template (and will produce an error message).
location and publisher are enclosed in parentheses.
page and pages do not show p. or pp.
edition does not display.


  • publisher: Name of publisher; may be wikilinked if relevant. The publisher is the company that publishes the work being cited. Do not use the publisher parameter for the name of a work (e.g. a book, encyclopedia, newspaper, magazine, journal, website). Not normally used for periodicals. Corporate designations such as "Ltd", "Inc" or "GmbH" are not usually included. Omit where the publisher's name is substantially the same as the name of the work (for example, The New York Times Co. publishes The New York Times newspaper, so there is no reason to name the publisher). Displays after title; if work is defined, then publisher is enclosed in parentheses.
  • place: Geographical place of publication; generally not wikilinked; omit when the name of the work includes the location; examples: The Boston Globe, The Times of India. Displays after the title; if work is defined, then location is enclosed in parentheses. Alias: location
  • publication-place: If any one of publication-place, place or location are defined, then the location shows after the title; if publication-place and place or location are defined, then place or location are shown before the title prefixed with "written at" and publication-place is shown after the title.
  • publication-date: Date of publication when different from the date the work was written. Displays only if year or date are defined and only if different, else publication-date is used and displayed as date. Use the same format as other dates in the article; do not wikilink. Follows publisher; if work is not defined, then publication-date is preceded by "published" and enclosed in parenthesis.
  • via: Name of the content deliverer (if different from publisher). via is not a replacement for publisher, but provides additional detail. It may be used when the content deliverer presents the source in a format other than the original (e.g. NewsBank), when the URL provided does not make clear the identity of the deliverer, where no URL or DOI is available (EBSCO), if the deliverer requests attribution, or as requested in WP:The Wikipedia Library (e.g. Credo, HighBeam). See also registration and subscription.

Edition, series, volume[edit]

  • edition: When the publication has more than one edition; for example: "2nd", "Revised", and so forth. Appends the string " ed." after the field, so |edition=2nd produces "2nd ed." Does not display if a periodical field is defined.
  • series or version: When the source is part of a series, such as a book series or a journal where the issue numbering has restarted.
  • volume: For one publication published in several volumes. Displays after the title and series fields; volumes of four characters or less display in bold.|Displays after the title and series fields; displays in bold. If bolding is not desired, then include the volume information in the title field.

In-source locations[edit]

  • page: The number of a single page in the source that supports the content. Use either |page= or |pages=, but not both. Displays preceded by p. unless |nopp=y.
  • OR: pages: A range of pages in the source that supports the content. Use either |page= or |pages=, but not both. Separate using an en dash (–); separate non-sequential pages with a comma (,); do not use to indicate the total number of pages in the source. Displays preceded by pp. unless |nopp=y. Hyphens are automatically converted to en dashes; if hyphens are appropriate, for example: pp. 3-1–3-15, use |at=.
    • nopp: Set to y to suppress the p. or pp. notations where this is inappropriate; for example, where |page=Front cover.
  • OR: at: For sources where a page number is inappropriate or insufficient. Overridden by |page= or |pages=. Use only one of |page=, |pages=, or |at=.
Examples: page (p.) or pages (pp.); section (sec.), column (col.), paragraph (para.); track; hours, minutes and seconds; act, scene, canto, book, part, folio, stanza, back cover, liner notes, indicia, colophon, dust jacket, verse.


  • url: URL of an online location where the text of the publication can be found. Cannot be used if title is wikilinked. If applicable, the link may point to the specific page(s) referenced. Remove spurious tracking parameters from URLs, e.g. #ixzz2rBr3aO94 or ?utm_source=google&utm_medium=...&utm_term=...&utm_campaign=.... Do not link to any commercial booksellers, such as Amazon.com. See: WP:PAGELINKS.
    • access-date: Full date when the contents pointed to by url was last verified to support the text in the article; do not wikilink; requires url; use the same format as other access and archive dates in the citations.[date 1] Not required for linked documents that do not change. For example, access-date is not required for links to copies of published research papers accessed via DOI or a published book, but is required for links to news articles on commercial sites (these are changed from time to time, even if also published in a physical medium). Note that access-date is the date that the URL was checked to not only be working, but to support the assertion being cited (which the current version of the page may not do). Can be hidden or styled by registered editors. Alias: accessdate.
    • archive-url: The URL of an archived copy of a web page, if or in case the url becomes unavailable. Typically used to refer to services like WebCite (see: Wikipedia:Using WebCite) and Internet Archive (see: Wikipedia:Using the Wayback Machine); requires archive-date and url. Alias: archiveurl.
      • archive-date: Date when the original URL was archived; preceded by default text "archived from the original on". Use the same format as other access and archive dates in the citations. This does not necessarily have to be the same format that was used for citing publication dates.[date 1] Do not wikilink. Alias: archivedate.
      • dead-url: When the URL is still live, but pre-emptively archived, then set |dead-url=no. This changes the display order with the title retaining the original link and the archive linked at the end. Alias: deadurl.
    • template-doc-demo: The archive parameters will be error checked to ensure that all the required parameters are included, or else {{citation error}} is invoked. With errors, main, help and template pages are placed into one of the subcategories of Category:Articles with incorrect citation syntax. Set |template-doc-demo=true to disable categorization; mainly used for documentation where the error is demonstrated.
  • format: Format of the work referred to by url; for example: PDF, DOC, or XLS; displayed in parentheses after title. HTML is implied and should not be specified. Automatically added when a PDF icon is displayed. Does not change the external link icon. Note: External link icons do not include alt text; thus, they do not add format information for the visually impaired.
URLs must begin with a supported URI scheme. http:// and https:// will be supported by all browsers; however, ftp://, gopher://, irc://, ircs://, mailto: and news: will require a plug-in or an external application and should normally be avoided. IPv6 host-names are currently not supported.
If URLs in citation template parameters contain certain characters, then they will not display and link correctly. Those characters need to be percent-encoded. For example, a space must be replaced by %20. To encode the URL, replace the following characters with:
sp " ' < > [ ] { | }
 %20  %22  %27  %3c  %3e  %5b  %5d  %7b  %7c  %7d
Single apostrophes do not need to be encoded; however, unencoded multiples will be parsed as italic or bold markup. Single curly closing braces also do not need to be encoded; however, an unencoded pair will be parsed as the double closing braces for the template transclusion.
  1. ^ a b Access-date and archive-date in references should all have the same format – either the format used for publication dates, or YYYY-MM-DD. See: MOS:DATEUNIFY.

Chapter URL[edit]

  • chapter-url: URL of an individual chapter of online source. Should be at the same site as url, if any. If chapter-url is used, url should only be used if the beginning of the work and the cited chapter are on separate webpages at the site. chapter may be wikilinked or chapter-url used, but not both. Aliases: chapterurl.
  • chapter-format: Format of the work referred to by chapter-url; for example: PDF, DOC, or XLS; displayed in parentheses after chapter. HTML is implied and should not be specified. Does not change the external link icon. Note: External link icons do not include alt text; thus, they do not add format information for the visually impaired.



  • id: A unique identifier, used where none of the specialized identifiers are applicable; wikilink or use a template as applicable.

These identifiers create links and are designed to accept a single value. Using multiple values or other text will break the link and/or invalidate the identifier. In general, the parameters should include only the variable part of the identifier, e.g. rfc=822 or pmc=345678.

  • arxiv: arXiv identifier; for example: arxiv=hep-th/9205027 (before April 2007) or arxiv=0706.0001 or arxiv=1501.00001 (since April 2007). Do not include extraneous file extensions like ".pdf" or ".html".
  • asin: Amazon Standard Identification Number; if first character of asin value is a digit, use isbn.
    • asin-tld: ASIN top-level domain for Amazon sites other than the US; valid values: au, br, ca, cn, co.jp, co.uk, de, es, fr, it, mx
  • bibcode: Bibcode; used by a number of astronomical data systems; for example: 1974AJ.....79..819H
  • doi: Digital object identifier; for example: 10.1038/news070508-7. It is checked to ensure it begins with (10.).
    • doi-broken-date: Date the DOI was found to be non-working at http://dx.doi.org. Use the same format as other dates in the article. Alias: doi_brokendate, doi-inactive-date
  • isbn: International Standard Book Number; for example: 978-0-8126-9593-9. (See: Wikipedia:ISBN and ISBN). Dashes in the ISBN are optional, but preferred. Use the ISBN actually printed on or in the book. Use the 13-digit ISBN – beginning with 978 or 979 – when it is available. If only a 10-digit ISBN is printed on or in the book, use it. ISBNs can be found on the page with the publisher's information – usually the back of the title page – or beneath the barcode as a number beginning with 978 or 979 (barcodes beginning with any other numbers are not ISBNs). For sources with the older 9-digit SBN system, prefix the number with a zero; thus, SBN 902888-45-5 should be entered as |isbn=0-902888-45-5. Do not convert a 10-digit ISBN to 13-digit by just adding the 978 prefix; the last digit is a calculated check digit and just making changes to the numbers will make the ISBN invalid. This parameter should hold only the ISBN without any additional characters. It is checked for length, invalid characters – anything other than numbers, spaces, and hyphens, with "X" permitted as the last character in a 10-digit ISBN – and the proper check digit. Alias: ISBN
  • issn: International Standard Serial Number; eight characters may be split into two groups of four using a hyphen, but not an en dash or a space.
  • jfm: Jahrbuch über die Fortschritte der Mathematik
  • jstor: JSTOR abstract; for example: jstor=3793107 will generate JSTOR 3793107.
  • lccn: Library of Congress Control Number. When present, alphabetic prefix characters are to be lower case.
  • mr: Mathematical Reviews
  • oclc: OCLC
  • ol: Open Library identifier; do not include "OL" in the value.
  • osti: Office of Scientific and Technical Information
  • pmc: PubMed Central; use article number for full-text free repository of a journal article, e.g. pmc=345678. Do not include "PMC" in the value. See also |pmid= below; these are two different identifiers.
    • embargo: Date that pmc goes live; if this date is in the future, then pmc is not linked until that date.
  • pmid: PubMed; use unique identifier. See also |pmc= above; these are two different identifiers.
  • rfc: Request for Comments
  • ssrn: Social Science Research Network
  • zbl: Zentralblatt MATH


  • quote: Relevant text quoted from the source. Displays enclosed in quotes.


  • lay-url: URL link to a non-technical summary or review of the source; the URL title is set to "Lay summary". Aliases: lay-summary, laysummary.
    • lay-source: Name of the source of the laysummary. Displays in italics and preceded by an endash. Alias: laysource.
    • lay-date: Date of the summary. Displays in parentheses. Alias: laydate.

Display options[edit]

  • mode: Sets element separator, default terminal punctuation, and certain capitalization according to the value provided. For |mode=cs1, element separator is a semicolon (;); terminal punctuation is a period (.); where appropriate, initial letters of certain words are capitalized ('Retrieved...'). For |mode=cs2, element separator is a comma (,); terminal punctuation is omitted; where appropriate, initial letters of certain words are not capitalized ('retrieved...'). To override default terminal punctuation use postscript.
  • author-mask: Replaces the name of the first author with em dashes or text. Set author-mask to a numeric value n to set the dash n em spaces wide; set author-mask to a text value to display the text without a trailing author separator; for example, "with". You must still include the values for all authors for metadata purposes. Primarily intended for use with bibliographies or bibliography styles where multiple works by a single author are listed sequentially such as Shortened footnotes. Do not use in a list generated by {{reflist}}, <references /> or similar as there is no control of the order in which references are displayed.
  • author-name-separator: (deprecated) Controls the separator between last and first names; defaults to a comma and space (, ); if the parameter is present, but blank, separator punctuation is set to the default; a space must be encoded as &#32;. Use name-list-format.
  • author-separator: (deprecated) Controls the separator between authors; defaults to a semicolon and space (; ); if the parameter is present, but blank, separator punctuation is set to the default; a space must be encoded as &#32;. Use name-list-format.
  • author-format: (deprecated) Use name-list-format.
  • display-authors: Controls the number of author names that are displayed when a citation is published. To change the displayed number of authors, set display-authors to the desired number. For example, |display-authors=2 will display only the first two authors in a citation. By default, all authors are displayed. |display-authors=etal displays all authors in the list followed by et al. Aliases: displayauthors.
  • display-editors: Controls the number of editor names that are displayed when a citation is published. To change the displayed number of editors, set display-editors to the desired number. For example, |display-editors=2 will display only the first two editors in a citation. By default, all editors are displayed except when there are four editors, then the editor list in the citation is truncated to three editors, followed by "et al." This exception mimics the older version of the template for compatibility. If a citation contains four editor names and one wishes all four editor names to display, "et al." may be suppressed by setting |display-editors=4. |display-editors=etal displays all editors in the list followed by et al. Aliases: displayeditors.
  • last-author-amp: Switches the separator between the last two names of the author list to space ampersand space ( & ) when set to any value. Example: |last-author-amp=yes
  • postscript: Controls the closing punctuation for a citation; defaults to none. Ignored if quote is defined.
  • separator: (deprecated) Controls the punctuation used to separate lists of authors, editors, etc. Defaults to a comma and space (, ); if the parameter is present, but blank, separator punctuation is set to the default; a space must be encoded as &#32;. Use mode.

Subscription or registration required[edit]

Main page: WP:PAYWALL

These parameters add a link note to the end of the citation:

  • registration: For online sources that require registration, set |registration=yes; superseded by subscription if both are set.
  • subscription: For online sources that require a subscription, set |subscription=yes; supersedes registration if both are set.



Three authors, a volume, and an edition. Ampersand (&) forced before final author's name.
| last1  = Lincoln
| first1 = A.
| last2  = Washington
| first2 = G.
| last3  = Adams
| first3 = J.
| lastauthoramp = yes
| title     = All the Presidents' Names
| publisher = The Pentagon
| place     = Home Base, New York
| volume  = XII
| edition = 2nd
| year    = 2007
Lincoln, A.; Washington, G. & Adams, J. (2007), All the Presidents' Names XII (2nd ed.), Home Base, New York: The Pentagon 


Web page
| url   = http://nrhp.focus.nps.gov/
| title = NPS Focus
| work  = National Register of Historic Places
| publisher  = [[National Park Service]]
| accessdate = November 30, 2010
| ref = none
"NPS Focus", National Register of Historic Places (National Park Service), retrieved November 30, 2010 
Archived page
| url = http://liftoff.msfc.nasa.gov/academy/space/atmosphere.html
| title = Earth's Atmosphere
| accessdate = October 25, 2007
| publisher  = [[National Aeronautics and Space Administration]]
| year   = 1995
| author = NASA
| archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20071013232332/http://
| archivedate = October 13, 2007
NASA (1995), Earth's Atmosphere, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, archived from the original on October 13, 2007, retrieved October 25, 2007 

Journals, newspapers, magazines, or other periodicals[edit]

Journal article
| last  = Hill
| first = Marvin S.
| title = Joseph Smith and the 1826
Trial: New Evidence and New
| journal = BYU Studies
| volume  = 12
| issue   = 2
| year    = 1976
| pages   = 1–8
| url     = https://byustudies.byu.edu/shop/PDFSRC/12.2Hill.pdf
Hill, Marvin S. (1976), "Joseph Smith and the 1826 Trial: New Evidence and New Difficulties" (PDF), BYU Studies 12 (2): 1–8 
Journal article with multiple authors and identifier
| last1  = Mandelkern
| first1 = M,
| last2  = Elias
| first2 = J,
| last3  = Eden
| first3 = D,
| last4  = Crothers
| first4 = D
| display-authors = 2
| title   = The dimensions of DNA in solution
| journal = J Mol Biol
| volume  = 152
| issue   = 1
| pages   = 153–61
| year    = 1981
| pmid    = 7338906
| doi     = 10.1016/0022-2836(81)90099-1
Mandelkern, M,; Elias, J, et al. (1981), "The dimensions of DNA in solution", J Mol Biol 152 (1): 153–61, doi:10.1016/0022-2836(81)90099-1, PMID 7338906 
Newspaper article
| last  = Smith
| first = Joseph III
| author-link = Joseph Smith III
| title = Last Testimony of Sister Emma
| newspaper = The Saints' Herald
| publication-place = Plano, IL
| volume = 26
| issue  = 19
| date   = October 1, 1879

| page   = 289
| url    = http://www.sidneyrigdon.com/dbroadhu/
Smith, Joseph III (October 1, 1879), "Last Testimony of Sister Emma", The Saints' Herald (Plano, IL) 26 (19): 289 
Conference paper
| last   = Sullivan
| first  = D.B.
| contribution = Time and frequency measurement
 at NIST: The first 100 years
| year   = 2001
| title  = 2001 IEEE Int'l Frequency Control Symp.
| publisher = National Institute of Standards and Technology
| contribution-url = http://tf.nist.gov/timefreq/general/pdf/1485.pdf
| chapter-format = PDF
Sullivan, D.B. (2001), "Time and frequency measurement at NIST: The first 100 years" (PDF), 2001 IEEE Int'l Frequency Control Symp., National Institute of Standards and Technology 

Parts of books, including encyclopedia articles[edit]

Manuscript published in an edited compilation
| last  = Bidamon
| first = Emma Smith
| author-link = Emma Hale Smith
| chapter = Letter to Emma S. Pilgrim
| date = March 27, 1876

| editor-last  = Vogel
| editor-first = Dan
| title  = Early Mormon Documents
| volume = 1
| publisher = Signature Books
| publication-date = 1996
| isbn = 1-56085-072-8
Bidamon, Emma Smith (March 27, 1876), "Letter to Emma S. Pilgrim", in Vogel, Dan, Early Mormon Documents 1, Signature Books (published 1996), ISBN 1-56085-072-8 
Work with an editor but no author
| editor-last  = Vogel
| editor-first = Dan
| title  = Early Mormon Documents
| volume = 1
| publisher = Signature Books
| publication-date = 1996
| isbn = 1-56085-072-8
Vogel, Dan, ed. (1996), Early Mormon Documents 1, Signature Books, ISBN 1-56085-072-8 
Encyclopedia article by a named author
| last  = Kramer
| first = Martin
| author-link  = Martin Kramer
| contribution = Bernard Lewis
| editor-last  = Boyd
| editor-first = Kelley
| title = Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing
| volume = 1
| pages  = 719–720
| publisher = Fitzroy Dearborn
| place = London
| publication-date = 1999
| contribution-url = http://www.geocities.com/
Kramer, Martin (1999), "Bernard Lewis", in Boyd, Kelley, Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing 1, London: Fitzroy Dearborn, pp. 719–720 
Encyclopedia article with no named author
| contribution = Bernard Lewis
| editor-last = Boyd
| editor-first = Kelley
| title = Encyclopedia of Historians
and Historical Writing
| volume = 1
| pages = 719–720
| publisher = Fitzroy Dearborn
| place = London
| year = 1999
| contribution-url = http://www.geocities.com/
Boyd, Kelley, ed. (1999), "Bernard Lewis", Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing 1, London: Fitzroy Dearborn, pp. 719–720 

Republications, or edited quotations in a periodical article[edit]

Manuscript edited and published in a journal
| last = Knight
| first = Joseph, Sr.
| year = 1833
| editor-last = Jessee
| editor-first = Dean
| title = Joseph Knight's Recollection
of Early Mormon History
| journal = BYU Studies
| volume = 17
| issue = 1
| publication-date = 1976
| page = 35
| url = https://byustudies.byu.edu/shop/PDFSRC/17.1Jessee.pdf
Knight, Joseph, Sr. (1833), Jessee, Dean, ed., "Joseph Knight's Recollection of Early Mormon History" (PDF), BYU Studies (1976) 17 (1): 35 
Manuscript written at one date and place, then published in a periodical at a different date and place with commentary by the editor.
| last = Klingensmith
| first = Philip
| type = Affidavit
| date = September 5, 1872
| place = Lincoln County, Nevada
| title = Mountain Meadows Massacre
| editor-last = Toohy
| editor-first = Dennis J.
| journal = Corinne Daily Reporter
| publication-date = September 24, 1872
| publication-place = Corinne, Utah
| volume = 5
| issue = 252
| page = 1
| url = http://udn.lib.utah.edu/u?/corinne,5359
Klingensmith, Philip (September 5, 1872), written at Lincoln County, Nevada, Toohy, Dennis J., ed., "Mountain Meadows Massacre", Corinne Daily Reporter (Affidavit) (Corinne, Utah, published September 24, 1872) 5 (252): 1 

Press release[edit]

Press release with quotation
| url = http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2010/04/05ipad.html
| title = Apple Sells Over 300,000 iPads First Day
| publisher = Apple Inc
| accessdate = April 10, 2010
| quote = in the US as of midnight Saturday, April 3
| ref = none}}
Apple Sells Over 300,000 iPads First Day, Apple Inc, retrieved April 10, 2010, in the US as of midnight Saturday, April 3 

Citing patents[edit]

Parameters (all are optional)[edit]

| inventor-last =
| inventor-first =
| inventorlink =
| inventor2-last =
| inventor2-first =
| inventorlink2 =
| publication-date =
| issue-date =
| title =
| country-code =
| description =
| patent-number =
| ref =
  • inventor-last (or inventor1-last): The inventor's surname or last name.
  • inventor-first (or inventor1-first): The inventor's first or given name(s).
  • inventorlink (or inventorlink1): Title of an existing Wikipedia article about the first inventor.
  • inventor2-last, inventor3-last, inventor4-last: The second, third, and fourth authors' surname or last name, if applicable.
  • inventor2-first, inventor3-first, inventor4-first: The second, third, and fourth inventors' first or given name(s), if applicable.
  • inventorlink2, inventorlink3, inventorlink4: Title of an existing Wikipedia article about the second, third, and fourth inventor, if applicable.
  • publication-date: Date of publication or filing.
  • issue-date (or date): Date patent was issued by patent agency.
  • title: Title of the patent. If the title includes [square brackets], these must be encoded as "&#91;" for "[" and "&#93;" for "]"
  • country-code: Two-letter abbreviation of the country issuing the patent.
  • description: Type of patent; shown between country code and number.
  • patent-number: The number of the patent.
  • ref: Anchor id.


United States patent with multiple inventors
| inventor1-last = Degermark
| inventor1-first = Mikael
| inventor2-last = Brodnik
| inventor2-first = Andrej
| inventor3-last = Carlsson
| inventor3-first = Svante
| inventor4-last = Pink
| inventor4-first = Stephen
| title = Fast routing lookup system
using complete prefix tree, bit vector,
and pointers in a routing table for
determining where to route IP datagrams
| issue-date = 2001
| patent-number = 6266706
| country-code = US}}
US 6266706, Degermark, Mikael; Andrej Brodnik & Svante Carlsson et al., "Fast routing lookup system using complete prefix tree, bit vector, and pointers in a routing table for determining where to route IP datagrams", issued 2001 

Anchored citations[edit]

This template can generate a citation that can be combined with shortened footnotes or parenthetical referencing. It does this by creating an HTML anchor containing an ID. The special parameter |ref=harv generates an ID suitable for Harvard referencing templates such as {{harv}} as specified in the next section; this is the default for the {{citation}} template. To disable anchor generation, specify |ref=none (in contrast, other Cite templates such as {{cite book}} and {{cite news}} do not create an anchor by default). You can also specify the ID directly, using the |ref=ID parameter. For example, suppose an article's References section contains the markup:

  • {{Citation |author=Sigmund Freud |title=Civilization and Its Discontents |year=1930 |ref=CivDis}}

which generates the citation:

  • Sigmund Freud (1930), Civilization and Its Discontents 

Then, the markup "([[#CivDis|Freud 1930]])" generates a parenthetical reference "(Freud 1930)" containing a wikilink to the citation (try clicking on the wikilink).

Anchors for Harvard referencing templates[edit]

IDs compatible with Harvard referencing templates such as {{harv}} are computed from the last names of the authors and the year of the cited source. For example, the markup "{{harv|Wright|Evans|1851|p=ix}}" generates the Harvard reference "(Wright & Evans 1851, p. ix)", which wikilinks to the citation whose markup and appearance are shown below:

  • {{Citation |last1=Wright |first1=Thomas |last2=Evans |first2=R. H. |title=Historical and Descriptive Account of the Caricatures of James Gillray |location=London |publisher=Henry G. Bohn |year=1851 |oclc=59510372}}
  • Wright, Thomas; Evans, R. H. (1851), Historical and Descriptive Account of the Caricatures of James Gillray, London: Henry G. Bohn, OCLC 59510372 

In this example the {{citation}} template defines, and the {{harv}} template uses, the HTML ID "CITEREFWrightEvans1851", composed by concatenating the string "CITEREF" with the last names of the authors and the year. The {{harvid}} template can be used to generate such IDs, for example, {{harvid|Wright|Evans|1851}} generates "CITEREFWrightEvans1851".

Related methods which leave only a number in the text are to use the {{harvnb}} template enclosed in the <ref></ref> html code, or to use the {{sfn}} template alone. The example above would be <ref>{{harvnb|Wright|Evans|1851|p=ix}}</ref> or {{sfn|Wright|Evans|1851|p=ix}} both of which generate a footnote, such as

17. Wright & Evans 1851, p. ix

The names of only the first four authors are used; other author names are not concatenated to the ID. If no author names are given, editor names are used instead. For patents, inventor names are used instead of authors or editors. If these names are not given, this template does not generate an anchor.

Last names are used, as specified by the parameters |last1= (or |last=), |last2=, |last3=, and |last4=, and similarly for |editor1-last= etc. and for |inventor1-last= etc. If a full name is given but no last name is specified, this template falls back on the full name, but this usage is not recommended. For example, in "{{Citation | author = Sigmund Freud | title = The Ego and the Id | year = 1923}}" no last name is given, so this citation cannot be combined with the Harvard reference "{{harv|Freud|1923}}". To make these {{citation}} and {{harv}} invocations compatible, either replace "|author=Sigmund Freud" with "|first=Sigmund |last=Freud", or add "|ref={{harvid|Freud|1923}}" to the {{citation}} invocation, or add the same ref parameter (say, "|ref=EgoId") to both the {{citation}} and the {{harv}} invocations.

Similarly, the year is used, as specified by |year=. If no year is given, this template attempts to derive the year from |date= (or, if no date is given, from |publication-date=) by applying the MediaWiki#time function. This heuristic works with many common date formats (American, International and ISO 8601 standard format YYYY-MM-DD as listed in WP:MOS), but may not work as expected with other formats, so when in doubt it may be safer to use |year=. Note that if only a year, say 2005, is known you must use |year=2005 rather than |date=2005.

IDs must be unique[edit]

Names, years, and hand-specified IDs must be chosen so that the IDs are unique within a page; otherwise the HTML will not conform to the W3C standards, and any references to the citations will not work reliably. For example, suppose a page contains the following two citations with {{harv}}-compatible IDs:

If these citations were altered to say "2008" rather than "2008a" and "2008b", the resulting page would not work, because the two different citations would both attempt to use the ID "CITEREFMontesHalterman2008". To avoid this problem, distinguish the citations by appending suffixes to the years, e.g., "|year=2008a" and "|year=2008b", as was done above. Any Harvard references to these citations should use years with the same suffixes.

It is good practice to verify that a page does not contain duplicate IDs by using the W3C Markup Validation Service; see External links.


  1. ^ The format of dates in the references of an article should use consistent and unambiguous styles. Example formats used in Wikipedia citations include:
    • 2009
    • 2009-09-14 (ISO 8601 standard format: YYYY-MM-DD)
    • 14 September 2009
    • September 14, 2009 (with comma)
    • September 2009
    Dates should not be linked in references. Please see Wikipedia:Manual of Style (dates and numbers)#Dates for more guidance about formatting dates.


See Wikipedia:Citing sources#Citation templates and tools for a list of tools that can help create a reference in the "citation" format.

Template Data[edit]

This is the TemplateData documentation for this template used by VisualEditor and other tools.


The Citation template generates a citation for a book, periodical, contribution in a collective work, patent, or a web page. It determines the citation type by examining which parameters are used.

Template parameters
Parameter Description Type Default Auto value Status
author surname last surname of the author of the cited material string empty empty optional
author given name first given name (first name) of the author of the cited material string empty empty optional
title of source title Title of source; displays in italics. string empty empty optional
date of source date Full date of source being referenced in the same format as other publication dates in the citations.[1] Do not wikilink. Displays after the authors and enclosed in parentheses. If there is no author, then displays after publisher. string empty empty optional
url of source url URL of an online location where the text of the publication can be found. string empty empty optional
1 1 string empty empty optional
2 2 string empty empty optional
3 3 string empty empty optional
inventor-surname inventor-surname string empty empty optional
inventor1-surname inventor1-surname string empty empty optional
inventor-last inventor-last string empty empty optional
inventor1-last inventor1-last string empty empty optional
inventor inventor string empty empty optional
invent1 invent1 string empty empty optional
invent-1 invent-1 string empty empty optional
country-code country-code string empty empty optional
inventor2-surname inventor2-surname string empty empty optional
inventor2-last inventor2-last string empty empty optional
inventor2 inventor2 string empty empty optional
invent2 invent2 string empty empty optional
inventor3-surname inventor3-surname string empty empty optional
inventor3-last inventor3-last string empty empty optional
inventor3 inventor3 string empty empty optional
invent3 invent3 string empty empty optional
inventor4-surname inventor4-surname string empty empty optional
inventor4-last inventor4-last string empty empty optional
inventor4 inventor4 string empty empty optional
invent4 invent4 string empty empty optional
inventor-given inventor-given string empty empty optional
inventor1-given inventor1-given string empty empty optional
inventor-first inventor-first string empty empty optional
inventor1-first inventor1-first string empty empty optional
inventor2-given inventor2-given string empty empty optional
inventor2-first inventor2-first string empty empty optional
inventor3-given inventor3-given string empty empty optional
inventor3-first inventor3-first string empty empty optional
inventor4-given inventor4-given string empty empty optional
inventor4-first inventor4-first string empty empty optional
inventorlink1 inventorlink1 string empty empty optional
inventorlink inventorlink string empty empty optional
inventorlink2 inventorlink2 string empty empty optional
inventorlink3 inventorlink3 string empty empty optional
inventorlink4 inventorlink4 string empty empty optional
country country string empty empty optional
publication-number publication-number string empty empty optional
patent-number patent-number string empty empty optional
number number string empty empty optional
description description string empty empty optional
status status string empty empty optional
publication-date publication-date string empty empty optional
pubdate pubdate string empty empty optional
issue-date issue-date string empty empty optional
gdate gdate string empty empty optional
year year string empty empty optional
fdate fdate string empty empty optional
pridate pridate string empty empty optional
assign1 assign1 string empty empty optional
assign2 assign2 string empty empty optional
ref ref string empty empty optional
separator separator string empty empty optional
quote quote string empty empty optional
postscript postscript string empty empty optional
author-separator author-separator string empty empty optional
author-mask author-mask string empty empty optional
authormask authormask string empty empty optional
surname surname string empty empty optional
last1 last1 string empty empty optional
surname1 surname1 string empty empty optional
author1 author1 string empty empty optional
author author string empty empty optional
authors authors string empty empty optional
last2 last2 string empty empty optional
surname2 surname2 string empty empty optional
author2 author2 string empty empty optional
last3 last3 string empty empty optional
surname3 surname3 string empty empty optional
author3 author3 string empty empty optional
last4 last4 string empty empty optional
surname4 surname4 string empty empty optional
author4 author4 string empty empty optional
last5 last5 string empty empty optional
surname5 surname5 string empty empty optional
author5 author5 string empty empty optional
last6 last6 string empty empty optional
surname6 surname6 string empty empty optional
author6 author6 string empty empty optional
last7 last7 string empty empty optional
surname7 surname7 string empty empty optional
author7 author7 string empty empty optional
last8 last8 string empty empty optional
surname8 surname8 string empty empty optional
author8 author8 string empty empty optional
last9 last9 string empty empty optional
surname9 surname9 string empty empty optional
author9 author9 string empty empty optional
first1 first1 string empty empty optional
given1 given1 string empty empty optional
given given string empty empty optional
first2 first2 string empty empty optional
given2 given2 string empty empty optional
first3 first3 string empty empty optional
given3 given3 string empty empty optional
first4 first4 string empty empty optional
given4 given4 string empty empty optional
first5 first5 string empty empty optional
given5 given5 string empty empty optional
first6 first6 string empty empty optional
given6 given6 string empty empty optional
first7 first7 string empty empty optional
given7 given7 string empty empty optional
first8 first8 string empty empty optional
given8 given8 string empty empty optional
first9 first9 string empty empty optional
given9 given9 string empty empty optional
author-link author-link string empty empty optional
author1-link author1-link string empty empty optional
authorlink authorlink string empty empty optional
authorlink1 authorlink1 string empty empty optional
author2-link author2-link string empty empty optional
authorlink2 authorlink2 string empty empty optional
author3-link author3-link string empty empty optional
authorlink3 authorlink3 string empty empty optional
author4-link author4-link string empty empty optional
authorlink4 authorlink4 string empty empty optional
author5-link author5-link string empty empty optional
authorlink5 authorlink5 string empty empty optional
author6-link author6-link string empty empty optional
authorlink6 authorlink6 string empty empty optional
author7-link author7-link string empty empty optional
authorlink7 authorlink7 string empty empty optional
author8-link author8-link string empty empty optional
authorlink8 authorlink8 string empty empty optional
author9-link author9-link string empty empty optional
authorlink9 authorlink9 string empty empty optional
coauthor coauthor string empty empty optional
coauthors coauthors string empty empty optional
origyear origyear string empty empty optional
month month string empty empty optional
trans_chapter trans_chapter string empty empty optional
trans_title trans_title string empty empty optional
type type string empty empty optional
archiveurl archiveurl string empty empty optional
deadurl deadurl string empty empty optional
series series string empty empty optional
version version string empty empty optional
journal journal string empty empty optional
periodical periodical string empty empty optional
newspaper newspaper string empty empty optional
magazine magazine string empty empty optional
work work string empty empty optional
volume volume string empty empty optional
issue issue string empty empty optional
pages pages string empty empty optional
page page string empty empty optional
at at string empty empty optional
nopp nopp string empty empty optional
chapter chapter string empty empty optional
contribution contribution string empty empty optional
chapter-url chapter-url string empty empty optional
chapterurl chapterurl string empty empty optional
contribution-url contribution-url string empty empty optional
chapter-format chapter-format string empty empty optional
others others string empty empty optional
edition edition string empty empty optional
place place string empty empty optional
location location string empty empty optional
publication-place publication-place string empty empty optional
publisher publisher string empty empty optional
editor-last editor-last string empty empty optional
editor-surname editor-surname string empty empty optional
editor1-last editor1-last string empty empty optional
editor1-surname editor1-surname string empty empty optional
editor1 editor1 string empty empty optional
editor editor string empty empty optional
editors editors string empty empty optional
editor2-last editor2-last string empty empty optional
editor2-surname editor2-surname string empty empty optional
editor2 editor2 string empty empty optional
editor3-last editor3-last string empty empty optional
editor3-surname editor3-surname string empty empty optional
editor3 editor3 string empty empty optional
editor4-last editor4-last string empty empty optional
editor4-surname editor4-surname string empty empty optional
editor4 editor4 string empty empty optional
editor-first editor-first string empty empty optional
editor-given editor-given string empty empty optional
editor1-first editor1-first string empty empty optional
editor1-given editor1-given string empty empty optional
editor2-first editor2-first string empty empty optional
editor2-given editor2-given string empty empty optional
editor3-first editor3-first string empty empty optional
editor3-given editor3-given string empty empty optional
editor4-first editor4-first string empty empty optional
editor4-given editor4-given string empty empty optional
editor-link editor-link string empty empty optional
editor1-link editor1-link string empty empty optional
editor2-link editor2-link string empty empty optional
editor3-link editor3-link string empty empty optional
editor4-link editor4-link string empty empty optional
language language string empty empty optional
in in string empty empty optional
format format string empty empty optional
arxiv arxiv string empty empty optional
asin asin string empty empty optional
ASIN ASIN string empty empty optional
asin-tld asin-tld string empty empty optional
bibcode bibcode string empty empty optional
doi doi string empty empty optional
DOI DOI string empty empty optional
doi_inactivedate doi_inactivedate string empty empty optional
doi_brokendate doi_brokendate string empty empty optional
isbn isbn string empty empty optional
ISBN ISBN string empty empty optional
issn issn string empty empty optional
ISSN ISSN string empty empty optional
jfm jfm string empty empty optional
JFM JFM string empty empty optional
jstor jstor string empty empty optional
JSTOR JSTOR string empty empty optional
lccn lccn string empty empty optional
LCCN LCCN string empty empty optional
mr mr string empty empty optional
MR MR string empty empty optional
oclc oclc string empty empty optional
OCLC OCLC string empty empty optional
ol ol string empty empty optional
OL OL string empty empty optional
osti osti string empty empty optional
OSTI OSTI string empty empty optional
pmc pmc string empty empty optional
PMC PMC string empty empty optional
pmid pmid string empty empty optional
PMID PMID string empty empty optional
rfc rfc string empty empty optional
RFC RFC string empty empty optional
ssrn ssrn string empty empty optional
SSRN SSRN string empty empty optional
zbl zbl string empty empty optional
id id string empty empty optional
ID ID string empty empty optional
access-date access-date string empty empty optional
accessdate accessdate string empty empty optional
laysummary laysummary string empty empty optional
laysource laysource string empty empty optional
laydate laydate string empty empty optional
author-name-separator author-name-separator string empty empty optional
lastauthoramp lastauthoramp string empty empty optional
display-authors display-authors string empty empty optional
archivedate archivedate string empty empty optional

This template produces COinS metadata; see COinS in Wikipedia for background information.