Template:Citation Style documentation

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Documentation icon Template documentation[view] [edit] [history] [purge]

Usage[edit]

This template is used to build consistent documentation pages for Citation Style 1 templates.

For example: {{Citation Style documentation|author}} will show the author documentation.

Where a particular section of documentation is not appropriate for a certain template, simply add the text manually or create a new subtemplate.

Each module of text is a subtemplate that can be edited using the link.

Section usage[edit]

When creating template documentation, use the following order of sections and content:

  • Lead: a brief overview of the template intent
  • Usage: samples of blank parameters that can be copied and pasted
  • Examples: examples of various usage
  • Parameters: detailed descriptions of each parameter
    • Syntax: overview of the template syntax
    • Deprecated: list of deprecated parameters
    • Description: parameter descriptions separated by function in this general order:
      • Authors
      • Title
      • Date
      • Publisher
      • Edition, series, volume
      • In-source locations
      • URL
      • Anchor
      • Identifiers
      • Quote
      • Editors
      • Lay summary
      • Display options

Lead section[edit]

Use {{csdoc|lead|content}} to create consistent content for the lead:

[edit subtemplate]

This Citation Style 1 template is used to create citations for .

Options for this field:

One unnamed parameter is used to create the trailing text.

Markup Renders as
{{csdoc|lead|books}}
This Citation Style 1 template is used to create citations for books.

Lua notice[edit]

[edit subtemplate]

Usage section[edit]

Start the usage section with {{csdoc|usage}}:

Copy a blank version to use. All parameter names must be in lowercase. Use the "|" (pipe) character between each parameter. Delete unused parameters to avoid clutter in the edit window. Some samples may include the current date. If the date is not current, then purge the page.

Parameters to copy are enclosed in tables created by sub-templates.

Full horizontal style[edit]

  • Start with {{csdoc|usage full}}
  • Precede the sample markup with : to create an indent
  • Enclose the sample in <code><nowiki>...</nowiki></code>
  • Close the table with {{end}}
{{csdoc|usage full}}
:<code><nowiki>{{cite book |last1= |first1= |authorlink1= |last2= |first2= |authorlink2= |editor1-first= |editor1-last= |editor1-link= |others= |title= |trans_title= |url= |archiveurl= |archivedate= |format= |accessdate= |type= |edition= |series= |volume= |date= |year= |month= |origyear= |publisher= |location= |language= |isbn= |oclc= |doi= |id= |page= |pages= |at= |trans_chapter= |chapter= |chapterurl= |quote= |ref= |bibcode= |layurl= |laysource= |laydate= |author-mask= |author-name-separator= |author-separator= |display-authors= |separator= |postscript= |lastauthoramp=}}</nowiki></code>
{{end}}
Full parameter set in horizontal format
{{cite book |last1= |first1= |authorlink1= |last2= |first2= |authorlink2= |editor1-first= |editor1-last= |editor1-link= |others= |title= |trans_title= |url= |archiveurl= |archivedate= |format= |accessdate= |type= |edition= |series= |volume= |date= |year= |month= |origyear= |publisher= |location= |language= |isbn= |oclc= |doi= |id= |page= |pages= |at= |trans_chapter= |chapter= |chapterurl= |quote= |ref= |bibcode= |layurl= |laysource= |laydate= |author-mask= |author-name-separator= |author-separator= |display-authors= |separator= |postscript= |lastauthoramp=}}

Most commonly used horizontal style[edit]

  • Start with {{csdoc|usage common}}
  • Precede the sample markup with : to create an indent
  • Enclose the sample in <code><nowiki>...</nowiki></code>
  • Close the table with {{end}}
{{csdoc|usage common}}
:<code><nowiki>{{cite book |last= |first= |authorlink= |title= |url= |accessdate= |year= |publisher= |location= |isbn= |page= |pages=}}</nowiki></code>
{{end}}
Most commonly used parameters in horizontal format
{{cite book |last= |first= |authorlink= |title= |url= |accessdate= |year= |publisher= |location= |isbn= |page= |pages=}}

Full vertical style[edit]

The full vertical style is created in three columns: Vertical list, Prerequisites and Brief instructions / notes.

  • Start with:
{{csdoc|usage vertical}}
<pre style="margin:0px;">
  • Create the vertical list column
  • Separate the next column with:
</pre>
{{csdoc|usage vertical mid}}
<pre style="margin:0px;">
  • Create the prerequisites column; blank lines must include a &nbsp;
  • Separate the next column with:
</pre>
{{csdoc|usage vertical mid}}
<pre style="margin:0px;">
  • Create the instructions column; blank lines must include a &nbsp;
  • End with:
</pre>
{{csdoc|usage vertical end}}

Example:

{{csdoc|usage vertical}}
<pre style="margin:0px;">
{{cite book
| last                  =
| first                 =
| authorlink            =
}}
</pre>
{{csdoc|usage vertical mid}}
<pre style="margin:0px;">
&nbsp;
&nbsp;
last
&nbsp;
&nbsp;
</pre>
{{csdoc|usage vertical mid}}
<pre style="margin:0px;">
&nbsp;
same as last1
same as first1
&nbsp;
&nbsp;
</pre>
{{csdoc|usage vertical end}}
Full parameter set in vertical format
Vertical list Prerequisites Brief instructions / notes
{{cite book
| last                  =
| first                 =
| authorlink            =
}}
 
 
last
 
 
 
same as last1
same as first1
 
 
  • If a field name is listed in the Prerequisites column it is a prerequisite for the field to the left.

Sub-templates[edit]

Usage[edit]

[edit subtemplate]

Copy a blank version to use. All parameter names must be in lowercase. Use the "|" (pipe) character between each parameter. Delete unused parameters to avoid clutter in the edit window. Some samples may include the current date. If the date is not current, then purge the page. |}

Usage full[edit]

[edit subtemplate]

Full parameter set in horizontal format

Usage common[edit]

[edit subtemplate]

Most commonly used parameters in horizontal format

Usage vertical[edit]

[edit subtemplate]

Full parameter set in vertical format
Vertical list Prerequisites Brief instructions / notes

Usage vertical mid[edit]

[edit subtemplate]

| style="vertical-align:top;" | |}

Usage vertical end[edit]

[edit subtemplate]

|}

  • If a field name is listed in the Prerequisites column it is a prerequisite for the field to the left.

Examples section[edit]

When creating examples, use these styles for consistency:

  • A title before the example, formatted in bold by the use of '''
  • The sample markup for the example: preceded by * to create a bullet, then the markup enclosed in <code><nowiki>...</nowiki></code>
  • The live markup: preceded by : to create an indent
Markup Renders as
'''Title'''
*<code><nowiki>{{cite book |title=Mysterious book}}</nowiki></code>
:{{cite book |title=Mysterious book}}
Title
  • {{cite book |title=Mysterious book}}
Mysterious book. 

Parameters section[edit]

syntax[edit]

[edit subtemplate]

Nested parameters rely on their parent parameters:

  • parent
  • OR: parent2—may be used instead of parent
    • child—may be used with parent (and is ignored if parent is not used)
    • OR: child2—may be used instead of child (and is ignored if parent2 is not used)
Where aliases are listed, only one of the parameters may be defined; if multiple aliased parameters are defined, then only one will show.

coins[edit]

[edit subtemplate]

This template embeds COinS metadata in the HTML output, allowing reference management software to retrieve bibliographic metadata. See: Wikipedia:COinS. As a general rule, only one data item per parameter. Do not include explanatory or alternate text:

  • Use |date=27 September 2007 not |date=27 September 2007 (print version 25 September)

Use of templates within the citation template, is generally discouraged as many of these templates will add a lot of extraneous HTML or CSS that will be rendered in the metadata. Also, HTML entities, for example &nbsp;, &ndash;, etc, should not be used in parameters that contribute to the metadata.

COinS metadata is created for these parameters:

  • |periodical=, |journal=, |newspaper=, |magazine=, |work=, |website=, |encyclopedia=, |encyclopaedia=, |dictionary=
  • |chapter=, |contribution=, |entry=, |article=, |section=
  • |title=
  • |publicationplace=, |publication-place=
  • |date=, |year=, |publicationdate=, |publication-date=
  • |series=
  • |volume=
  • |issue=, |number=
  • |page=, |pages=, |at=
  • |edition=
  • |publisher=, |distributor=, |institution=
  • |url=
  • |chapterurl=, |chapter-url=, |contributionurl=, |contribution-url=, |sectionurl=
  • |author#=, |Author#=, |authors#=, |author#-last=, |author-last#=, |last#=, |surname#=
  • any of the identifiers (|isbn=, |issn=, |doi=, |pmc=, etc)

sep_period[edit]

[edit subtemplate]

By default, sets of fields are terminated with a period (.). This can be an issue when the last field uses an abbreviation or initial that ends with a period, as then two periods will display (..). The only solution is to not include the last period in the value for the set of fields.

sep_comma[edit]

[edit subtemplate]

By default, sets of fields are terminated with a comma (,).

required[edit]

[edit subtemplate]

This parameter is required and will generate an error if not defined. On errors, main, help and template pages are placed into Category:Articles with incorrect citation syntax. Set |template doc demo=true to disable categorization; mainly used for documentation where the error is demonstrated.

deprecated[edit]

[edit subtemplate]

The following parameters are deprecated. Their use will place the page into Category:Pages containing cite templates with deprecated parameters:

  • access-date · accessday · accessdaymonth · accessed · accessmonth · accessmonthday · accessyear: Use accessdate to include the full date of access.
  • day: Use date to include the day, month and year.
  • dateformat · doilabel: These parameters are no longer supported.

Options for this field:

  • |date2=yes adds:
    • date2
    • month2
    • year2

author[edit]

[edit subtemplate]

  • last: Surname of author. Do not wikilink—use authorlink instead. Where the surname is usually written first—as in Chinese—or for corporate authors, simply use last to include the same format as the source. Aliases: last1, author, authors, author1.
    • first: Given or first names of author, including title(s); for example: Firstname Middlename or Firstname M. or Dr. Firstname M., Sr. Do not wikilink—use authorlink instead. Aliases: first1. Requires last; first name will not display if last is empty.
    • OR: for multiple authors, use last1, first1 through last9, first9 for up to nine authors. By default, if nine authors are defined, then only eight will show and "et al." will show in place of the last author. See the display parameters to change. Aliases: author1 through author9.
  • authorlink: Title of existing Wikipedia article about the author—not the author's website; do not wikilink. Aliases: authorlink1, author-link, author1-link, author1link.
  • OR: for multiple authors, use authorlink1 through authorlink9. Aliases: author1-link through author9-link.
When using shortened footnotes or parenthetical referencing styles with templates, do not use multiple names in one field or else the anchor will not match the inline link.

Options for this field:

  • |coauthors=yes adds "coauthors: (deprecated) Names of coauthors. Use the same format as the authors."
  • |others=yes adds "others: To record other contributors to the work, such as "Illustrated by Smith" or "Trans. Smith"."
  • |aliases= add aliases for last.
  • lua: When set, changes descriptions to update Lua versions.

editor[edit]

[edit subtemplate]

  • editor-last: Surname of editor. Do not wikilink—use editor-link instead. Where the surname is usually written first—as in Chinese—or for corporate authors, simply use editor-last to include the same format as the source. Aliases: editor1-last, editor, editors.
    • editor-first: Given or first names of editor, including title(s); example: Firstname Middlename or Firstname M. or Dr. Firstname M., Sr. Do not wikilink—use editor-link instead. Aliases: editor1-first.
    • OR: for multiple editors, use editor1-last, editor1-first through editor4-last, editor4-first for up to four editors.
  • editor-link: Title of existing Wikipedia article about the editor—not the editor's website; do not wikilink. Aliases: editor1-link.
  • OR: for multiple editors, use editor1-link through editor4-link.
Display:
If authors: Authors are first, followed by the editors and the included work, then the main work.
If no authors: Editors appear before the included work; a single editor is followed by "ed."; multiple editors are followed by "eds."; more than three editors will be followed by "et al., eds."

Options for this field:

  • lua: When set, changes descriptions to update Lua versions.

title[edit]

[edit subtemplate]

  • title: Title of source. Can be wikilinked to an existing Wikipedia article or url may be used to add an external link, but not both. Displays in italics.
    • trans_title: English translation of the title if the source cited is in a foreign language. Displays in square brackets after title; if url is defined, then trans_title is included in the link. Use of the language parameter is recommended.
Titles containing certain characters will display and link incorrectly unless those characters are encoded.
newline [ ] |
space &#91; &#93; &#124;


Options for this field:


title_format sets the display format:

  • quotes = Displays in quotes.
  • work = If work is defined, then title is displayed in quotes, else displays in italics.
  • default = Displays in italics.

title_title sets the display title:

  • encyclopedia = encyclopedia
  • default = title

web[edit]

[edit subtemplate]

  • title: Title of source page on website. Displays in quotes.
Titles containing certain characters will display and link incorrectly unless those characters are encoded.
newline [ ] |
space &#91; &#93; &#124;
  • trans_title: If the source cited is in a foreign language, an English translation of the title can be given here. The template will display this in square brackets after the work field and it will link to the url field, if used. Use of the language parameter is recommended.
This parameter is required and will generate an error if not defined. On errors, main, help and template pages are placed into Category:Articles with incorrect citation syntax. Set |template doc demo=true to disable categorization; mainly used for documentation where the error is demonstrated.
  • website: Title of website; may be wikilinked. Displays in italics. Aliases: work

chapter[edit]

[edit subtemplate]

  • chapter: The chapter heading of the source. May be wikilinked or may use chapter-url, but not both. Displays in quotes.
    • trans_chapter: English translation of the chapter heading, if the source cited is in a foreign language. Displays in square brackets after the chapter field; if chapter-url is defined, then trans_chapter is included in the link. Use of the language parameter is recommended.

Options for this field:


title_format sets the display format:

  • italics = Displays in italics.
  • work = If work is defined, then title is displayed in quotes, else displays in italics.
  • default = Displays in quotes.

title_title sets the display title:

  • booktitle = booktitle
  • default = chapter

type[edit]

[edit subtemplate]

  • type: Provides additional information about the media type of the source; format in sentence case. Displays in parentheses following the title. Examples: Thesis, Booklet, CD liner, Press release.

Options for this field:


  • type_default: Adds "Defaults to type_default"

journal[edit]

[edit subtemplate]

  • work: Name of the source periodical; may be wikilinked if relevant. Displays in italics. Aliases: journal, newspaper, magazine, periodical.
    • issue: When the publication is one of a series that is published periodically. Alias: number.
When set, work changes the formatting of other parameters:
title is not italicized and is enclosed in quotes.
chapter is italicized and is not enclosed in quotes.
location and publisher are enclosed in parentheses.
page and pages do not show p. or pp.
edition does not display.
type does not display.

Options for this field:

  • department adds:
  • department: Regular department within the periodical. Displays after work and is in plain text.

edition[edit]

[edit subtemplate]

  • edition: When the publication has more than one edition; for example: "2nd", "Revised" etc. Displays " ed." after this field, so |edition=2nd produces "2nd ed." Does not display if a periodical field is defined.

series[edit]

[edit subtemplate]

  • series or version: When the source is part of a series, such as a book series or a journal where the issue numbering has restarted.

series_episode[edit]

[edit subtemplate]

  • series: The name of the series the episode belongs to; may be wikilinked.

event[edit]

[edit subtemplate]

  • event: Event where the speech was given.

agency[edit]

[edit subtemplate]

volume[edit]

[edit subtemplate]

  • volume: For one publication published in several volumes. Displays after the title and series fields; displays in bold— if bolding is not desired, then include the volume information in the title field.

Options for this field:

  • lua: When set, changes descriptions to update Lua versions.

date[edit]

[edit subtemplate]

  • date: Date of source being referenced. Can be full date (day, month, and year) or partial date (month and year, year). Use same format as other publication dates in the citations.[date 1] Required when year is used to disambiguate {{sfn}} links to multiple-work citations by the same author in the same year.[more] Do not wikilink. Displays after the authors and is enclosed in parentheses. If there is no author, then displays after publisher.
  • OR:
    • year: Year of source being referenced. Required with some types of {{sfn}} citations;[more] otherwise use date.
    • month: Name of the month or season of publication. If you also have the day, use date instead. Do not wikilink.
  • origyear: Original publication year; displays after the date or year. For clarity, please supply specifics. For example: |origyear=First published 1859 or |origyear=Composed 1904.
  1. ^ Publication dates in references within an article should all have the same format. This may be a different format from that used for archive and access dates. See: MOS:DATEUNIFY.

Options for this field:

  • aliases includes aliases for date
  • began adds:
  • OR: began: Full date the first part of the program or episode aired.
    • AND: ended: Full date the last part of the program or episode aired.

publisher[edit]

[edit subtemplate]

  • publisher: Name of publisher; may be wikilinked if relevant. The publisher is the company that publishes the work being cited. Do not use the publisher parameter for the name of a work (e.g., a book, encyclopedia, newspaper, magazine, journal, website). Not normally used for periodicals. Corporate designations such as "Ltd", "Inc" or "GmbH" are not usually included. Omit where the publisher's name is substantially the same as the name of the work (for example, The New York Times Co. publishes The New York Times newspaper, so there is no reason to name the publisher). Displays after title; if work is defined, then publisher is enclosed in parentheses.
  • place: Geographical place of publication; generally not wikilinked; omit when the name of the work includes the location; examples: The Boston Globe, The Times of India. Displays after the title; if work is defined, then location is enclosed in parentheses. Alias: location
  • publication-place: If any one of publication-place, place or location are defined, then the location shows after the title; if publication-place and place or location are defined, then place or location are shown before the title prefixed with "written at" and publication-place is shown after the title.
  • publication-date: Date of publication when different from the date the work was written. Displays only if year or date are defined and only if different, else publication-date is used and displayed as date. Use the same format as other dates in the article; do not wikilink. Follows publisher; if work is not defined, then publication-date is preceded by "published" and enclosed in parenthesis.
  • via: Name of the content deliverer (if different from publisher) that presents the source in a format other than the original (e.g. NewsBank); or when the URL provided does not make clear the identity of the deliverer; or where no URL or DOI is available (EBSCO); or if the deliverer requests attribution; or as suggested in WP:The Wikipedia Library (e.g. Credo, HighBeam). |via= permits adding a level of detail to "say where you found it" within the syntax of the citation template. |via= is not intended to replace |publisher=. See also |registration= and |subscription=.

Options for this field:

  • |work=no suppresses "; if work is defined, then publisher and location are enclosed in parentheses"
  • |map=yes changes:
    • publisher: Name of publisher. The publisher is the company that publishes the work being cited. Do not use the publisher parameter for the name of a work (e.g., a book, encyclopedia, newspaper, magazine, journal, website). Displays before title. Do not wikilink—use publisher-link instead.
    • publisher-link: Title of existing Wikipedia article about the publisher—not the publisher's website; do not wikilink.

newsgroup[edit]

[edit subtemplate]

  • newsgroup: Name of newsgroup; a link is automatically created; do not wikilink.

language[edit]

[edit subtemplate]

  • language: The language the source is written in, if not English. Displays in parentheses with "in" before the language name. Use the full language name; do not use icons or templates.

pages[edit]

[edit subtemplate]

  • page: The number of a single page in the source that supports the content. Use either |page= or |pages=, but not both. Displays preceded by p. unless |nopp=y.
  • OR: pages: A range of pages in the source that supports the content. Use either |page= or |pages=, but not both. Separate using an en dash (–); separate non-sequential pages with a comma (,); do not use to indicate the total number of pages in the source. Displays preceded by pp. unless |nopp=y.
    • nopp: Set to y to suppress the p. or pp. notations where this is inappropriate; for example, where |page=Front cover.
  • OR: at: For sources where a page number is inappropriate or insufficient. Overridden by |page= or |pages=. Use only one of |page=, |pages=, or |at=.
Examples: page (p.) or pages (pp.); section (sec.), column (col.), paragraph (para.); track; hours, minutes and seconds; act, scene, canto, book, part, folio, stanza, back cover, liner notes, indicia, colophon, dust jacket, verse.

Options for this field:

  • work adds "or work is defined"

time[edit]

[edit subtemplate]

  • minutes: Time the event occurs in the source; followed by "minutes in".
  • OR: time: Time the event occurs in the source; preceded by default text "Event occurs at time".
    • timecaption: Changes the default text displayed before time.

id1[edit]

[edit subtemplate]

  • id: A unique identifier, used where none of the specialized identifiers are applicable; wikilink or use a template as applicable.

id2[edit]

[edit subtemplate]

These identifiers create links and are designed to accept a single value. Using multiple values or other text will break the link and/or invalidate the identifier. In general, the parameters should include only the variable part of the identifier, e.g. rfc=822 or pmc=345678.

  • arxiv: arXiv identifier; for example: arxiv=hep-th/9205027 (before April 2007) or arxiv=0706.0001 (since April 2007)
  • asin: Amazon Standard Identification Number
    • asin-tld: ASIN top-level domain for Amazon sites other than the US; valid values: ca, cn, co.jp, co.uk, de, es, fr, it
  • bibcode: Bibcode; used by a number of astronomical data systems; for example: 1974AJ.....79..819H
  • doi: Digital object identifier; for example: 10.1038/news070508-7. It is checked to ensure it begins with (10.).
    • doi_brokendate: Date the DOI is broken; use the same format as other dates in the article.
  • isbn: International Standard Book Number; for example: 978-0-8126-9593-9. (See: Wikipedia:ISBN and ISBN). Dashes in the ISBN are optional, but preferred. Use the ISBN actually printed on or in the book. Use the 13-digit ISBN – beginning with 978 or 979 – when it is available. If only a 10 digit ISBN is printed on or in the book, use it. ISBNs can be found on the page with the publisher's information – usually the back to the title page – or beneath the barcode as a number beginning with 978 or 979 (barcodes beginning with any other numbers are not ISBNs). For sources with the older 9 digit SBN system, prefix the number with a zero; thus, SBN 902888-45-5 should be entered as |isbn=0-902888-45-5. Do not convert a 10 digit ISBN to 13 digit by just adding the 978 prefix; the last digit is a calculated check digit and just making changes to the numbers will make the ISBN invalid. This parameter should hold only the ISBN without any additional characters. It is checked for length, invalid characters – anything other than [0123456789 -] with "X" permitted as the last character in a 10 digit ISBN – and the proper check digit. Alias: ISBN
  • issn: International Standard Serial Number; eight characters may be split into two groups of four using a hyphen, but not an en dash or a space.
  • jfm: Jahrbuch über die Fortschritte der Mathematik
  • jstor: JSTOR abstract; for example: "jstor=3793107" will generate JSTOR 3793107.
  • lccn: Library of Congress Control Number. A certain amount of reformatting may be necessary, such as the use of one or more zeroes instead of a hyphen; for example, if the book shows "Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 89-61500", this would be entered as |lccn=89061500. Help with formatting may be found at LCCN (Library of Congress Control Number) and How does LCCN Permalink normalize LCCNs?
  • mr: Mathematical Reviews
  • oclc: OCLC
  • ol: Open Library
  • osti: Office of Scientific and Technical Information
  • pmc: PubMed Central; use article number for full-text free repository of a journal article. E.g. pmc=345678
  • pmid: PubMed; use unique identifier.
  • rfc: Request for Comments
  • ssrn: Social Science Research Network
  • zbl: Zentralblatt MATH

url[edit]

[edit subtemplate]

  • url: URL of an online location where the text of the publication can be found. Cannot be used if title is wikilinked. If applicable, the link may point to the specific page(s) referenced. Remove spurious tracking parameters from URLs, e.g. #ixzz2rBr3aO94 or ?utm_source=google&utm_medium=...&utm_term=...&utm_campaign=.... Do not link to any commercial booksellers, such as Amazon.com. See: WP:PAGELINKS.
    • accessdate: Full date when original URL was accessed; use the same format as other access and archive dates in the citations; requires url.[date 1] Do not wikilink. Not required for web pages or linked documents that do not change; mainly for use of web pages that change frequently or have no publication date. Can be hidden or styled by registered editors.
    • archiveurl: The URL of an archived copy of a web page, if or in case the url becomes unavailable. Typically used to refer to services like WebCite (see: Wikipedia:Using WebCite) and Internet Archive (see: Wikipedia:Using the Wayback Machine); requires archivedate and url.
      • archivedate: Date when the original URL was archived; preceded by default text "archived from the original on". Use the same format as other access and archive dates in the citations. This does not necessarily have to be the same format that was used for citing publication dates.[date 1] Do not wikilink.
      • deadurl: When the URL is still live, but pre-emptively archived, then set |deadurl=no. This changes the display order with the title retaining the original link and the archive linked at the end.
    • template doc demo: The archive parameters will be error checked to ensure that all the required parameters are included, or else {{citation error}} is invoked. With errors, main, help and template pages are placed into Category:Articles with incorrect citation syntax. Set |template doc demo=true to disable categorization; mainly used for documentation where the error is demonstrated.
  • format: Format of the work referred to by url; for example: PDF, DOC, or XLS; displayed in parentheses after title. HTML is implied and should not be specified. Does not change the external link icon. Note: External link icons do not include alt text; thus, they do not add format information for the visually impaired.
URLs must begin with a supported URI scheme. http:// and https:// will be supported by all browsers; however, ftp://, gopher://, irc://, ircs://, mailto: and news: will require a plug-in or an external application and should normally be avoided. IPv6 host-names are currently not supported.
If URLs in citation template parameters contain certain characters, then they will not display and link correctly. Those characters need to be percent-encoded. For example, a space must be replaced by %20. To encode the URL, replace the following characters with:
sp " ' < > [ ] { | }
 %20  %22  %27  %3c  %3e  %5b  %5d  %7b  %7c  %7d
Single apostrophes do not need to be encoded; however, unencoded multiples will be parsed as italic or bold markup. Single curly closing braces also do not need to be encoded; however, an unencoded pair will be parsed as the double closing braces for the template transclusion.
  1. ^ a b Accessdate and archivedate in references should all have the same format – either the format used for publication dates, or YYYY-MM-DD. See: MOS:DATEUNIFY.

Options for this field:


  • pmc adds:

" If url is not defined but pmc is, then url is set to the pmc link.

  • Embargo: Date that pmc goes live; if this is in the future, then then url is not set to the pmc link until that date."

chapterurl[edit]

[edit subtemplate]

  • chapter-url: URL of an individual chapter of online source. Should be at the same site as url, if any. If chapter-url is used, url should only be used if the beginning of the work and the cited chapter are on separate webpages at the site. chapter may be wikilinked or chapter-url used, but not both. Aliases: chapterurl.

lay[edit]

[edit subtemplate]

  • laysummary: URL link to a non-technical summary or review of the source; the URL title is set to "Lay summary".
    • laysource: Name of the source of the laysummary. Displays in italics and preceded by an endash.
    • laydate: Date of the summary. Displays in parentheses.

quote[edit]

[edit subtemplate]

  • quote: Relevant text quoted from the source. Displays enclosed in quotes. When supplied, the citation terminator (a period by default) is suppressed, so the quote needs to include terminating punctuation.

Options for this field:

  • |cs2=yes suppresses "When supplied, the citation terminator (a period by default) is suppressed, so the quote needs to include terminating punctuation."

ref[edit]

[edit subtemplate]

ref2[edit]

[edit subtemplate]

display[edit]

[edit subtemplate]

  • author-mask: Replaces the name of the first author with em dashes or text. Set author-mask to a numeric value n to set the dash n em spaces wide; set author-mask to a text value to display the text without a trailing author separator; for example, "with". You must still include the values for all authors for metadata purposes. Primarily intended for use with bibliography styles where multiple works by a single author are listed sequentially. Do not use in a list generated by {{reflist}}, <references /> or similar as there is no control of the order in which references are displayed.
  • author-name-separator: Controls the separator between last and first names; defaults to a comma and space (, ); if the parameter is present, but blank, no separator punctuation will be used; a space must be encoded as &#32; do not use an asterisk (*), colon (:) or hash (#) as they will be interpreted as wikimarkup.
  • author-separator: Controls the separator between authors; defaults to a semicolon and space (; ); if the parameter is present, but blank, no separator punctuation will be used; a space must be encoded as &#32; do not use an asterisk (*), colon (:) or hash (#) as they will be interpreted as wikimarkup.
  • display-authors: Controls the number of author names that are displayed when a citation is published. To control the displayed number of author names, set display-authors to the desired number. For example, |display-authors=2 will display only the first two authors in a citation. By default, the only the first eight cited authors are displayed; subsequent authors beyond eight are represented in the published citation by "et al." If a citation contains nine author names and one wishes all nine author names to display, "et al." may be suppressed by setting |display-authors=9. Aliases: displayauthors.
  • lastauthoramp: Switches the separator between the last two names of the author list to space ampersand space ( & ) when set to any value. Example: |lastauthoramp=yes
  • postscript: Controls the closing punctuation for a citation; defaults to a period (.); if the parameter is present, but blank, no terminating punctuation will be used. Ignored if quote is defined.
  • separator: Controls the punctuation used to separate lists of authors, editors, etc. Defaults to a period (.); if the parameter is present, but blank, no separator punctuation will be used; a space must be encoded as &#32; do not use an asterisk (*), colon (:) or hash (#) as they will be interpreted as wikimarkup.

Options for this field:


  • cs2: When set, changes:
    • postscript to "defaults to none"
    • separator to "Defaults to a comma (,)"
  • lua: When set, changes descriptions to update Lua versions.

Subscription or registration required[edit]

[edit subtemplate]

Main page: WP:PAYWALL

These parameters add a link note to the end of the citation:

  • registration: For online sources that require registration, set |registration=yes; superseded by subscription if both are set.
  • subscription: For online sources that require a subscription, set |subscription=yes; supersedes registration if both are set.

map_series[edit]

[edit subtemplate]

  • scale: Scale of map.
  • series: Title of map series.
  • version: Version of map.
  • cartography: Person or entity that did the cartography. Displays preceded by "Cartography by".

map_pages[edit]

[edit subtemplate]

  • page: Page in the source that supports the content; overridden by at.
  • OR: pages: Pages in the source that supports the content; separate page ranges with an en dash (–); separate non-sequential pages with a comma (,); do not use to indicate the total number of pages in the source.
  • OR: at: For sources where a page number is inappropriate or insufficient.
Examples: page (p.) or pages (pp.); section (Section), inset or other custom location on the map or in the atlas.
  • section: The map section of the feature referenced; example: 6A, 9B, 11L, etc.
  • inset: The name of the focused inset referenced; example: Downtown Fooburg.

interview_id[edit]

[edit subtemplate]

  • program: News program or event.
  • callsign: Radio or TV callsign.

interview_author[edit]

[edit subtemplate]

  • last: Surname of subject. Do not wikilink—use authorlink instead. Where the surname is usually written first—as in Chinese—or for corporate authors, simply use last to include the same format as the source.
    • first: Given or first names of author, including title(s); example: Firstname Middlename or Firstname M. or Dr. Firstname M., Sr.. Do not wikilink—use authorlink instead.
    • OR: for multiple subjects, use first1, last1 through first9, last9 for up to nine subjects. By default, if nine subjects are defined, then only eight will show and "et al." will show in place of the last author.
  • authorlink: Title of existing Wikipedia article about the subject—not the subject's website; do not wikilink.
  • OR: for multiple subjects, use subjectlink1 through subjectlink9.
Aliases: subject, last, last1, author1, author, authors; subject2, last2, author2 through subject9, last9, author9; subjectlink, authorlink, authorlink1; subjectlink2, authorlink2 through subjectlink9, authorlink9.

interview_interviewer[edit]

[edit subtemplate]

  • interviewer: Full name of interviewer(s); separate interviewers with a semicolon (;); wikilink as desired.
  • cointerviewers: (deprecated) Full names of co-interviewers Use interviewer.

album_name[edit]

[edit subtemplate]

  • name: (deprecated) Name of the release; may be wikilinked. Displays in italics by default Use title.
    • type: Set |type=single to display name in quotes.

album_artist[edit]

[edit subtemplate]

  • artist: (deprecated) The artist or band name; may be wikilinked; Various artists may be used as needed. Use others.

season[edit]

[edit subtemplate]

  • season: Season number, usually for US shows.
  • OR: seriesno: Series number, usually for British shows.
  • number: Many episodic shows are identified by separate season and episode numbers. Alternately, some shows prefer the format of a single episode number that includes the season within it; this format can be used by omitting the season field.

network[edit]

[edit subtemplate]

  • network: The network the episode was aired on. (e.g. ABC, NBC, CBS, Fox, Disney, USA Network, BBC)
    • station: Call letters of the local station (if any).

transcript[edit]

[edit subtemplate]

  • transcript: Transcript of the original source.
    • transcripturl: URL of the transcript.

notestitle[edit]

[edit subtemplate]

  • notestitle: (deprecated) The title of the notes, if different from the title of the album.

conference[edit]

[edit subtemplate]

  • conference: Name of the conference, may include location if different from location and date if different from date or year.
    • conferenceurl: URL of conference proceedings, if different from url.

See also[edit]