Template:Cite thesis

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Citation Style 1 templates
{{Cite arXiv}} arXiv preprint
{{Cite AV media}} audio and visual
{{Cite AV media notes}} audio and visual liner notes
{{Cite book}} books
{{Cite conference}} conference papers
{{Cite DVD notes}} DVD liner notes
{{Cite encyclopedia}} edited collections
{{Cite episode}} radio or television episodes
{{Cite interview}} interviews
{{Cite journal}} magazines, journals, academic papers
{{Cite mailing list}} public mailing lists
{{Cite map}} maps
{{Cite news}} news articles
{{Cite newsgroup}} online newsgroups
{{Cite podcast}} audio or video podcast
{{Cite press release}} press releases
{{Cite report}} reports
{{Cite serial}} audio or video serials
{{Cite sign}} signs, plaques
{{Cite speech}} speeches
{{Cite techreport}} technical reports
{{Cite thesis}} theses
{{Cite web}} web sources

This Citation Style 1 template is used to create citations for theses submitted to and approved by an educational institution recognized as capable of awarding higher degrees.

Usage

Copy a blank version to use. All parameter names must be in lowercase. Use the "|" (pipe) character between each parameter. Delete unused parameters to avoid clutter in the edit window. Some samples may include the current date. If the date is not current, then purge the page.

Horizontal format:

{{Cite thesis |last= |first= |title= |type= |chapter= |url= |author= |date= |year= |publisher= |access-date= |docket= |oclc= }}

Examples

{{cite thesis |type=Ph.D. |first=Arnold A |last=Ducklover |title=On some aspects of Ducks |publisher=Duck University |year=1901}}

  • Ducklover, Arnold A (1901). On some aspects of Ducks (Ph.D.). Duck University. 

{{cite thesis |degree=M.Sc. |first=Arnold A |last=Ducklover |title=On some aspects of Ducks |publisher=Duck University |year=1901}}

  • Ducklover, Arnold A (1901). On some aspects of Ducks (M.Sc. thesis). Duck University. 

{{cite thesis |first=Arnold A |last=Ducklover |title=On some aspects of Ducks |publisher=Duck University |year=1901}}

  • Ducklover, Arnold A (1901). On some aspects of Ducks (Thesis). Duck University. 

Parameters

Syntax

Nested parameters rely on their parent parameters:

  • parent
  • OR: parent2—may be used instead of parent
    • child—may be used with parent (and is ignored if parent is not used)
    • OR: child2—may be used instead of child (and is ignored if parent2 is not used)
Where aliases are listed, only one of the parameters may be defined; if multiple aliased parameters are defined, then only one will show.

By default, sets of fields are terminated with a period (.). This can be an issue when the last field uses an abbreviation or initial that ends with a period, as then two periods will display (..). The only solution is to not include the last period in the value for the set of fields.

COinS

This template embeds COinS metadata in the HTML output, allowing reference management software to retrieve bibliographic metadata. See: Wikipedia:COinS. As a general rule, only one data item per parameter. Do not include explanatory or alternate text:

  • Use |date=27 September 2007 not |date=27 September 2007 (print version 25 September)

Use of templates within the citation template, is discouraged because many of these templates will add extraneous HTML or CSS that will be rendered in the metadata. Also, HTML entities, for example  , –, etc, should not be used in parameters that contribute to the metadata. Do not include Wiki markup '' (italic font) or ''' (bold font) because these markup characters will contaminate the metadata.

Deprecated

The following parameters are deprecated. Their use will place the page into Category:Pages containing cite templates with deprecated parameters:

  • month: Use date to include the day, month and year.
  • coauthor · coauthors: Use last# / first# or author or authors

Description

Authors

  • last: Surname of author. Do not wikilink—use author-link instead. For corporate authors, simply use last to include the same format as the source. Aliases: last1, author, authors, author1.
    • first: Given or first names of author, including title(s); for example: Firstname Middlename or Firstname M. or Dr. Firstname M., Sr. Do not wikilink—use author-link instead. Aliases: first1. Requires last; first name will not display if last is empty.
    • OR: for multiple authors, use last1, first1 through lastn, firstn where n is any consecutive number for an unlimited number of authors (each firstn requires a corresponding lastn). See the display parameters to change how many authors are displayed. Aliases: author1 through authorn.
  • author-link: Title of existing Wikipedia article about the author—not the author's website; do not wikilink. Aliases: authorlink1, authorlink, author1-link, author1link.
  • OR: for multiple authors, use authorlink1 through authorlinkn. Aliases: author1-link through authorn-link.
  • others: To record other contributors to the work, such as Illustrated by John Smith or Translated by John Smith.
When using shortened footnotes or parenthetical referencing styles with templates, do not use multiple names in one field or else the anchor will not match the inline link.

Title

  • title: Title of source. Can be wikilinked to an existing Wikipedia article or url may be used to add an external link, but not both. Displays in italics.
    • trans-title: English translation of the title if the source cited is in a foreign language. Displays in square brackets after title; if url is defined, then trans-title is included in the link. Use of the language parameter is recommended.
Titles containing certain characters will display and link incorrectly unless those characters are encoded.
newline [ ] |
space [ ] |
  • When the title you are citing contains quotations marks or apostrophes at the beginning, end or both, you can use   to place a separation between that punctuation and the quotation marks this template automatically provides around the title, to avoid a non-ideal display such as '''.
  • For example instead of title='name' which will display on many browsers with the quotation marks surrounding it as '''name''', use |title= 'name' , which will display as " 'name' ".
  • chapter: The chapter heading of the source. May be wikilinked or may use chapter-url, but not both. Displays in quotes.
    • trans-chapter: English translation of the chapter heading, if the source cited is in a foreign language. Displays in square brackets after the chapter field; if chapter-url is defined, then trans-chapter is included in the link. Use of the language parameter is recommended.
  • type: Provides additional information about the media type of the source; format in sentence case. Displays in parentheses following the title. Defaults to Thesis.
Aliases: type, degree
  • language: The language the source is written in, if not English. Displays in parentheses with "in" before the language name. Use the full language name or ISO 639-1 code; use of language names or language codes recognized by Wikimedia adds the page to the appropriate subcategory of Category:CS1 foreign language sources; do not use templates.

Date

  • date: Date of source being referenced. Can be full date (day, month, and year) or partial date (month and year, season and year, or year). Use same format as other publication dates in the citations.[date 1] Required when year is used to disambiguate {{sfn}} links to multiple-work citations by the same author in the same year.[more] Do not wikilink. Displays after the authors and is enclosed in parentheses. If there is no author, then displays after publisher. For acceptable date formats, see Help:Citation Style 1#Dates.
For approximate year, precede with "c. ", like this: |date=c. 1900; for no date, add as |date=n.d.
NO: Does the template use |ref=harv? (answer YES if the template is {{citation}})
NO: use |date=.
YES: Is the date format in |date= YYYY-MM-DD?
NO: use |date=.
YES: Does the citation require a CITEREF disambiguator?
NO: use |date=.
YES: |year= required.
YES: Does the citation use |ref=harv?
NO: use |date=.
YES: Is the date format in |date= DD Month YYYY or Month YYYY or YYYY or Month DD, YYYY or YYYY-MM-DD?
NO: |year= required.
YES: Does the citation require a CITEREF disambiguator?
NO: use |date=.
YES: |year= required.
  • orig-year: Original publication year; displays after the date or year. For clarity, please supply specifics. For example: |orig-year=First published 1859 or |orig-year=Composed 1904.
  1. ^ Publication dates in references within an article should all have the same format. This may be a different format from that used for archive and access dates. See: MOS:DATEUNIFY.

Publisher

  • publisher: Name of publisher; may be wikilinked if relevant. The publisher is the company that publishes the work being cited. Do not use the publisher parameter for the name of a work (e.g. a book, encyclopedia, newspaper, magazine, journal, website). Not normally used for periodicals. Corporate designations such as "Ltd", "Inc" or "GmbH" are not usually included. Omit where the publisher's name is substantially the same as the name of the work (for example, The New York Times Co. publishes The New York Times newspaper, so there is no reason to name the publisher). Displays after title; if work is defined, then publisher is enclosed in parentheses.
  • place: Geographical place of publication; generally not wikilinked; omit when the name of the work includes the location; examples: The Boston Globe, The Times of India. Displays after the title; if work is defined, then location is enclosed in parentheses. Alias: location
  • publication-place: If any one of publication-place, place or location are defined, then the location shows after the title; if publication-place and place or location are defined, then place or location are shown before the title prefixed with "written at" and publication-place is shown after the title.
  • publication-date: Date of publication when different from the date the work was written. Displays only if year or date are defined and only if different, else publication-date is used and displayed as date. Use the same format as other dates in the article; do not wikilink. Follows publisher; if work is not defined, then publication-date is preceded by "published" and enclosed in parenthesis.
  • via: Name of the content deliverer (if different from publisher). via is not a replacement for publisher, but provides additional detail. It may be used when the content deliverer presents the source in a format other than the original (e.g. NewsBank), when the URL provided does not make clear the identity of the deliverer, where no URL or DOI is available (EBSCO), if the deliverer requests attribution, or as requested in WP:The Wikipedia Library (e.g. Credo, HighBeam). See also registration and subscription.

Edition, series, volume

  • edition: When the publication has more than one edition; for example: "2nd", "Revised", and so forth. Appends the string " ed." after the field, so |edition=2nd produces "2nd ed." Does not display if a periodical field is defined.
  • series or version: When the source is part of a series, such as a book series or a journal where the issue numbering has restarted.
  • volume: For one publication published in several volumes. Displays after the title and series fields; displays in bold. If bolding is not desired, then include the volume information in the title field.

In-source locations

  • page: The number of a single page in the source that supports the content. Use either |page= or |pages=, but not both. Displays preceded by p. unless |nopp=y.
  • OR: pages: A range of pages in the source that supports the content. Use either |page= or |pages=, but not both. Separate using an en dash (–); separate non-sequential pages with a comma (,); do not use to indicate the total number of pages in the source. Displays preceded by pp. unless |nopp=y. Hyphens are automatically converted to en dashes; if hyphens are appropriate, for example: pp. 3-1–3-15, use |at=.
    • nopp: Set to y to suppress the p. or pp. notations where this is inappropriate; for example, where |page=Front cover.
  • OR: at: For sources where a page number is inappropriate or insufficient. Overridden by |page= or |pages=. Use only one of |page=, |pages=, or |at=.
Examples: page (p.) or pages (pp.); section (sec.), column (col.), paragraph (para.); track; hours, minutes and seconds; act, scene, canto, book, part, folio, stanza, back cover, liner notes, indicia, colophon, dust jacket, verse.

URL

  • url: URL of an online location where the text of the publication can be found. Cannot be used if title is wikilinked. If applicable, the link may point to the specific page(s) referenced. Remove spurious tracking parameters from URLs, e.g. #ixzz2rBr3aO94 or ?utm_source=google&utm_medium=...&utm_term=...&utm_campaign=.... Do not link to any commercial booksellers, such as Amazon.com. See: WP:PAGELINKS.
    • access-date: Full date when the contents pointed to by url was last verified to support the text in the article; do not wikilink; requires url; use the same format as other access and archive dates in the citations.[date 1] Not required for linked documents that do not change. For example, access-date is not required for links to copies of published research papers accessed via DOI or a published book, but is required for links to news articles on commercial sites (these are changed from time to time, even if also published in a physical media). Note that access-date is the date that the URL was checked to not only be working, but to support the assertion being cited (which the current version of the page may not do). Can be hidden or styled by registered editors. Alias: accessdate.
    • archive-url: The URL of an archived copy of a web page, if or in case the url becomes unavailable. Typically used to refer to services like WebCite (see: Wikipedia:Using WebCite) and Internet Archive (see: Wikipedia:Using the Wayback Machine); requires archive-date and url. Alias: archiveurl.
      • archive-date: Date when the original URL was archived; preceded by default text "archived from the original on". Use the same format as other access and archive dates in the citations. This does not necessarily have to be the same format that was used for citing publication dates.[date 1] Do not wikilink. Alias: archivedate.
      • dead-url: When the URL is still live, but pre-emptively archived, then set |dead-url=no. This changes the display order with the title retaining the original link and the archive linked at the end. Alias: deadurl.
    • template-doc-demo: The archive parameters will be error checked to ensure that all the required parameters are included, or else {{citation error}} is invoked. With errors, main, help and template pages are placed into Category:Articles with incorrect citation syntax. Set |template-doc-demo=true to disable categorization; mainly used for documentation where the error is demonstrated.
  • format: Format of the work referred to by url; for example: PDF, DOC, or XLS; displayed in parentheses after title. HTML is implied and should not be specified. Does not change the external link icon. Note: External link icons do not include alt text; thus, they do not add format information for the visually impaired.
URLs must begin with a supported URI scheme. http:// and https:// will be supported by all browsers; however, ftp://, gopher://, irc://, ircs://, mailto: and news: will require a plug-in or an external application and should normally be avoided. IPv6 host-names are currently not supported.
If URLs in citation template parameters contain certain characters, then they will not display and link correctly. Those characters need to be percent-encoded. For example, a space must be replaced by %20. To encode the URL, replace the following characters with:
sp " ' < > [ ] { | }
 %20  %22  %27  %3c  %3e  %5b  %5d  %7b  %7c  %7d
Single apostrophes do not need to be encoded; however, unencoded multiples will be parsed as italic or bold markup. Single curly closing braces also do not need to be encoded; however, an unencoded pair will be parsed as the double closing braces for the template transclusion.
  1. ^ a b Access-date and archive-date in references should all have the same format – either the format used for publication dates, or YYYY-MM-DD. See: MOS:DATEUNIFY.

Anchor

Identifiers

  • id: A unique identifier, used where none of the specialized identifiers are applicable; wikilink or use a template as applicable.
Aliases: id, docket

These identifiers create links and are designed to accept a single value. Using multiple values or other text will break the link and/or invalidate the identifier. In general, the parameters should include only the variable part of the identifier, e.g. rfc=822 or pmc=345678.

  • arxiv: arXiv identifier; for example: arxiv=hep-th/9205027 (before April 2007) or arxiv=0706.0001 (since April 2007). Do not include extraneous file extensions like ".pdf" or ".html".
  • asin: Amazon Standard Identification Number; if first character of asin value is a digit, use isbn.
    • asin-tld: ASIN top-level domain for Amazon sites other than the US; valid values: au, br, ca, cn, co.jp, co.uk, de, es, fr, it, mx
  • bibcode: Bibcode; used by a number of astronomical data systems; for example: 1974AJ.....79..819H
  • doi: Digital object identifier; for example: 10.1038/news070508-7. It is checked to ensure it begins with (10.).
    • doi-broken-date: Date the DOI was found to be non-working at http://dx.doi.org. Use the same format as other dates in the article. Alias: doi_brokendate
  • isbn: International Standard Book Number; for example: 978-0-8126-9593-9. (See: Wikipedia:ISBN and ISBN). Dashes in the ISBN are optional, but preferred. Use the ISBN actually printed on or in the book. Use the 13-digit ISBN – beginning with 978 or 979 – when it is available. If only a 10-digit ISBN is printed on or in the book, use it. ISBNs can be found on the page with the publisher's information – usually the back of the title page – or beneath the barcode as a number beginning with 978 or 979 (barcodes beginning with any other numbers are not ISBNs). For sources with the older 9-digit SBN system, prefix the number with a zero; thus, SBN 902888-45-5 should be entered as |isbn=0-902888-45-5. Do not convert a 10-digit ISBN to 13-digit by just adding the 978 prefix; the last digit is a calculated check digit and just making changes to the numbers will make the ISBN invalid. This parameter should hold only the ISBN without any additional characters. It is checked for length, invalid characters – anything other than numbers, spaces, and hyphens, with "X" permitted as the last character in a 10-digit ISBN – and the proper check digit. Alias: ISBN
  • issn: International Standard Serial Number; eight characters may be split into two groups of four using a hyphen, but not an en dash or a space.
  • jfm: Jahrbuch über die Fortschritte der Mathematik
  • jstor: JSTOR abstract; for example: "jstor=3793107" will generate JSTOR 3793107.
  • lccn: Library of Congress Control Number. When present, alphabetic prefix characters are to be lower case.
  • mr: Mathematical Reviews
  • oclc: OCLC
  • ol: Open Library identifier; do not include "OL" in the value.
  • osti: Office of Scientific and Technical Information
  • pmc: PubMed Central; use article number for full-text free repository of a journal article, e.g. pmc=345678. Do not include "PMC" in the value. See also |pmid= below; these are two different identifiers.
    • embargo: Date that pmc goes live; if this date is in the future, then pmc is not linked until that date.
  • pmid: PubMed; use unique identifier. See also |pmc= above; these are two different identifiers.
  • rfc: Request for Comments
  • ssrn: Social Science Research Network
  • zbl: Zentralblatt MATH

Quote

  • quote: Relevant text quoted from the source. Displays enclosed in quotes. When supplied, the citation terminator (a period by default) is suppressed, so the quote needs to include terminating punctuation.

Editors

  • editor-last: Surname of editor. Do not wikilink—use editor-link instead. Where the surname is usually written first—as in Chinese—or for corporate authors, simply use editor-last to include the same format as the source. Aliases: editor1-last, editor, editors.
    • editor-first: Given or first names of editor, including title(s); example: Firstname Middlename or Firstname M. or Dr. Firstname M., Sr. Do not wikilink—use editor-link instead. Aliases: editor1-first.
    • OR: for multiple editors, use editor1-last, editor1-first through editor4-last, editor4-first for up to four editors.
  • editor-link: Title of existing Wikipedia article about the editor—not the editor's website; do not wikilink. Aliases: editor1-link.
  • OR: for multiple editors, use editor1-link through editor4-link.
Display:
If authors: Authors are first, followed by the editors and the included work, then the main work.
If no authors: Editors appear before the included work; a single editor is followed by "ed."; multiple editors are followed by "eds."; more than three editors will be followed by "et al., eds."

Laysummary

  • lay-url: URL link to a non-technical summary or review of the source; the URL title is set to "Lay summary". Aliases: lay-summary, laysummary.
    • lay-source: Name of the source of the laysummary. Displays in italics and preceded by an endash. Alias: laysource.
    • lay-date: Date of the summary. Displays in parentheses. Alias: laydate.

Display options

  • author-mask: Replaces the name of the first author with em dashes or text. Set author-mask to a numeric value n to set the dash n em spaces wide; set author-mask to a text value to display the text without a trailing author separator; for example, "with". You must still include the values for all authors for metadata purposes. Primarily intended for use with bibliographies or bibliography styles where multiple works by a single author are listed sequentially such as Shortened footnotes. Do not use in a list generated by {{reflist}}, <references /> or similar as there is no control of the order in which references are displayed.
  • author-name-separator: Controls the separator between last and first names; defaults to a comma and space (, ); if the parameter is present, but blank, no separator punctuation will be used; a space must be encoded as &#32; do not use an asterisk (*), colon (:) or hash (#) as they will be interpreted as wikimarkup.
  • author-separator: Controls the separator between authors; defaults to a semicolon and space (; ); if the parameter is present, but blank, no separator punctuation will be used; a space must be encoded as &#32; do not use an asterisk (*), colon (:) or hash (#) as they will be interpreted as wikimarkup.
  • display-authors: Controls the number of author names that are displayed when a citation is published. To control the displayed number of author names, set display-authors to the desired number. For example, |display-authors=2 will display only the first two authors in a citation. By default, the only the first eight cited authors are displayed; subsequent authors beyond eight are represented in the published citation by "et al." If a citation contains nine author names and one wishes all nine author names to display, "et al." may be suppressed by setting |display-authors=9. Aliases: displayauthors.
  • last-author-amp: Switches the separator between the last two names of the author list to space ampersand space ( & ) when set to any value. Example: |last-author-amp=yes
  • postscript: Controls the closing punctuation for a citation; defaults to a period (.); if the parameter is present, but blank, no terminating punctuation will be used. Ignored if quote is defined.
  • separator: Controls the punctuation used to separate lists of authors, editors, etc. Defaults to a period (.); if the parameter is present, but blank, no separator punctuation will be used; a space must be encoded as &#32; do not use an asterisk (*), colon (:) or hash (#) as they will be interpreted as wikimarkup.

This template produces COinS metadata; see COinS in Wikipedia for background information.