Template:English vowel development, foreign sources

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

NOTE: In this table, abbreviations are used as follows:

Middle English pronunciation, c. 1400 Early Modern English pronunciation, c. 1600 Modern English pronunciation, c. 2000 Source Example
/a/ /a/ /æ/; (w+) GA /ɑ/, RP /ɒ/; (+r) /ar/ > GA /ɑr/, RP /ɑː/; (w+,+r) /ɔr/ > GA /ɔr/, RP /ɔː/; (+lC,l#) /ɔː/; (+lm) GA /ɑ/, RP /ɑː/; (RP, often +f,s,th) /ɑː/ Ger. /a/; ON ǫ ON vanta > "to want"; MDu pak > ME pakke > "pack"
AN /a/+/tʃ/; OF,AN /a/+CC AN cacher /katʃɛr/ > "to catch"
/aː/ [æː] /ɛː/ /eː/ > /ei/; (+r) /eːr/ > GA /ɛr/, RP /ɛə/ Fr. /a(ː)/,/ɑː/ OF pas > "pace"; OF pan > "pane"; OF masle /mɑːl/ > "male"
/er/, /ar/ /ar/ GA /ɑr/, RP /ɑː/; (w+) /ɔr/ > GA /ɔr/, RP /ɔː/ Fr. /er/,/ar/ AN werra > "war"; AN werbler > "to warble"
/e/ /ɛ/ /ɛ/ Ger. /e/ ON leggr > "leg"
/ɛː/ /eː/ /iː/; (+r) /iːr/ > GA /ɪr/, RP /ɪə/; (occ.) /ei/; (occ., +r) /eːr/ > GA /ɛr/, RP /ɛə/; (often +th,d,t) /ɛ/ Fr. /ɛ(ː)/ OF cesser /sɛsɛr/ > "to cease"; AN pes /pɛs/ > "peace"
/eː/ /iː/ /iː/; (+r) /iːr/ > GA /ɪr/, RP /ɪə/; (occ., +r) /eːr/ > GA /ɛr/, RP /ɛə/ OF /ie/; Fr. /e(ː)/ "chief", "cheer", "pierce", "peer"
/i/ /ɪ/ /ɪ/; (+r) /ər/ > GA /ər/, RP /ɜː/ Fr. /i/+CC
ON i,y ON systir > "sister"
/iː/ /əi/ /ai/; (+r) /air/ > GA /aiər/, RP /aiə/ Fr. /i/
MLG ī
/o/ /ɔ/ GA /ɑ/, RP /ɒ/; (GA, +f,s,th,g,ng) /ɔː/; (+r) /ɔr/ > GA /ɔr/, RP /ɔː/
/ɔː/ /oː/ GA /ou/, RP /əu/; (+r) /oːr/ > GA /ɔr/, RP /ɔː/
/oː/ /uː/ /uː/; (+r) /uːr/ > /oːr/ > GA /ɔr/, RP /ɔː/; (occ. +th,d,v before centralizing) /ʌ/; (often +th,d,t,k, after centralizing) /ʊ/ OF /o/ OF bote /botə/ > "boot"
ON ō ON rōt > "root"; ON blōmi > "bloom"
/u/ /ʊ/ /ʌ/; /ʊ/; (+r) /ər/ > GA /ər/, RP /ɜː/ ON u, occ. y ON þrysta > "to thrust"
/uː/ /əu/ /au/; (+r) /aur/ > GA /auər/, RP /auə/; (occ, +t) /ʌ/ AN,OF /u/ OF flour /flur/ > "flour, flower"; OF hore /urə/ > "hour"; AN pouair /puɛr/ > "power"
MLG ū MLG kūren "to lie in wait" > "to cower"
/ai/; /ɛi/ > /ai/ /ɛː/ /eː/ > /ei/; (+r) /eːr/ > GA /ɛr/, RP /ɛə/ OF /ei/,/ai/ OF peine /peinǝ/ > "pain"; OF paire /pairǝ/ > "pair"
/au/ /ɔː/ /ɔː/
/ɛu/ /juː/ /juː/ OF /y/ OF pur /pyr/ > "pure"
/iu/; /eu/ > /iu/
/ɔu/ /ou/ > /oː/ GA /ou/, RP /əu/; (+r) /oːr/ > GA /ɔr/, RP /ɔː/
/ɔi/ /ɔi/ /ɔi/
/ui/; /oi/ > /ui/ /ɔi/; /iː/ > /əi/ /ɔi/; /ai/


Documentation icon Template documentation[create]