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One of multiple alternative forms of a single gene, each of which is a viable DNA sequence occupying a given position, or locus on a chromosome. For example, in humans, one allele of the eye-color gene produces blue eyes and another allele of the eye-color gene produces brown eyes.
A pair of nucleotide bases on complementary DNA or RNA strands organized in a double helix.
A molecular "package" for carrying DNA in cells, organized as two double-helical DNA molecules that encode many genes. Some simple organisms have only one chromosome made of circular DNA, while most eukaryotes have multiple chromosomes made of linear DNA.
The unit of heredity in living organisms, typically encoded in a sequence of nucleotide monomers that make up a long strand of DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid. A particular gene can have multiple different forms, or alleles, which are defined by different sequences of DNA.
The process in which the information encoded in a gene is converted into a form useful for the cell. The first step is transcription, which produces a messenger RNA molecule complementary to the DNA molecule on which a gene is encoded. For protein-coding genes, the second step is translation, in which the messenger RNA is read by the ribosome to produce a protein.
The field of biology that studies genes and their inheritance.
The complement of alleles present in a particular individual's genome that give rise to the individual's phenotype.
The observable physical or behavioral traits of an organism, largely determined by the organism's genotype.