Template:Infobox germanium

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Germanium,  32Ge
Grayish lustrous block with uneven cleaved surface
A 12 gram (2×3 cm) polycrystalline block of germanium with uneven cleaved surfaces
General properties
Name, symbol germanium, Ge
Pronunciation /ərˈmniəm/
jər-MAY-nee-əm
Appearance grayish-white
Germanium in the periodic table
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Ununtrium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (post-transition metal)
Ununpentium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununseptium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununoctium (unknown chemical properties)
Si

Ge

Sn
galliumgermaniumarsenic
Atomic number 32
Standard atomic weight 72.630(8)
Element category metalloid
Group, block group 14 (carbon group), p-block
Period period 4
Electron configuration [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2
per shell 2, 8, 18, 4
Physical properties
Phase solid
Melting point 1211.40 K ​(938.25 °C, ​1720.85 °F)
Boiling point 3106 K ​(2833 °C, ​5131 °F)
Density near r.t. 5.323 g·cm−3
liquid, at m.p. 5.60 g·cm−3
Heat of fusion 36.94 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization 334 kJ·mol−1
Molar heat capacity 23.222 J·mol−1·K−1
vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1644 1814 2023 2287 2633 3104
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 4, 3, 2, 1, 0, −1, −2, −3, −4 ​(an amphoteric oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 2.01
Ionization energies 1st: 762 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 1537.5 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 3302.1 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius empirical: 122 pm
Covalent radius 122 pm
Van der Waals radius 211 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure diamond cubic
Diamond cubic crystal structure for germanium
Speed of sound thin rod, at 20 °C 5400 m·s−1
Thermal expansion 6.0 µm·m−1·K−1
Thermal conductivity 60.2 W·m−1·K−1
Electrical resistivity at 20 °C: 1 Ω·m
Band gap 0.67 eV (at 300 K)
Magnetic ordering diamagnetic[1]
Young's modulus 103 GPa[2]
Shear modulus 41 GPa[2]
Bulk modulus 75 GPa[2]
Poisson ratio 0.26[2]
Mohs hardness 6.0
CAS number 7440-56-4
History
Naming after Germany, homeland of the discoverer
Prediction Dmitri Mendeleev (1871)
Discovery Clemens Winkler (1886)
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of germanium
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
68Ge syn 270.8 d ε 68Ga
70Ge 21.23% 70Ge is stable with 38 neutrons
71Ge syn 11.26 d ε 71Ga
72Ge 27.66% 72Ge is stable with 40 neutrons
73Ge 7.73% 73Ge is stable with 41 neutrons
74Ge 35.94% 74Ge is stable with 42 neutrons
76Ge 7.44% 1.78×1021 y ββ 2.039 76Se
· references

References

These references will appear in the article, but this list appears only on this page.
  1. ^ Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition, CRC press.
  2. ^ a b c d "Properties of Germanium". Ioffe Institute. 
Documentation icon Template documentation[view] [edit] [history] [purge]

Infoboxes for the chemical elements use the core template {{Infobox element}}.

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ionization energy
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{{Periodic table (32 columns, micro)}}
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References

These references will appear in the article, but this list appears only on this page.
  1. ^ Endt, P. M. (1990). "Energy levels of A = 21–44 nuclei (VII)". Nuclear Physics A 521: 1–400. Bibcode:1990NuPhA.521....1E. doi:10.1016/0375-9474(90)90598-G. 
  2. ^ Chisté 2006.

See also[edit]

Index to chemical element infoboxes
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
1 1H
ibox E
2He
ibox E
2 3Li
ibox E
4Be
ibox E
5B
ibox E
6C
ibox E
7N
ibox E
8O
ibox E
9F
ibox E
10Ne
ibox E
3 11Na
ibox E
12Mg
ibox E
13Al
ibox E
14Si
ibox E
15P
ibox E
16S
ibox E
17Cl
ibox E
18Ar
ibox E
4 19K
ibox E
20Ca
ibox E
21Sc
ibox E
22Ti
ibox E
23V
ibox E
24Cr
ibox E
25Mn
ibox E
26Fe
ibox E
27Co
ibox E
28Ni
ibox E
29Cu
ibox E
30Zn
ibox E
31Ga
ibox E
32Ge
ibox E
33As
ibox E
34Se
ibox E
35Br
ibox E
36Kr
ibox E
5 37Rb
ibox E
38Sr
ibox E
39Y
ibox E
40Zr
ibox E
41Nb
ibox E
42Mo
ibox E
43Tc
ibox E
44Ru
ibox E
45Rh
ibox E
46Pd
ibox E
47Ag
ibox E
48Cd
ibox E
49In
ibox E
50Sn
ibox E
51Sb
ibox E
52Te
ibox E
53 I 
ibox E
54Xe
ibox E
6 55Cs
ibox E
56Ba
ibox E
1 asterisk 72Hf
ibox E
73Ta
ibox E
74W
ibox E
75Re
ibox E
76Os
ibox E
77Ir
ibox E
78Pt
ibox E
79Au
ibox E
80Hg
ibox E
81Tl
ibox E
82Pb
ibox E
83Bi
ibox E
84Po
ibox E
85At
ibox E
86Rn
ibox E
7 87Fr
ibox E
88Ra
ibox E
1 asterisk 104Rf
ibox E
105Db
ibox E
106Sg
ibox E
107Bh
ibox E
108Hs
ibox E
109Mt
ibox E
110Ds
ibox E
111Rg
ibox E
112Cn
ibox E
113Uut
ibox E
114Fl
ibox E
115Uup
ibox E
116Lv
ibox E
117Uus
ibox E
118Uuo
ibox E
8 119Uue
ibox E
120Ubn
ibox E
1 asterisk 57La
ibox E
58Ce
ibox E
59Pr
ibox E
60Nd
ibox E
61Pm
ibox E
62Sm
ibox E
63Eu
ibox E
64Gd
ibox E
65Tb
ibox E
66Dy
ibox E
67Ho
ibox E
68Er
ibox E
69Tm
ibox E
70Yb
ibox E
71Lu
ibox E
 
1 asterisk 89Ac
ibox E
90Th
ibox E
91Pa
ibox E
92U
ibox E
93Np
ibox E
94Pu
ibox E
95Am
ibox E
96Cm
ibox E
97Bk
ibox E
98Cf
ibox E
99Es
ibox E
100Fm
ibox E
101Md
ibox E
102No
ibox E
103Lr
ibox E
 
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