Template:Infobox polonium

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Ununpentium (unknown chemical properties)
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Ununseptium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununoctium (unknown chemical properties)


Polonium in the periodic table
General properties
Name, symbol, number polonium, Po, 84
Pronunciation /pɵˈlniəm/ po-LOH-nee-əm
Element category other metal
other metal status is disputed (see article text)
Group, period, block 16 (chalcogens), 6, p
Standard atomic weight (209)
Electron configuration [Xe] 6s2 4f14 5d10 6p4
2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 6
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (near r.t.) (alpha) 9.196 g·cm−3
Density (near r.t.) (beta) 9.398 g·cm−3
Melting point 527 K, 254 °C, 489 °F
Boiling point 1235 K, 962 °C, 1764 °F
Heat of fusion ca. 13 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization 102.91 kJ·mol−1
Molar heat capacity 26.4 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K)       (846) 1003 1236
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 6, 5,[1] 4, 2, −2
(amphoteric oxide)
Electronegativity 2.0 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies 1st: 812.1 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius 168 pm
Covalent radius 140±4 pm
Van der Waals radius 197 pm
Crystal structure cubic
Polonium has a cubic crystal structure
Magnetic ordering nonmagnetic
Electrical resistivity (0 °C) (α) 0.40 µΩ·m
Thermal conductivity  ? 20 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (25 °C) 23.5 µm·m−1·K−1
CAS registry number 7440-08-6
Naming after Polonia, Latin for Poland. Homeland of one of the discoverers
Discovery Pierre Curie and Marie Curie (1898)
First isolation Willy Marckwald (1902)
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of polonium
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
208Po syn 2.898 y α 5.215 204Pb
β+ 1.401 208Bi
209Po syn 103 y α 4.979 205Pb
β+ 1.893 209Bi
210Po trace 138.376 d α 5.307 206Pb
· references


  1. ^ Thayer, John S. (2010). Chemistry of heavier main group elements. p. 78. doi:10.1007/9781402099755_2.