Template:Infobox polonium

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Polonium
84Po
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
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Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Ununtrium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununpentium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununseptium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununoctium (unknown chemical properties)
Te

Po

Lv
bismuthpoloniumastatine
Polonium in the periodic table
Appearance
silvery
General properties
Name, symbol, number polonium, Po, 84
Pronunciation /pɵˈlniəm/ po-LOH-nee-əm
Element category other metal
other metal status is disputed (see article text)
Group, period, block 16 (chalcogens), 6, p
Standard atomic weight (209)
Electron configuration [Xe] 6s2 4f14 5d10 6p4
2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 6
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (near r.t.) (alpha) 9.196 g·cm−3
Density (near r.t.) (beta) 9.398 g·cm−3
Melting point 527 K, 254 °C, 489 °F
Boiling point 1235 K, 962 °C, 1764 °F
Heat of fusion ca. 13 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization 102.91 kJ·mol−1
Molar heat capacity 26.4 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K)       (846) 1003 1236
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 6, 5,[1] 4, 2, −2
(amphoteric oxide)
Electronegativity 2.0 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies 1st: 812.1 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius 168 pm
Covalent radius 140±4 pm
Van der Waals radius 197 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure cubic
Polonium has a cubic crystal structure
Magnetic ordering nonmagnetic
Electrical resistivity (0 °C) (α) 0.40 µΩ·m
Thermal conductivity  ? 20 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (25 °C) 23.5 µm·m−1·K−1
CAS registry number 7440-08-6
History
Naming after Polonia, Latin for Poland. Homeland of one of the discoverers
Discovery Pierre Curie and Marie Curie (1898)
First isolation Willy Marckwald (1902)
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of polonium
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
208Po syn 2.898 y α 5.215 204Pb
β+ 1.401 208Bi
209Po syn 103 y α 4.979 205Pb
β+ 1.893 209Bi
210Po trace 138.376 d α 5.307 206Pb
· references

References

  1. ^ Thayer, John S. (2010). Chemistry of heavier main group elements. p. 78. doi:10.1007/9781402099755_2.