Temple Beth Israel (Eugene, Oregon)

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Temple Beth Israel
Temple Beth Israel (Eugene, Oregon) Southwest.jpg
Basic information
Location 1175 East 29th Avenue,
Eugene, Oregon,  United States
Geographic coordinates 44°01′33″N 123°04′31″W / 44.025871°N 123.075364°W / 44.025871; -123.075364Coordinates: 44°01′33″N 123°04′31″W / 44.025871°N 123.075364°W / 44.025871; -123.075364
Affiliation Reconstructionist Judaism
Status Active
Leadership Rabbis: Yitzhak Husbands-Hankin,
Boris Dolin[1]
Website tbieugene.org
Architectural description
Architect(s) Mel Solomon and Associates,
TBG Architects & Planners[2]
General contractor McKenzie Commercial Construction[3]
Completed 2008[4]
Construction cost $6 million[4]
Specifications
Capacity 900+[4]
Materials Concrete, steel, wood[4]

Temple Beth Israel (Hebrew: בית ישראל‎) is a Reconstructionist synagogue located at 1175 East 29th Avenue in Eugene, Oregon. Founded in the early 1930s as a Conservative congregation, Beth Israel was for many decades the only synagogue in Eugene.

The congregation initially worshiped in a converted house on West Eighth Street. It constructed its first building on Portland Street in 1952, and occupied its current LEED-compliant facilities in 2008.

In the early 1990s conflict partly defined by differences between feminist and traditional members led to the latter leaving Beth Israel, and forming the Orthodox Congregation Ahavas Torah. Beth Israel came under attack from neo-Nazi members of the Volksfront twice, in 1994 and again in 2002. In both cases the perpetrators were caught and convicted.

Services were lay-led for decades. Marcus Simmons was hired as the congregation's first rabbi in 1959, but left in 1961. After a gap of two years, Louis Neimand became rabbi in 1963, and served until his death in 1976. He was followed by Myron Kinberg, who served from 1977 to 1994, and Kinberg in turn was succeeded by Yitzhak Husbands-Hankin. Maurice Harris joined Husbands-Hankin as rabbi in 2003, and served until 2011, when he was succeeded by Boris Dolin. As of 2011, led by Husbands-Hankin and Dolin, Beth Israel had approximately 400 member households, and was the largest synagogue in Eugene.

Early history[edit]

Small numbers of German Jews began settling in Eugene in the late 19th century, but most moved on. In the early 20th century the first Eastern European Jews settled there, and by the 1920s Eugene's Jewish community began gathering prayer quorums for holding Friday night and Jewish holiday services in individuals' homes. Historian Steven Lowenstein writes that "[a]fter Hymen Rubenstein's death in 1933, his home at 231 West Eighth Street was remodeled and named Temple Beth Israel".[5] It was a traditional Conservative synagogue,[6] and from that time until the 1990s it was the only synagogue in Eugene.[7][8]

In 1952, the congregation constructed a one-story synagogue building on an almost 1 acre (0.40 ha) property at 2550 Portland Street.[4][9][10] Designed by architect and Holocaust-survivor Heinrich Hormuth (H.H.) Waechter, the building featured an interior courtyard that provided natural lighting, and "a network of ceiling beams painted with symbols and shapes" by Waechter.[10][11][12]

Temple Beth Israel's services and religious functions were lay-led for decades.[13] Its first rabbi was Marcus Simmons.[9][14] Originally from England, he was a graduate of University of London and Oxford University, and was ordained at the Hebrew Theological Seminary. He emigrated to the United States in 1957, and joined Beth Israel in 1959.[15] The members were not, however, agreed that a full-time rabbi was required,[13] and in 1961, he accepted a rabbinical position in Downey, California.[14] In 2012, Temple Beth Israel inaugurated an annual lecture in honor of Rabbi Simmons called "The Rabbi Marcus Simmons Lecture." Prof. David A. Wacks delivered the 3rd annual Rabbi Marcus Simmons Lecture on February 9, 2014. His talk was titled, “Jews, Muslims, and Christians in Medieval Spain: The Literary Evidence.”[16]

Following a hiatus of two years, Louis Neimand was hired as rabbi in 1963.[13][17] Born in New York City in 1912 to immigrant parents, he was a graduate of City University of New York and was ordained at the Jewish Institute of New York.[17] He had previously worked for the United Jewish Appeal, and from 1959 to 1963 was the first Hillel rabbi at Syracuse University.[17][18] There was some concern about Neimand's hiring, as he had a police record as a result of his involvement in freedom marches in the African-American Civil Rights Movement (1955–1968). He served until his death in 1976.[13] In 2012, Temple Beth Israel inaugurated an annual lecture in honor of Rabbi Neimand called "The Rabbi Louis Neimand Lecture." The 3rd annual Rabbi Louis Neimand Lecture, offered on May 4, 2014, was titled "Between Individual Destiny and Community Cohesion: Two Jewish Autobiographies from Early Modern Europe" by Dr. Judith Baskin.[19]

Kinberg era[edit]

Myron Kinberg was hired as rabbi in 1977.[9] Ordained in the Reform movement,[20] he had previously served as a rabbi in Topeka, Kansas for two years, then lived in Israel for two years, before coming to Eugene.[21] Kinberg was known for his support for minority rights and gay rights, anti-nuclear and anti-war activism, support of reconciliation between Israel and the Palestinians, and outreach to non-observant members of Eugene's Jewish community.[22][23]

Kinberg attempted to revive the Biblical concept of the "ger toshav" in his approach to intermarriage. He was willing to officiate at an intermarriage if the non-Jewish partner, after discussions with the rabbi, agreed of his or her own free will to fulfill a set of commitments, including "a commitment to a Jewish home life, participation in Jewish life and tradition, and raising future children as Jews". The non-Jewish partner making this commitment became a "ger toshav", or "non-Jewish member of the Jewish people".[24][25]

Kinberg's wife Alice was a strong feminist, and during the 1980s he and his wife supported a number of changes to the liturgy and ritual.[26][27] These included allowing women to read from the Torah and lead the prayers, and changing prayers to be more gender inclusive - for example, using gender-neutral terms and pronouns for God, and adding references to the Biblical matriarchs in prayers like the Amidah, which traditionally only mentioned the Biblical patriarchs. While most congregation members approved of these changes, a minority resisted them.[27]

Schism[edit]

By the early 1990s serious divisions developed among the members of the congregation over a number of issues, including personal antagonisms, the rabbi's activism and "advocacy of 'ultra-liberal' causes", political differences over the Israeli–Palestinian conflict,[22][23] and

a myriad of additional Jewish cultural/religious issues, such as the acceptance of intermarried couples, adherence to kosher dietary laws, the use of modern language and music during worship services, rewriting of certain prayers such as the Aleynu to make them less ethnocentric, and so on.[28]

However, the biggest source of division, which underlay all others, was "the roles and rights of men and women in the synagogue."[28]

In the early 1990s a group of newly observant members began holding more traditional services in a back room of the synagogue, complete with a mechitza, a partition separating men and women. The "more feminist-minded" members strongly objected to having a mechitza anywhere in the Temple Beth Israel building, even if it were not in the services they attended. The latter group eventually circulated a petition which stated that either the mechitza would have to be taken down, or those members who wanted it would have to leave.[23][29] Kinberg also signed the petition.[30] Faced with this opposition, in 1992 the Orthodox members left, renting new premises and hiring their own rabbi, creating Eugene's second synagogue, originally called "The Halachic Minyan", and in 1998 renamed "Congregation Ahavas Torah".[23][29][30][31]

Kinberg held himself responsible,[30] and the schism led to his "reassessment of the needs of Temple Beth Israel and his role as a rabbi".[23] As a result, he left Beth Israel in 1994 to lead a synagogue on Long Island.[23][30] During his tenure at Beth Israel, membership rose from 118 to 350 families.[22] Kinberg died two years later at age 51.[23]

Influences and Legacy[edit]

Kinberg was known for his energetic efforts to reach out to people in the local Jewish community and personally invite them to get involved in the synagogue. One enduring example of this is the traditional burial society, or "Chevra Kadisha," that Kinberg founded. To this day, the synagogue's Chevra Kadisha committee trains lay people to work in tandem with the rabbis in providing logistical, emotional, and ritual support to loved ones who have just lost someone.

His research and work on "ger toshav" (see above) is currently featured on Ritualwell.org, an online resource that is a project of Kolot: The Center for Jewish Women’s and Gender Studies of the Reconstructionist Rabbinical College. In 1992, Rabbi Geela Rayzel Rafael published "Ger Toshav - Sources for Contemporary Application: A Proposal for Intermarried and other Allies in our Midst." She based her proposal in part on Kinberg's work on "ger toshav".

In honor of Kinberg's work on interfaith understanding, co-existence, and social justice, Temple Beth Israel established an annual lecture called "The Myron Kinberg Memorial Peace and Justice Lecture." The first of these annual talks was presented in 1997, and they have continued annually with occasional interruption. Rev. Daniel E. H. Bryant, of Eugene's First Christian Church - Disciples of Christ, a good friend of Kinberg's, delivered the 8th annual Kinberg Peace and Justice Lecture, entitled "When the Use of Religion Becomes the Abuse of Power." The 10th annual Kinberg Peace and Justice Lecture was delivered by Kinberg's daughter, Rabbi Yohanna Kinberg, and it was titled, ""Acknowledging the Sovereign Self and Embracing Sacred Community: A Spiritual Approach for Healing and Transforming Our World." Rabbi Yohanna Kinberg has carried on many of the core ideals her father promoted during his tenure at Temple Beth Israel.[32] She has served Temple B'nai Torah in Bellevue, Washington, since 2003, and is slated to become the new rabbi at Congregation Kol Ami in Woodlinville, Waashington in the summer of 2014.[33]

Temple Beth Israel's current building includes the Rabbi Myron Kinberg Memorial Chapel on the second floor.

Husbands-Hankin era[edit]

Yitzhak Husbands-Hankin succeeded Kinberg in 1995. Husbands-Hankin began his involvement at Temple Beth Israel first as a congregant, then as cantor, and then as an assistant rabbi.[34] He was active in forming the Jewish Renewal movement, and was ordained by its leader Zalman Schachter-Shalomi.[35]

The congregation decided to leave the Conservative movement in 1995, and for a year had no affiliation. In late 1996, after considering both Reform and Reconstructionist as alternatives, the congregation affiliated with the Reconstructionist movement.[20][30][36] By 1999, membership had grown to around 370 families.[30]

Husbands-Hankin was instrumental in developing the concept of "Ethical Kashrut", the idea that one should only purchase goods that are produced in an ethical way.[37] His essay, "Ethical Kashrut," was selected for publication in Arthur Kurzweil's Best Jewish Writing 2003.[38] A singer, cello and guitar player, he composes and performs Jewish music.[39] Husbands-Hankin also is a member of the rabbinic cabinet of J Street.

In the mid-1990s, Husbands-Hankin traveled to Arizona for a planned gathering between members of the Navajo nation and a group of rabbis. Reflecting on that meeting, Husbands-Hankin is quoted in Rachel Rubenstein's 2010 book, Members of the Tribe: Native America in the Jewish Imagination (Wayne State University Press).

Husbands-Hankin has had four assistant or associate rabbis working with him. Shoshana Spergel joined Temple Beth Israel in 1998 as interim rabbi when Husbands-Hankins went on a sabbatical;[40] Jonathan Seidel was assistant rabbi from 2001 to 2003.[41] Maurice Harris, a 2003 graduate of the Reconstructionist Rabbinical College, was assistant rabbi from 2003 - 2011.[42] He is one of the signers of The Open Letter Concerning Religion and Science From American Rabbis, part of the Clergy Letter Project which "encourages and embraces the teaching of evolution in schools".[43] Like Husbands-Hankin, Harris is also a member of the Rabbinic Cabinet of J Street. In 2011, Boris Dolin joined the congregation as its newest Associate Rabbi.

Strong Tradition of Music[edit]

Visitors to religious services at Temple Beth Israel often notice the strong love for liturgical music that animates services. The synagogue web site states: "Temple Beth Israel has always had a great commitment to music, both in worship and in the community. We have hosted student musical groups and high holiday choirs. Many long-time TBI members have fond memories of Kitov, a Jewish spiritual music group several of whose members (including Rabbi Yitzhak Husbands-Hankin) are still in the community. Our members' talents have contributed to many musical and singing groups in the area, and we continue to create new musical traditions, both in Shabbat services and outside of the synagogue." [44]

Husbands-Hankin has contributed numerous original liturgical songs and Hasidic-influenced wordless melodies known as niggunim, the Hebrew plural for the word niggun. In 1993 he released an album entitled "Treasure Each Day,"[45] consisting of recordings of him singing several of his original Jewish spiritual melodies.

Jewish Adult Education[edit]

Temple Beth Israel has had a multi-facted adult education program throughout the Husbands-Hankin era. Like many contemporary synagogues, it uses online platforms to inform, promote, and register participants in classes, one-time-events, and other activities.[46]

Some examples of visiting speakers who have appeared at Temple Beth Israel include: Alan Morinis of The Mussar Institute; Paola Gianturco, photojournalist and author of Women Who Light the Dark; Rabbi Michael Lerner; Rabbi Elizabeth Dunsker of Congregation Kol Ami in Vancouver, WA; former President of the Reconstructionist Rabbinical College, Rabbi David Teutsch; Rabbi Hanna Tiferet Siegel; Rabbi Seth Goldstein; Rabbi Carol Caine; Beth Cook; Rabbi David Zaslow; Dr. Amy-Jill Levine; Israeli human-rights activist, Gila Svirsky; Rabbi Benjamin Barnett; Rabbi Sheila Peltz Weinberg; U.S. Representative Peter DeFazio; Prof. Natan Meir; Rabbi Pamela Frydman; Sister Helen Prejean; and many more.

Beginning in 2011, Temple Beth Israel has participated in the Global Day of Jewish Learning initiative.

In the fall of 2013, Temple Beth Israel began offering a 25-week course through the Florence Melton School of Adult Jewish Learning - A Project of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.

Involvement in Interfaith Social Justice Efforts[edit]

Temple Beth Israel's long history of rabbinic and congregational involvement in efforts to build interfaith understanding and support social justice causes has continued strongly in the Husbands-Hankin era. Since 2001, Temple Beth Israel's rabbis and lay leaders have participated in the monthly prayer service of the Interfaith Prayer Service International.[47]The synagogue participates annually in the Interfaith Family Shelter project run by St. Vincent de Paul. In so doing, the synagogue opens its building to a group of people without housing who are trying to reorganize their lives amidst homelessness.[48] Temple Beth Israel has also hosted the annual "Peace by Piece" award event held by the local group, Center for Dialogue & Resolution (formerly "Community Mediation Services").[49][50]

In February 2007, the synagogue hosted two speakers, one Israeli and one Palestinian, who were members of the group "Combatants for Peace."[51] Combatants for Peace states on its web site that it was "...started jointly by Palestinians and Israelis, who have taken an active part in the cycle of violence; Israelis as soldiers in the Israeli army (IDF) and Palestinians as part of the violent struggle for Palestinian freedom. After brandishing weapons for so many years, and having seen one another only through weapon sights, we have decided to put down our guns, and to fight for peace."

In the autumn of 2009, Husbands-Hankin appeared on the television interview program, DiversiTV, in which he offered his perspectives on a range of social justice and faith issues from a contemporary Jewish perspective.[52]

On December 5, 2010, Temple Beth Israel hosted an interfaith event featuring a local imam. The event, which was co-sponsored by a number of different religious congregations, featured a presentation by Imam Khalid Al-Fallatah seeking to offer basic, accurate information about Islam and address common misunderstandings.[53]

In October 2012, Temple Beth Israel co-sponsored and hosted a talk by Ramon Ramirez, President of PCUN, Oregon’s Farmworker Union, entitled "Worker Justice and Wage Theft in Oregon." The event was also sponsored by Beyond Toxics, the Lane County Immigration Integration Network, the University of Oregon's Wayne Morse Center for Law and Politics, and the University of Oregon Labor Education Research Center.

And in March 2013, the synagogue hosted a conference sponsored by Alianza: The National Latino Alliance for the Elimination of Domestic Violence. The conference was called "On the Road to Social Transformation: Utilizing Cultural and Community Strengths to End Domestic Violence - Oregon"[54]

In December 2013, Temple Beth Israel held a talk by Israeli human rights activist, Rabbi Arik Ascherman, of Rabbis for Human Rights.[55]

In May 2014, Temple Beth Israel is hosting the annual meeting of Oregonians for Alternatives to the Death Penalty.

Temple Beth Israel is also a member of the Community of Welcoming Congregations, a statewide interfaith organization that serves as "a public pastoral presence that advocates for full LGBTQ equality."[56] In 2004, the synagogue's Board voted to have the congregation formally oppose Oregon Ballot Measure 36, a proposed amendment to the state constitution banning the legalization of same-sex marriage. (The measure passed and has been state law ever since, though lawsuits challenging the legality of Measure 36 are moving through the courts as of 2013.)[57][58]

There are many other examples of social justice activities at the synagogue. The synagogue also provides meeting room spaces for several 12-step recovery groups.

Attacks by neo-Nazis[edit]

On March 20, 1994, Chris Lord, an individual associated with the Volksfront and American Front, fired ten rounds with an assault rifle into the temple, damaging the interior.[59] The attacks were prompted by a newspaper article about several members of Eugene's Jewish community, including a lesbian. Community organizations, including a local gay rights group, responded by standing vigil outside the synagogue during Passover services.[60] Lord and an associate were caught and convicted, and Lord was sentenced to four and a half years in prison.[59]

On October 25, 2002 Jacob Laskey, his brother Gabriel Laskey, Gerald Poundstone, Jesse Baker, and one other man, all members of the Volksfront, drove to Beth Israel with the intent of intimidating the congregants. While a service with 80 members attending was taking place, the men threw rocks etched with Nazi swastikas through the synagogue's stained glass windows, then sped off.[59] The men were caught, pleaded guilty, and were convicted. They served sentences ranging from a 6-month work release term and five years probation, to eleven years and three months in federal prison for the ringleader, Jacob Laskey.[61][62]

East 29th Avenue building[edit]

Temple Israel's East 29th Avenue building

Originally sized for 75 families, Temple Beth Israel's Portland Street building had been renovated and enlarged over the years to 7,500 square feet (700 m2) to accommodate 250 families and 150 students.[4][36] Despite these additions and the loss of members to Congregation Ahavas Torah, the synagogue was not large enough, particularly during the High Holidays, when extra space had to be rented.[8] In 1997 the congregation purchased the property of the University Street Christian Church for $500,000 (today $730,000),[36] and began planning for a new facility.[4] The members considered renovating the existing building on the property, but felt a new building would better suit their requirements, and razed the church.[36]

In 2003 the congregation got a permit to begin construction of a new facility on the now-vacant 1.37-acre (0.55 ha) plot of land at the northwest corner of East 29th Avenue and University Street.[2] An initial capital campaign raised more than $1.8 million, which fully paid for the land, and by August 2007 an additional $1.7 million had been raised towards anticipated overall project costs of $5 million.[8]

The environmentally sensitive building was designed by Mel Solomon and Associates of Kansas City and local company TBG Architects & Planners,[2] and built by McKenzie Commercial Construction of Eugene.[3] The building used "energy efficient heating, ventilation and lighting":[8] specific design issues with the building's energy efficiency included the fact that the largest room in the building, the sanctuary, was also the least-used, and, in accord with Jewish tradition, had to face east (towards Jerusalem).[63]

On June 8, 2008 the congregation dedicated its new building at 1175 East 29th Avenue. At approximately 25,000 square feet (2,300 m2),[64] the facility included a sanctuary, commercial kitchen, banquet facilities, and classrooms, and housed the synagogue, the Lane County Jewish Federation, and the local Jewish Family Service. The project ended up costing $6 million, of which $4 million had been raised.[4]

Made of concrete, steel, and wood,[4] the building achieved Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design compliance "through the integration of stormwater management strategies, high efficiency irrigation, the use of recycled and/or recyclable materials, and drought tolerant plantings."[65] Completely recyclable materials used in the structure included carpeting and wood beams.[8]

Recent events[edit]

In 2008, Temple Beth Israel participated in Banners Across America, an "interfaith witness against torture coordinated by the National Religious Campaign Against Torture," as part of the Jewish Campaign Against Torture. Organized by Rabbis for Human Rights—North America in honor of Torture Awareness Month, the Jewish campaign included over 25 synagogues which hung banners protesting "the use of abusive interrogation techniques by the American military and intelligence community".[66] That year, congregational membership reached almost 400 families, and the Talmud Torah and pre-school had about 200 and 40 students respectively.[4]

The congregation sold the old synagogue building on Portland Street to Security First (Portland Street) Child Development Center for $815,000 in 2009, carrying the Center's financing. The building was converted for use as an educational center, while retaining some of the original architectural elements.[10] Difficult economic conditions forced the Child Development Center to give up the building in 2011, and Eugene's Network Charter School planned to move into it in autumn 2011.[10][67]

Harris announced he would be stepping down as rabbi in 2011, and the synagogue hired Boris Dolin as his successor.[68] Born and raised on Oregon, Dolin had worked at Temple Beth Israel as a teacher and youth group adviser from 1999 to 2001. A graduate of the University of Oregon, with a master's degree in Jewish Education from the Jewish Theological Seminary, he was ordained by the Reconstructionist Rabbinical College.[69]

As of 2014, Temple Beth Israel was the largest synagogue in Eugene.[1] It was a member of the Community of Welcoming Congregations, "an Oregon and SW Washington interfaith ministry and advocacy organization working toward full inclusion and equality for transgender, lesbian, bisexual, gay and questioning persons."[70] The rabbis were Yitzhak Husbands-Hankin and Boris Dolin.[1]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Temple Beth Israel website.
  2. ^ a b c Harwood (2003).
  3. ^ a b KVAL-TV Web Staff (June 11, 2008).
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Haist (2008).
  5. ^ According to Haist (2008), in 2008 the congregation was 87 years old, indicating a founding year of around 1921. According to the KVAL-TV Web Staff (June 11, 2008), "The Temple Beth Israel congregation has been in the Eugene community since 1927." According to Lowenstein (1987), p. 191, it was founded after Hymen Rubenstein's death in 1933. According to Wright & Pinyerd (2003), p. 12.1. and the Temple Beth Israel website, it was founded in 1934. According to Wright (1996), it was founded after World War II.
  6. ^ Zuckerman (2003), p. 89.
  7. ^ Zuckerman (2003), p. 87.
  8. ^ a b c d e Reichman (2007).
  9. ^ a b c Lowenstein (1987), p. 191.
  10. ^ a b c d Bjornstad (2009).
  11. ^ Wright & Pinyerd (2003), p. 12.1.
  12. ^ American Architects Directory (1970), p. 955.
  13. ^ a b c d Tepfer (2010).
  14. ^ a b The Register-Guard (May 20, 1961).
  15. ^ The Register-Guard (January 28, 1961).
  16. ^ http://davidwacks.uoregon.edu/agenda/
  17. ^ a b c The Register-Guard (August 6, 1976).
  18. ^ Greene & Baron (1996), p. 160.
  19. ^ http://www.tbieugene.org/page/community-education
  20. ^ a b Wright (1996).
  21. ^ Moscow-Pullman Daily News (November 4, 1994).
  22. ^ a b c Sinks (1994).
  23. ^ a b c d e f g Bjornstad (1996).
  24. ^ "Brit Ger Toshav and Brit Nisuin", Ritualwell.org.
  25. ^ Abrams.
  26. ^ Myrowitz (1995), p. 163.
  27. ^ a b Zuckerman (2003), pp. 89-90.
  28. ^ a b Zuckerman (2003), p. 88.
  29. ^ a b Zuckerman (2003), pp. 91-93.
  30. ^ a b c d e f Wright (March 12, 1999).
  31. ^ About Us, Congregation Ahavas Torah website.
  32. ^ http://templebnaitorah.podbean.com/e/12613-rabbi-kinberg-from-prisoner-to-president-joseph-and-mandela/
  33. ^ http://www.nwnews.com/index.php/local/news/9188-new-rabbi-for-congregation-kol-ami
  34. ^ Bennett (1987).
  35. ^ "Teachers", 2008 Summer Retreat, Ruach Ha'aretz website.
  36. ^ a b c d Wright (April 15, 1999).
  37. ^ Husbands-Hankin (2004).
  38. ^ Kurzweil (2003), p. 158.
  39. ^ Elon (2000), p 489.
  40. ^ Wright (June 13, 1999).
  41. ^ Seldner (2007).
  42. ^ The Register-Guard (July 19, 2003).
  43. ^ Clergy Letter Project, Jewish Letter, Signatures.
  44. ^ http://www.tbieugene.org/page/music-at-tbi
  45. ^ http://www.cdbaby.com/cd/yitzhakhusbandshankin1
  46. ^ http://www.tbieugene.org/page/community-education
  47. ^ http://www.kezi.com/interfaith-prayer-service/
  48. ^ http://www.tbieugene.org/page/interfaith-shelter
  49. ^ http://www.hsolc.org/peace-piece
  50. ^ http://www.heliosnetwork.org/calendar/events/index.php?com=detail&eID=1061
  51. ^ http://btvshalom.org/btvshalom.org/pressrelease/2007/20070205.shtml
  52. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BpkGCYjX5VE
  53. ^ http://www.jewishreview.org/node/21213
  54. ^ http://www.dvalianza.org/register-for-workshops.html?task=view_event&event_id=13
  55. ^ http://rhr.org.il/eng/2013/11/rabbi-ascherman-in-north-america/
  56. ^ http://www.welcomingcongregations.org/aboutus.html
  57. ^ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geiger_v._Kitzhaber
  58. ^ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Same-sex_marriage_in_Oregon
  59. ^ a b c Volksfront - Criminal Activity, Anti-Defamation League.
  60. ^ Comstock (2002), p. 116.
  61. ^ The Salem News (November 14, 2007).
  62. ^ United States Attorney's Office District of Oregon (August 15, 2006).
  63. ^ Reeves (2005).
  64. ^ KVAL-TV Web Staff (June 11, 2008) says "The new temple is 24,000 square feet", while Haist (2008) calls it a "26,000-square-foot facility".
  65. ^ "Temple Beth Israel - Eugene, Oregon", Schirmer + Associates LLC website.
  66. ^ Kahn-Troster (2008).
  67. ^ KVAL Communities Staff (May 9, 2011).
  68. ^ Temple Beth Israel newsletter (May/June 2011).
  69. ^ "Rabbis' Pages", Temple Beth Israel website.
  70. ^ Community of Welcoming Congregations, Our Member Congregations.

References[edit]

External links[edit]