Temple Square

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"Temple Block" redirects here. For percussion instrument, see Temple block. For the UTA station, see Temple Square (UTA station).
Temple Square
Temple Square, Salt Lake City, 1899 retouched.jpg
Temple Square, approx 1898–1905, showing the Salt Lake Temple, Salt Lake Tabernacle and Salt Lake Assembly Hall
Location Salt Lake City, Utah
Built 1853
Architect Multiple
Architectural style Other
Governing body Private
NRHP Reference # 66000738[1]
Significant dates
Added to NRHP October 15, 1966
Designated NHLD January 29, 1964[2]

Temple Square is a 10-acre (4.0 ha) complex located in the center of Salt Lake City, Utah, owned by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church). In recent years, the usage of the name has gradually changed to include several other church facilities immediately adjacent to Temple Square. Contained within Temple Square proper are the Salt Lake Temple, Salt Lake Tabernacle, Salt Lake Assembly Hall, the Seagull Monument and two visitors' centers.

History[edit]

Main article: History of Utah
Layout of Temple Square, circa 1893.
Temple Square and the surrounding area in 2013.

In 1847, when Mormon pioneers arrived in the Salt Lake Valley, church president Brigham Young selected a plot of the desert ground and proclaimed, "Here we will build a temple to our God." [3] When the city was surveyed, the block enclosing that location was designated for the temple, and became known as Temple Square.[4] Temple Square is surrounded by a high wall that was built shortly after the block was designated for the building of the temple.

The square also became the headquarters of the LDS Church. Other buildings were built on the plot, including a tabernacle (prior to the one occupying Temple Square today) and Endowment House, both of which were later torn down. The Salt Lake Tabernacle, home of the Mormon Tabernacle Choir, was built in 1867 to accommodate the church's general conferences, with a seating capacity of 8,000. Another church building, called the Assembly Hall, was later built with a seating capacity of 2,000.

As the church has grown, its headquarters have expanded into the surrounding area. In 1917, an administration building was built on the block east of the temple and in 1972, the twenty-eight story LDS Church Office Building, which was, for many years, the tallest building in the state of Utah. The Hotel Utah, another building on this block, was remodeled in 1995 as additional office space and a large film theater and renamed the Joseph Smith Memorial Building. In 2000, the church purchased the section of Main Street between this block and Temple Square and connected the two blocks with a plaza called the Main Street Plaza. In 2000, the church completed a new, 21,000 seat Conference Center on the block north of Temple Square.

The Family History Library and the Church History Museum are located on the block west of Temple Square.

Modern usage[edit]

Tourism[edit]

Attracting 3 million to 5 million visitors a year, Temple Square is the most popular tourist attraction in Utah, bringing in more visitors than the Grand Canyon or Yellowstone National Park. By comparison, Utah's five National ParksZion, Bryce Canyon, Capitol Reef, Canyonlands, and Arches— had a combined total of 5.3 million visitors in 2005.[5]

General Conference[edit]

Lighting[edit]

The grounds, as well as the Gardens at Temple Square, often host concerts and other events. During the Christmas holiday season, hundreds of thousands of Christmas lights sparkle from trees and shrubs around Temple Square, but only until 9pm. The lighting of Temple Square time is a popular event, attended by tens of thousands. [6]

Other uses[edit]

The gates outside Temple Square are popular places for those critical of the church where critics, mainly former members and activist evangelical ministers, often picket and hand out tracts and literature critical of the LDS Church. They are also well-known locations for street musicians to perform, especially during the holiday season.

Sites[edit]

Salt Lake Temple[edit]

Main article: Salt Lake Temple

The Salt Lake Temple is the largest and best-known of more than 140 operating LDS temples.[7] It is the sixth temple built by the church overall, and the fourth operating temple built following the Mormon exodus from Nauvoo, Illinois.

North and South Visitors' Centers[edit]

Christus statue in North Visitors' Center

Today, Temple Square features two visitors' centers, called the North Visitors' Center and the South Visitors' Center. The North Visitors' Center was built first and features a replica of the Christus, a statue of Jesus Christ by Danish sculptor Bertel Thorvaldsen. The Christus is located in a domed room with large windows, painted with clouds, stars, planets, and other heavenly bodies. The visitors' centers and grounds are staffed by sister missionaries[8] and senior missionary couples exclusively; no single male missionaries are called to serve on Temple Square. The sister missionaries serving on Temple Square are called from North America as well as around the world, speaking enough languages to cater to the majority of visitors from around the world.

Old Bureau of Information building, which served visitors from 1904 to 1978 (1909 photo).
The Assembly Hall at Temple Square at Christmas time.

Sister missionaries come from many different countries, and provide tours and information in their home languages as well as English. Beginning with the 2002 Winter Olympic Games in Salt Lake City, sisters have been wearing tags with their national flags along with their missionary name tags.

Conference and assembly buildings[edit]

There are three large assembly buildings housed on Temple Square. The smallest of the three is the Salt Lake Assembly Hall, which seats approximately 2,000 and is located on the southwest corner of Temple Square. The Assembly Hall is a Victorian Gothic congregation hall, with a cruciform layout of the interior that is complemented by Stars of David circumscribed high above each entrance. These symbolize the gathering of the Twelve Tribes of Israel (LDS perspective). Construction of the hall began on August 11, 1877 and was completed in 1882.[9] It is located just south of the Salt Lake Tabernacle and across from the South Visitor Center near the South Gate. Upon entering Temple Square from the South, the Assembly Hall can be seen to the left (west). The Assembly Hall hosts occasional free weekend music concerts and is filled as overflow for the Church's twice-a-year General Conferences.

The second structure is the Salt Lake Tabernacle, home of the world-famous Mormon Tabernacle Choir and Orchestra at Temple Square. The Tabernacle was built between 1864 and 1867 with an overall seating capacity of 8,000, including the choir area and gallery. In March 2007, the Tabernacle was rededicated after extensive renovations and restorations were completed. Spacing between the pews was substantially increased, resulting in a reduced overall seating capacity. The Tabernacle was rededicated at the Saturday afternoon session of the church's 177th Annual General Conference, in which the First Presidency, Quorum of the Twelve, other general authorities and the Mormon Tabernacle Choir broadcast the session from the Tabernacle, rather than the Conference Center. In addition to housing the choir, the tabernacle is also used for other religious and cultural events.

The largest and most recently built assembly building is the LDS Conference Center. With a capacity of over 21,000, it is used primarily for the LDS Church's general conferences as well as for concerts and other cultural events. The Conference Center was completed in 2000. Attached on the northwest corner of the Conference Center is the Conference Center Theater, a comparatively smaller 850-seat theater for dramatic presentations, such as Savior of the World, as well as concerts and other events.[10]

Museums and libraries[edit]

Family History Library[edit]

Located on the block west of Temple Square, the Family History Library is the largest genealogical library in the world and is open to the general public at no charge.[11] The library holds genealogical records for over 110 countries, territories, and possessions. Its collections include over 2.4 million rolls of microfilmed genealogical records; 742,000 microfiche; 310,000 books, serials, and other formats; 4,500 periodicals; 700 electronic resources.

Church History Museum[edit]

Main article: Church History Museum

Located on the block west of Temple Square adjacent to the LDS Family History Library, this edifice houses collections of Latter-day Saint art and artifacts. The Museum houses permanent exhibits as well as playing host to many temporary exhibits throughout the year.

Past exhibits have included displays and themes from individuals such as artist Arnold Friberg, sculptures and work by Boyd K. Packer, as well as themed historical displays depicting church events.

A panoramic view showing Temple Square from the Conference Center looking south.

Church History Library[edit]

Located on the block northeast of Temple Square and east of the LDS Conference Center is the LDS Church History Library, where the historical records of the LDS Church are located. The Library is free to patrons, who can come use a large collection of books, manuscripts, photographs, etc. Elderly LDS missionaries provide tours of the public areas of the Library. Patrons can also view a video explaining the mission and purpose of the Library.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 2007-01-23. 
  2. ^ "Temple Square". National Historic Landmark summary listing. National Park Service. Retrieved 2008-07-12. 
  3. ^ Quoted in The Salt Lake Temple. Gordon B. Hinckley, Ensign, March 1993, 2.
  4. ^ Information on Salt Lake Temple Background
  5. ^ Graham, Jim (2006-05-21). "Temple Square still top tourist attraction in Utah". Daily Herald. Retrieved 2006-12-14. 
  6. ^ deseretnews.com/article/700091175/Decades-of-downtown-SL-music-and-lights.html ,
  7. ^ There are 143 operating temples (which includes 3 previously dedicated, but closed for renovation), 14 under construction, and 13 announced (not yet under construction).
  8. ^ Law, Kristina (2006). "Sister Missionaries". Archived from the original on 2007-04-29. Retrieved 2006-12-14. 
  9. ^ Assembly Hall on Temple Square, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.
  10. ^ Conference Center
  11. ^ AAG International Research. "AAG International Research". AAG. Retrieved 2009-10-31. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 40°46′13″N 111°53′33″W / 40.77041°N 111.89246°W / 40.77041; -111.89246